RELATIONSHIP OF MULTICULTURALISM

RELATIONSHIP OF MULTICULTURALISM, MULTILINGUALISM AND IDENTITY

STUDENT NAME: Asma Naich
STUDENT NUMBER: 14 (Masters in Linguistics)
COURSE NAME: Research Methodology
DEPARTMENT: Institute of English Language and Literature

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SUPERVISOR: Dr Ghazal Kazim Sheikh

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT 3
INTRODUCTION 4
OBJECTIVE 5
OVERALL OBJECTIVE 5
RESEARCH QUESTIONS 5
BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE 6
BACKGROUND 6
SIGNIFICANCE 6
DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 7
STUDY SAMPLE 7
SOURCES OF DATA 7
DATA MANAGEMENT 7
DATA ANALYSIS STRATEGIES 7
ETHICS AND HUMAN SUBJECTS ISSUES 7
TIMEFRAMES 7
ETHICAL CONSIDERATION 8
MOTIVATION 9
RESULTS 10
CONTEXT 10
KEY FINDINGS 10
IMPLICATIONS 16
CONCLUSION 16
RECOMMENDATIONS. 17
REFERENCES 18
APPENDICES 19
APPENDIX 1: QUESTIONNAIRE 19

ABSTRACT

Multicultural and multilinguistic societies are inescapable results of movement in between countries. Communication between various groups with different background and languages skills adds to a much-needed representative articulations of identity formation and to the development of characters. Where, multilingual and multicultural people co-exist, questions about the identity and perspective arise.

This research proposes to address this difficulty of concentrates in the changes of identities as for multiculturalism and multilingualism.

Relevant Courses
Psycholinguistics
Sociolinguistics
Research Methodologies

INTRODUCTION

The total count of people living in a foreigner country is almost more than 245 million in 2017, a 44 per cent more than it was in year 2000, as suggested by United Nations in their latest published dataset.

Multicultural and multilingual societies are unavoidable results of movement. communication between gatherings different linguistic and cultures and having language skills adds to an adds to a much-needed representative articulations of identity formation and to the development of characters. Identities are formed by contact of language and cultural articulations, subsequently a naturally reflexive relationship.

This research proposes to address this difficulty of concentrates in the changes of identities regarding multiculturalism and multilingualism. The main research point is a specific sort of explanation called ‘the narrative’. Expression “narrative” is mostly utilized as a part of this proposition to allude to a wide range of records of past events (spoken, written and material).

The research answers the question related to identity formation issues, by concentrating on cultural communications and partitioned into three research centre zones, each featuring a specific sort of narrative discourse: spoken, written and material.

? Spoken English effects on identity
? Identity development in literature for foreigners and their relationship
? Diversity in between cultures

Research focal point is the interplay among:
1. Language skills
2. Literature expertise
3. Cultural experience

The research will have its base at the “Institute of English language and literature – Sindh University, Jamshoro, Pakistan”.

OBJECTIVE

Overall Objective

The objectives of this research are to:
1. Gather information on identity expression in diverse environment with respect to languages and cultures, and evaluate the effects of language and culture in identity formation
2. Formulate and define different approaches in the study of identity formation using the different perspectives from:
a. Language skills
b. Literature expertise
c. Cultural experience

Main aim is to achieve these specific goals through the study of foreigners and researching in how they express new understandings of new culture, including issues of:
1. Incorporation
2. Avoidance
3. Segregation.

Research Questions

Following are main question the are needed to be answered in this research:
1. Formation of identities (both individual and group) and influence of culture and language on the identity formation process
2. Representation and interpretation of the effects of migrants and their understanding in multicultural literature with respect to identities
3. Impact of identity on expression commonly used in different languages and cultures

BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE
Background

Presentation of multilingual and multicultural society arise the inquiries of issues related to identities. People who speak multiple languages are in terms form different identities (e.g. monolingual, bilingual) and further discussion coordinate their “variety of selves”.

Research based on study of identity shapes the basis for the research study. The ramifications of choices made by individuals is required to be studied using expertise from different disciplines. Invoking Coupland requires protection in socio-linguistic information of identity formation to “both essentialising and de-essentialising tendencies in their extreme form”. Socio-linguistic identities are not static and also not provided, “but neither are social identities written sociolinguistically on a tabula rasa in a socio-historical vacuum” (Coupland).

Moreover, the environment in which these identities are actually built, gone through and consulted in society needs to be studied and explored further. As Turner explains: “Narrative imagining – story – is the fundamental instrument of thought. It is our chief means of looking into the future, of planning, and of explaining. It is a literary capacity indispensable to human cognition generally”.

Perspectives mentioned above form a background for the focus areas in this study, and focus on:
1. Language
2. Literature
3. Culture

Significance

Our study will provide the starting point to deal with the issues of:
1. Complexity of cultures and identities
2. Diversity of cultures diversity
3. New visions of identity and multilingual societies as well as their integration.

Information in these areas is fundamental in a multicultural and multilingual environment, and provides a basis for approach with respect to issues relating for increasing individuals’ familiarity with issues of multilingual culture.

DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Study Sample

The Department of Economic and Social Affairs from UN gauges the overall number of global migrants at reliable interims and gathers and investigations data on the connection between universal relocation and personality. The dataset speaks to the latest data accessible on quantities of global transients for all nations or regions of the world.
Sources of Data
Link to dataset: www.unmigration.org.
Other data is collected using survey at a small scale.
Data Management
Excel files is used for data management.

Data Analysis Strategies
Individual work on separate type of datasets based on origin and destination country, languages of these countries and corresponding literature.

Ethics and Human Subjects Issues
Environmental points of view are kept in mind, especially the terms in which information among minority groups is collected and their recruitment process. Identity formation is delicate topic and the personal information of all members and volunteers in this research study will remain confidential, unless the individual wants it to be listed or mentioned otherwise. Moreover, this is the main responsibility of researcher to not communicate identity information of participants especially in socio-linguistic research.

Timeframes
The study is expanded over 1 months. A more in-depth view of main objectives and targets of the study is out of this document scope.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
Environment, ethics and equal opportunity

Ethical considerations are taken after, as per the prerequisites of the Data Inspectorate. Identity formation is delicate topic and the personal information of all members and volunteers in this research study will remain confidential, unless the individual wants it to be listed or mentioned otherwise.

In addition, this is the primary duty of researcher to not impart identity information of members particularly in socio-phonetic research. The moral issues of social connections are fundamental bits of any work on the investigation of dialect, culture and character, and will be a critical issue in our research study.

The study genuinely focuses on the issues of:
1. Equal opportunity
2. Gender perspective

And, with identity on the research motivation, identity in regards to gender is uncommonly important viewpoint in the exploration on language and cultural communications.

MOTIVATION

This research study will focus and identity formation and also contribute to the research joining the multiple study disciplines of:
1. Linguistics
2. Literature
3. Cultures

Above mentioned focus areas will have their own methods and approach, subsequently a multi-disciplinary way to the study. However, the focus on common goal will guide us towards an inter-disciplinary way to comprehension of the issues to be resolved or explained.

Globally, study in this topic has perceived the requirement for inter-disciplinary tactic to the purposed research study. The most interesting thing about the identity of the fruitful literary charisma is that it a group can be identified and explained based on the study of an individual.

A comparison can be formed by using the information on materialistic culture that provides information into identity of individuals and groups with various languages. So, relative approaches and methods can provide insights and can also contribute to more in-depth knowledge on the complexity of purposed study.

RESULTS

Context
This research study in not intended to confirm anything, key findings can be and will be used to approve and/or castoff the theory supporting the research study. However, grouping results into categories and section helps to understand and investigate the issues from within, to break it into small pieces, and to further explore the the research problem from various perspectives and divide problem into small piece so that future researchers can go deep into it.

For confidentiality of persons volunteered for studies and also due to ethical reasons, identity information of personnel is not documented or collected. Also, the name of university and city where research survey was performed is not documented.

For research purposes a university with foreign students was selected in a city of Pakistan. Data was collected using a questionnaire, which is available as appendix. Almost 30 foreign students from different countries and background volunteered for research survey.

Key Findings
Following is summary of key findings:

1. Do you think your identity(character) is affected after moving to this country?

a. If yes, then in which way?

2. In which way you feel comfortable to express your character?

3. Are you intrigued to learn local languages of this country?

a. If yes, which language?

4. Do you feel any hurdle communicating with people?

5. In which language do you communicate with people here?

6. How much culture of this country attracts you?

7. Do you think there should be a single international language for studies?

8. Do you think language is important factor in identity (character) building?

9. Do you feel any issues integrating with this country’s culture?

a. if yes, what type of issues?

10. How do you rate literature quality of this country?

11. Do you think literature of here covers multicultural aspect?

12. You like to hang around with people from.

13. Your studies here, provides you support in multiple languages?

14. How do rate your overall experience here?

Implications

There are many aspects of language that need to be considered in a multicultural environment that affects the character of an individual. However, this study serves as a first step in demonstrating that there is need of guidelines for providing foreign students the opportunity to adjust in multicultural environment. Specially, multilingual and multicultural literature and platform for expressing their feelings.
Conclusion

Multilingual and multicultural societies are more taken as a more positive narrative as comparted to the thinking in the past. Now a day, researchers are in favour of the valuable effects of multilingual and multicultural societies and the communications. This is also supported by research study that have been selected and included above. Study shows that even one extra language learned and/or studied backs the attainment of new grammar and pronunciation.

Furthermore, the current research study accomplishes that multilingualism and multicultural atmosphere and their effect on identity provides opportunity for foreign students to learn more. Multilingual students have more languages in their linguistic storage and, they tend to use more grammar approaches and use them more often than others.

Multicultural education is an evolving field and a huge discipline of study. Main objective is equal educational opportunities specifically for students/learners from different cultural groups. It also helps in bringing different cultural values together harmoniously. It is increasingly known fact for an economic, educational, social and political reason to be aware of that the world is gradually changing into a global village.

Finally, to conclude all that, research study at small scale suggests that language and culture has a great effect in character(identity) building. Specially for foreigner students.

Recommendations.

The results of this study can be used to formulate language policies in multicultural environment as well as can be used as starting point for enhancing the experience of foreigner students around the globe.

REFERENCES
1. Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2015 Revision – http://www.unmigration.org
2. http://www.ssb.no/innvandring/
3. http://www.hf.uio.no/iln/forskning/forskergrupper/kontak
4. Auer, P. (ed.). 1998. Code-switching in Conversation. Language, Interaction and Identity. London: Routledge.
5. Bourdieu, P. 1991. Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge: Polity Press
6. The Sociolinguistics of Identity – by Tope Omoniyi, Goodith White
7. http://www.languageonthemove.com

APPENDICES
Appendix 1: Questionnaire
15. Do you think your identity(character) is affected after moving to this country?
Yes ? No ?
a. If yes, then in which way?
Positive ? Negative ?
16. In which way you feel comfortable to express your character?
Speech ? Writing ? Social Talk ?
17. Are you intrigued to learn local languages of this country?
Yes ? No ?
a. If yes, which language?
Urdu ? Sindhi ? Punjabi ? Others ?
18. Do you feel any hurdle communicating with people?
Yes ? No ?
19. In which language do you communicate with people here?
English ? Urdu ? Sindhi ? Others ?
20. How much culture of this country attracts you?
Low ?????????? High
21. Do you think there should be a single international language for studies?
Yes ? No ?
22. Do you think language is important factor in identity (character) building?
Yes ? No ?
23. Do you feel any issues integrating with this country’s culture?
Yes ? No ?
a. if yes, what type of issues?
Environmental ? Cultural ? Language Barrier ? Others ?
24. How do you rate literature quality of this country?
Low ?????????? High
25. Do you think literature of here covers multicultural aspect?
Yes ? No ?
26. You like to hang around with people from.
Homeland ? Here ? Both ?
27. Your studies here, provides you support in multiple languages?
Yes ? No ?
28. How do rate your overall experience here?
29. Low ?????????? High