Faculty of Language Studies PBI 1092 Assessment 2 SEMESTER 2 2017/2018 MATRIX NUMBER NAME 63436 Muhammad Danial Bin Rezlan63201 Farhana Binti Mohamad Abdul Kadir 63362 Mohammad Nashurudeen Bin Hamja Deen Types Of Programming Languages Computers have allowed for the break-neck speed of the technological advances today

Faculty of Language Studies
PBI 1092
Assessment 2
SEMESTER 2 2017/2018
MATRIX NUMBER NAME
63436 Muhammad Danial Bin Rezlan63201 Farhana Binti Mohamad Abdul Kadir
63362 Mohammad Nashurudeen Bin Hamja Deen

Types Of Programming Languages
Computers have allowed for the break-neck speed of the technological advances today. Countless scientific fields make use of computers for the purpose of calculation and scenario simulation. The field of engineering is no different. Engineers utilize computers as tools to develop programs to better facilitate the work that they do. Computers produce a desirable outcome by following a series of directions dictated by a program. This is done by employing programming languages, which are a ruleset used to instruct a computer to execute a specific task. There are currently hundreds of programming languages in use today. The types of programming languages that will be discussed in this information report are the languages MatLab, C#, C++, Javascript and Python (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).

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The first programming language is C# (spoken as ‘C sharp’). Designed by Microsoft Corporation, USA, it was presented at the Microsoft Professional Developers Conference in September of 2000 to be the foundation of the .NET framework, an early version of the World Wide Web. Much like Java it is a language that is completely based on object-oriented programming. This means that programmers are able to define the data type of a data structure but also the category of the operations applied to the structure. One advantage of C# over other languages is its improvements upon the qualities of C++, which is the language that it is derived from. C# optimizes and simplifies C++ for higher efficiency and to lessen the margin for programmers to commit errors (Balagurusamy, 2010). One of the characteristics of note in C# are its compatibility in the inter-operation of .NET languages, as C# fulfills the .NET languages requirements which are a list of the required key language features expected of many applications. Another feature to be highlighted in C# is its type safety. Type safety refers to code that is only able to access permitted memory locations, and therefore not perform operations that are unsuitable for the that object, so a type safe language would not run a program that has an error in its syntax, for example. In conclusion, the combination of the best qualities of multiple popular languages, Visual Basic’s efficacy, the grace of Java and the power of C++, C# was developed with the desire to develop a language that is able to serve the needs of more complex programs.
The next type of programming language is JavaScript. Not to be confused with Java, JavaScript or JS is a programming language created by Brendan Eich in 1995 and is mainly used in web-based applications due to its simplistic nature that allows programmers to code fast and reliably. According to Hamilton (2008), the initial aim of JavaScript is to provide a “glue language” for part-time programmers and web designers who constructed Web content from external components such as images, plugins etc. The ease of development of JavaScript essentially allows programmers to use it as an extension to other web-based programming languages to customize webpages to the programmers liking. The web-based nature of JavaScript means that it runs on any operating system that can browse the web. However due to the nature of it being effortless to developed with and the fact that it is multi-platform, it has been used to spread adware and malware across web-pages. Programmers abuse these scripting exploits to maliciously harm visitors of affected webpages. This does not stop programmers from adopting JavaScript to complement other heavy programming languages. The ease of development and multi-platform programming language that complements other programming languages allowed JavaScript to thrive in the web-development arena filled with competing programming languages till this day.

Another type of programming language is Python. The name Python was taken from the Monty Python series of books as its creator Guido van Rossum was a fan (Rossum, 2008, p. 100). Python is known as a productive programming language as intended by its creator which was hindered by the abysmal productivity of the programming language C. The main goal of Python is programmer productivity. Its creator decided that compromises to performance would suffice for the goal of programmer productivity as he observed personal computers getting faster and cheaper. However, Python unintentionally had a large standard library despite the low quality. This meant Python is flexible to develop on despite the performance hit of the initial sloppy standard library. Just like JavaScript, Python is often used as an extension programming language for existing languages to complement existing modules. The large standard library allows programmers to utilize Python to perform important task without having the need to rely on other programming languages. Python is flexible in this regard while remaining productive to the users benefit. Python is a productive programming language designed for usability first with a large standard library which allows flexible development.

The next programming language we will be discussing is C++. As the name suggests C++ is from the C family of programming languages. C++ is most known for its collection of predefined classes, which are data types that can be utilized multiple times in the same code. The language also allows the user to create and define their own classes. These classes can further accommodate member functions to implement specific functions to cater to the needs of the programmer. Other than that, C++ also allows the overloading of certain operators such as addition and has low-level efficiency which make the code very fast. These traits make C++ a very flexible programming language as the user can define the classes on their own and create a wide variation of programs with varying functions or programs with the same functions and different source codes. C++ provides the user with great control over hardware-based operations such as resource management. Which is why it has a prominent role in hardware intensive program such as advanced computations and graphics. However, the main purpose of C++ is to be utilized with system software, drivers and embedded software. According to Stroustrup (1997) the languages low-level efficiency allows the programmer to write device drivers and other software that rely on direct hardware manipulation under real-time constraints. These programs are necessary so that a computer or hardware can easily communicate with the software at a high efficiency. Today, C++ is still being used in embedded systems and is constantly being updated with its latest stable released on December 1st, 2017.

The final programming language we will cover is MATLAB. MATLAB is a proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks in with the first version being released in 1984. As Houcque (2005) states,
MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. It integrates
computation, visualization, and programming environment. Furthermore, MATLAB
is a modern programming language environment: it has sophisticated data structures,
contains built-in editing and debugging tools and supports object-oriented
programming. These factors make MATLAB an excellent tool for teaching and
research. (p.1)
MATLAB is unique since it is programmed and compiled on its own proprietary software courtesy of MathWorks. The software allows users to easily carry out simulations, project graphical information and perform complicated operations all in place. Unlike the previous programming languages we discussed, MATLAB is primarily used to solve technical problems rather than to be used for computer applications. Engineers and scientists primarily use MATLAB as a platform to run simulations. This is because running simulations reduces costs, improves the chances of the technology succeeding and helps identify the initial problems with the technology. MATLAB is not only used for simulations it is also used for business return projections and numerical analysis. MATLAB is still being used today by a variety of people and is still being developed to further improve the overall experience with the language.

References
Balagurusamy, E. (2010) Programming in C#: A Primer. New Delhi, Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited.

Hamilton, N. (2008). The A-Z of Programming Languages: JavaScript. Retrieved from https://www.computerworld.com.au/article/255293/a-z_programming_languages_javascript/
Stroustrup, B. (1997) The C++ Programming Language. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison Wesley Publishing Company.

Houcque, D. (2005). Introduction to MATLAB for Engineering Students. Retrieved from https://www.mccormick.northwestern.edu/documents/students/undergraduate/introduction-to-matlab.pdf