Chapter One Introduction1

Chapter One
Introduction1.1 OverviewThis chapter deals with the background of stylistics, and stylistic analysis. This chapter is also concerned with the purpose of the study, statement of problem, research questions, and research objectives, significance of the present study, methods and organization of study. The chapter also gives the brief introduction of the author and review of the novels selected for research as sample.
1.2 Background of the Study Stylistics, as a discipline has been approached from different point of views. Based on different theories, its meaning varies. When we carry out the different activities that are connected to our area of business, either in spoken or written forms, we often use devices of thought and the rules of language, but there are variations so as to change meanings or say the same thing in different ways. This is what the concept of style is based upon. The use of language in different ways, all for achieving a common goal which is to interpret meanings. Geoffrey Leech CITATION Lee08
l 1033 (2008) quotes Aristotle that the best methods for accomplishing clearness, phrasing and certain nobility is the utilization of different type of words. Stylistics is additionally characterized as an investigation of the distinctive styles that are available either in a given expression or in a composed content. From the classical period onwards, there has been continued interest among scholars in relation between patterns of language in a text and the way the text communicates. CITATION MBe09 l 1033 (Berhanu, 2009) The Greek rhetoricians, for example, were particularly interested in the devices that were used by orators for effective argument and persuasion, and there is indeed a case for saying that some stylistic work is very much a latter-day embodiment of traditional rhetoric. However, here is one particular academic inquiry that has had a more direct and lasting impact on the method of contemporary stylistics which is traditional rhetoric. CITATION Bro72 l 1033 (Brooks & Warren, 1972). The focal point of the study is to explain the fact that how the study of literary works with linguistics features enhance the understanding of the readers. To express specific themes and to accomplish specific artistic effects the authors use different linguistic and stylistic features in their works. Thus, stylistic features help in comprehension of linguistic competence of literary texts. To present this above discussed fact, a stylistics analysis of the selected novels; The Winner Stands Alone, The Zahir and The Alchemist have done and the analysis showed how the artistic effects of the novels have been accomplished. The Winner Stands Alone, The Zahir and The Alchemist are the masterpiece of Paulo Coelho CITATION Pau88
l 1033 (1988) and the researcher analyzed texts of these novels to show that how the writer reveals the power of desires and passion and its ability to manifest it in real life. All three literary works of Coelho give emphasis on the importance of perusing the dreams and one have to pay the price of one’s dreams.” CITATION Pau88 l 1033 (Coelho, The Achemist, 1988)Each author’s works can influence artistic works. Despite the fact that their motivation is the same, i.e. disclosure of truth about existence and human instinct, the ways they express their thoughts vary from creator to creator. That implies, every one of the writer, work to fit the particular conditions in particular words. That means, stylistics analysis can show author’s mind and description of his/her work. The author’s quality can be embraced and his shortcomings can be lessened. Thus, stylistic analysis of The Winner Stands Alone, the Zahir and The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho are the main focus of study in this regard. By using different stylistic devices, a writer expresses his ideas. One can understand soul of the specific work by understanding these devices.

1.3 Purpose of the StudyThe purpose of the present study is to contribute in the existing knowledge of literature, linguistics and stylistics. Researchers like Sinclair CITATION Sin04
l 1033 (2004), Stubbs CITATION Stu12
l 1033 (2012) and Crystal CITATION Dav97
l 1033 (1997) believe in the presence of literary language as an antagonized language differ from common language. According to Jakobson CITATION Jak87
l 1033 (1987) the object of study in literary science is not a literature but ‘literariness’ which makes it a literary work from the ordinary work. Secondly, the study is proposed to see how stylistics as the branch of applied linguistics can be carried out in literature. Throughout the year, there have been debate between linguists and literary critics that the activity of applying linguistics features and approaches in study of literature is not justified for the literary critics. Lodge CITATION Lod72
l 1033 (1972) throws light on difference between literary art and linguistic science and said that linguistic science will never able to discard the importance of literary criticism, or fundamentally change the bases that literary art is helpful for human, linguistics as a science has its own importance and the same goes with literary art. So, the present study shows that linguistic and stylistic features enhance the meaning of the literary text when applied to literature.

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1.4 Statement of the problemMajor literatures available in research have done stylistic analysis of certain poems or short stories and less work has been done applying stylistic analysis to novels. One of the reasons could be the voluminous nature of a novel to apply stylistic analysis. However, if it is applied on a novel, one can better understand and enjoy the different styles used in a certain novel in addition to arousing curiosity for more studies. Not only it arouses curiosity, but stylistic analysis of novels could serve as the best way of learning English as a foreign language for the pedagogy purposes.

1.5 Research QuestionsThe research questions of the present study are as follow:
What are the main stylistic features are used in the selected novels which contribute to show the style of the writer?
How basic intrigues of the novels been presented through lexical choices of the writer?
How grammatical categories contribute to the construction of the style of the writer?
How linguistic and stylistic features explore hidden meanings of the novel?
1.6 Objectives of the studyThe main objectives of this study are:
To analyze the novels, The Winner Stands Alone, The Zahir and The Alchemist, by Paulo Coelho, using stylistic model proposed by Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007), the ways in which the writer used certain stylistic features to enhance the meaning and literary effects of the novels.

To grasp the meanings of the novel and understand its themes through linguistic and stylistic devices used in this novel.
To show that how lexical and grammatical categories depict implied meanings of the novel.

Significance of the StudyThe present study may help students of literature who want to enhance their knowledge about stylistic analysis and how writers use various stylistic devices to present the construction of meaning. It may help in understanding the themes and hidden meanings behind writing these texts. The research could serve as a springboard for further studies in this area and could promote academic discourse.1.8 MethodologyBased on the research question and research objectives of the study, the researcher used linguistic stylistic analysis as the actual approach. Linguistic stylistic analysis is selected because it gives an opportunity to interpret linguistic description of a literary text. The study is analytical, and descriptive in nature. The researcher had used both quantitative and qualitative approach in the study. In this way, the principle ideas of style, stylistics and different frameworks of the stylistics analysis are discussed. Data collection tool for the study is close reading and note taking. To stylistically analyze the novel, theoretical framework has developed based on the linguistic and stylistic categories. A stylistic model suggested by Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007) has been used as theoretical framework. They described a list of different categories; lexical categories, grammatical categories, figures of speech, coherence and cohesion, but present study focused on only two categories; lexical categories and grammatical categories. This study aims to make a stylistic analysis of three novels; The Winner Stands Alone, The Zahir and The Alchemist. The research is theoretical, analytical and descriptive in nature. The researcher used secondary source of data collection. As the data collection tool, close reading and notes taking are used in understanding the themes of the novels. The researcher used “mixed approach” for the study. The present study used non-random sampling design.

1.9 Delimitation of the StudyDue to the time constraints and voluminous nature of the novels, the researcher limits the study to the stylistic analysis of the only three novels of the Paulo Coelho entitled as The Winner Stands Alone, the Zahir and The Alchemist. The researcher also delimits the model used for analysis. Basically, there are four categories given by Leech and Short (2007) but the present study just focused on two linguistic and stylistic categories: lexical categories, and grammatical categories.

1.10 About the AuthorPaulo Coelho de Souza, a Brazilian lyricist and novelist born on 24 August 1947 in Rio de Janeiro Brazil and went to Jesuit School. He is best known for his widely translated novel “The Alchemist”. His 26 books sold more than sixty-five million copies in fifty-nine different languages. His father was an architect. Being a son of Catholic family, his parents were too strict and conservative about religion and faith. In his teens, he wanted to become a writer, but his parents forced him to get some professional degree as they saw no future in writing in Brazil. As a rebellious teenage boy and defiant puberty, his parents confined him three times in a mental institution from which he escaped three times and finally discharged at the age of 20 CITATION Gam14 l 1033 (Gamerman, 2014).

He relinquished his dream of becoming a writer and joined law school on the choice of his parents, but terminated from the college after one year to indulge in sex and drugs. In 1960’s he started travelling to Europe, America, Africa and Mexico. Upon his arrival to Brazil, he started composing melody verses for Brazilian musicians challenging the nation’s military. In 1974, the military government viewed his songs’ lyrics dangerous, arrested him three times for his political activism, and subjected to torture in jail. Before starting his writing career, he also worked as actor, journalist and theatre director CITATION Edi14
l 1033 (Paulo Coelho Biography, 2014). At the age of 38 in 1986, while on his journey to Spain, he had a spiritual awakening, which became a defining moment of his life. He described that moment in his interview, “I was exceptionally happy in the thing I was doing. I was accomplishing something that gave me nourishment, I was working, I had a man whom I loved and admired, I had money, but I was not satisfied , I was not fulfilling my dream of becoming a writer. So I left my career as a musician and devoted myself for writing” CITATION Coe07 l 1033 (Coelho, 2007).
1.11 Brief Overview of The AlchemistThe Alchemist is a novel written by Brazilian famous writer Paulo Coelho. It was originally published in Portuguese (O Alquimista) in 1988. Then the novel has translated into more than 80 languages as of 2016, to facilitate the readers of other languages CITATION Nan11
l 1033 (2011). The Alchemist has sold 30 million copies and won the Guinness World Record for the most translated book by a living author. Alan Clarke first translated it in English in 1992. Coelho said that when he was about to write this novel; he was looking for the reason of being born in this world. He wanted to share with his readers that what are the questions, which make life full of adventure. CITATION Mon07 l 1033 (Ballesteros, 2007). This story is specifically related to a boy but as it is related to the recognition of self-identity, every reader either men or women have no difficulty in relating the story to their life. The most interesting thing about the all the novels of Paulo Coelho is that they seems appropriate to many other traditions and cultures. This story deals with the idea of how one should work hard in order to achieve his goals and it imparts in its readers a positive attitude towards life and its hurdles. CITATION Sri13 l 1033 (Joshi, 2013).
The Alchemist as an allegorical novel, follows the young Andalusian shepherd named Santiago in his trip to Egypt, after having a repeating dream of discovering treasure there. Trusting his dream to be prophetic, he asks Romani fortune-teller to interpret the dream for him. The Gypsy woman interpreted the dream as a prediction, telling him that he will find a treasure at pyramids in Egypt. After that, he met Melchizedek an old king of Salem, who told him to sell his sheep in order to go to Egypt and introduced the idea of Personal Legend. Personal Legend is what you always wanted to achieve. He told that everyone knows his Personal Legend when he is young and want to fulfill his dreams and goals. He further includes that when you really want to get something the whole universe conspires in helping to accomplish that goal. This is the core theme, on which the whole novel revolves. During his journey towards Egypt, the boy met an Englishman who has looking for an Alchemist and went on his journey with the boy. In Arabian oasis, Santiago met an Arabian young girl named Fatima and fall in love with her. Later, whom he requested to marry him. She guaranteed to do so only after he finished his journey. He baffled by this, however later he learned that the real love will not stop nor one must sacrifice his dreams for it. Santiago then met a wise alchemist who taught him to understand his actual ‘self’. Finally, they hazard an adventure through the territory of warring tribes, where the boy was compelled to exhibit his unity with “The Soul of the World” by transforming himself into a wind before he was permitted to continue his journey. After on reaching near the Egyptian pyramids, he started digging the sand, where he robbed by thieves who told them that the treasure he looks for was in the ruined church where he had his prophetic dream. CITATION Coe93 l 1033 (Coelho, The Alchemist, 1993)1.12 Overview of The ZahirThe Zahir CITATION Coe05
l 1033 (2005) is a novel by the Brazilian writer Paulo Coelho. As The Alchemist the blockbuster novel of Coelho, this novel is also about pilgrimage. The novel deals with the major themes of love, obsession and loss. The title of the novel “Zahir” is taken from the Arabic vocabulary which means ‘obvious’ and ‘undeniable’. The whole story of the novel resolves around the life of an author, who was the novelist and enjoys all benefits of money and fame, was in search of his missing spouse, Esther who left him without telling him any reason.
As the disappearance of Esther, the author is compelled to re-evaluate his own life and his marriage too. The author can’t make sense of what prompted Esther’s disappearance. Is it true that she was snatched or had she deserted the marriage? During his book launch, he meets Mikhail, one of Esther’s companions. He gains from Mikhail that Esther, who had been a war journalist against the desires of her better half (the hero), had left in a look for peace, as she experienced difficulty living with her husband. The narrator in the long run understands that with a specific end goal to discover Esther he should first discover his own particular self. Mikhail acquaints him with his own particular convictions and traditions, his main goal of spreading love by holding sessions in streets. Mikhail informs the author regarding the voices he hears. The author consults his encounter with Mikhail with his present lover Marie. Marie told him that Mikhail could be an epileptic. She also encourages him to go and search for his ‘Zahir’ as his own desire.

The author in the long run chooses to go in search of his ‘Zahir’. Esther brought Mikhail from Kazakhstan to France for the first time, the author suspects that she might be in Kazakhstan. At first, the author was obsessed, curious about what made his wife to leave him without any reason, but later he understands that the communication gap between him and his wife may have been a major reason. And finally the author finds his ‘Zahir’ when he travels from Paris to Kazakhstan. Through this pilgrimage, Coelho explores different meanings of love and life. Coelho contrasts marriage with the set of railway tracks which remains together however fail to come any closer. The Zahir is a journey from a stagnant marriage and love to the realization of unseen but ever increasing attraction between two souls.

1.13 Overview of The Winner Stands AloneThe Winner Stands Alone CITATION Coe08
l 1033 (2008) is a novel by Brazilian writer Paulo Coelho. It was first published in 2008. It is the thirteenth major book by Coelho. The book is roughly based upon the growing rise of The Superclass. The novel tells the story of different individuals: Igor, a Russian millionaire; Hamid, a Middle Eastern fashion magnate; American actress Gabriela, eager to land a leading role; ambitious criminal detective Savoy, hoping to resolve the case of his life; and Jasmine, a woman on the edge of a successful modeling career. The story of the novel sets at the Cannes Film Festival, the tale narrates the epic drama and tension between the characters in a 24-hour period. Igor, a man of phenomenal intelligence, has guaranteed himself to destroy worlds to get his beloved spouse Ewa, who left him for a successful designer, Hamid Hussain.

1.14 Organization of the StudyChapter One, the first section of the present study is introductory and presents the particular areas under investigation. Chapter Two, this chapter is related to the review of the related literature in which style, concept of style, stylistics, evolution of stylistics, stylistics analysis, and different models of stylistics analysis has discussed in detail from different perspectives. This section also discussed the ideas, which lay the foundation for understanding the analysis in the present research work.
Chapter Three, this section of the research, related to the research methodology, research design, tool for data collection, sampling, size of sample, and variable has taken into consideration. The following chapter of the research is concerned with the data analysis, in this regard the novels; The Winner Stands Alone, The Zahir and The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho analyzed on the premise of the research methodology and research design used in the research. Chapter five dealt with the findings, conclusions and recommendations. The checklist of linguistics and stylistics provided by Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007) and the whole text of the selected novels have given in appendix.
1.15 Summary of the ChapterThis introductory chapter provides the road map for the rest of the research study. It discussed the background of the study , research questions, and main objectives of the study, purpose, significance and delimitation of the research. The researcher provides the brief introduction of the research methodology, biography of the author and also discussed the plot of the selected novels. In the upcoming chapter, the researcher discussed the key concepts of the research work in detail.

Chapter TwoLiterature Review2.1 OverviewThis section looks at changed insightful treatise in stylistics. The review in this section dwells on contributions by researchers related with the investigation of language and literature, swimming through stylistics as a wider term. This part of study followed the steady advancement of stylistics from conventional rhetoric of antiquated Greek times to the present day times. It has clarified such ideas as style and stylistics. The investigation finally anchors on linguistics stylistics, which frames the support around which the whole research work rotates. In this chapter there are some hypothetical proposes that talks about the style, stylistic analysis, linguistics stylistics, and literary stylistics. At last, there is note on the stylistics models and theories that are applicable to this research.
As per Solomon in Ecclesiastes CITATION Sol00
l 1033 (2000) “there is just the same old thing new under the sun”. Lensmire and Beals loan belief to this statement accordingly: “We are destined to create, figure out how to talk, read and compose, flooded with expressions of others. Our words are dependable on another person’s words first; and these words sound with the pitches and assessments of other people who have utilized them before, and from whom we all learned to use them CITATION Joh08 l 1033 (Johnstone, 2008).

2.2 StyleEnkvist (2016) considers style to be “a typical and elusive” idea as it seems to be simple but technical by all accounts, as it means different things to different individuals. Asher & Simpson (1994), the critics consider it “independence”, rhetoricians as “the speaker”, the philologists as “the dormant”, the language specialists as “formal structures”, the clinicians as “a type of conduct”. The Latin word “stilus” means “a pointed instrument utilized for composing writings” is what the concept of “style” implied 2000 years ago. But in these days, meaning of style don’t indicate the devices used by the authors but to characteristics of the writings itself. Enkvist (2016) additionally characterize it as the “total of linguistics features which differentiate one literary text to another. This suggests that “style” is the entire gestalt or oeuvre of a person’s utilization of language code, which identifies the person. Buffon gave an expression to depict style: “style is the man”. Plato additionally pronounces that the style “proclaims the man” implying that the “style is the man himself” with the expression “stilus virum arguit” (Leech & Short, 2007). Richard Ohmann (2006) sees style as “a method for doing it” and the “other methods for communicating similar content” in language use. Ohmann (2006) implies that the “style” is a specific route in which something is done or a designed decision in language behavior. Style is likewise interpreted as the “the steady sign of the writer himself.
This implies that the style is the etymological unique finger or thumb impression of an author, which marks individuality and uniqueness. Katie Wales (2009) alludes to style as “the way of expression in composing and speaking; similarly as there is a way of getting things done”. Along these lines, a man can write in a fancy style, or talk in a comic style, great, terrible, rigid styles respectively. Wales (2009) characterizes it as “the arrangement of components exceptional or normal for a writer: his or her language tendencies or idiolect. So, we can have Miltonic, Shakespearean, Achebe, Gabriel Okara, Soyinka and Pepper Clark’s style. She additionally opines that the stylistics features are essential components of linguistics and language code. In short, style is closely associated with language and thus “the total of logical probabilities of linguistics items”.
Crystal and Davy (1969) consider “style” as “a choice of language practices, the incidental linguistics idiosyncrasies that describe an individual’s uniqueness”. It is typically those elements in a person’s expressions, which are especially bizarre or unique. Samuel Wesley (1969) considers style as “the dress of thought”. Gustave Flaubert says: “style is life! It is the very lifeblood of thought. Watts himself considers it to be “not something added to a bit of work, it is a work itself. He additionally includes: “Style is the statement of expression of an author. Composing style is not something comes out of blue, its detached to the writer which is undetectable” (Ratcliffe, 2015). While Osundare CITATION Osu03
l 1033 (2003) considers it as, “the arrangements of inclinations that characterize an author’s voice” CITATION Dav97 l 1033 (Crystal, 1997). This variety of meaning of style suggests that style is something that needs to do with uniqueness and personal identity. The style of the writer is the mirror image of his thoughts. It comes out of writer’s own being. It is said in other ways that these definitions of style suggest that “style is the man” as it uncovers the inward man, identity, and the point of view of an author. Gorrel and Laird (2002) offer trustworthiness to this declaration when they write: “Style is the man”. Therefore, a great style is that in which author make use of words and sentences with the goal that he uncovers himself faithfully.
Jonathan Swift (1997) characterizes style as “appropriate words in proper spots”. This implies the linguistics choices of an author, and no two individuals or authors compose or speak the very same way because it is individualistic. Style is basically the selection of appropriate words through keen observation for successful transmission of message or stylistic effect through either communication or writing. Literary style is described as elegance, beauty in form and language. As per Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1996), writing is “words in their best order” and the poetic verse is “the best word in the best order”.

According to Gerald R. McMenamin (1993): Style in composing writings comes about because of the recurring choices that the author makes. Recurrent shows the author’s intuitive habits for consistently give preference one frame over other to express the same thing. There are two sorts of choices: variation within a set norm or deviation from the set standard. Variations inside the standard allude to the choices, which are grammatically correct and acceptable. Deviation from the standard norm alludes to the choices that are grammatically incorrect and unacceptable. Osundare (2003) distinguishes three diverse but associated ideas to talk about style. These are choice, difference and iteration. Choice is author-oriented style, which distinguish an author form the other authors. In style, he additionally identifies two classifications of the concept of choice, one is pro-verbal choice and the other is verbal choice. The former is thought-oriented choice, because it is related with the instinct and the latter is mental, or social but the verbal choice is the option or choice of linguistic features made by an author.
As difference, the concept of style is the linguistic deviation or variation an author makes on the language code to accomplish his goals. Style appears basically in writing. On the other hand, style as iteration, is related with the reiteration of using striking linguistic features in the literary work for stylistic impact. As per Asher and Simpson (1994) , style is a scientific way to deal with the investigation of literature and criticized by language analysts and students. This measurable and numerical approach of distinguishing general and habitual linguistic features in writings brings forth stylo-metry or stylo-statistics in style study.

2.3 Style: A Historical PerspectiveThe utilization of language code in antiquated Greece was adapted towards the creation of speech- speech as it served a pragmatic capacity of a language in legislative and legal issues. In ceremonies, speech presented the aesthetic function. The art of speech creation was alluded to as rhetoric; a word got its origin from the Greek “techne rhetorike”. It was instructed as an essential subject in schools with the point of preparing future language speakers on the best way to make powerful and appealing speeches. The fictional creation in ancient Greek, was another language activity from which we have Poetics – the procedure of artistic creation, which concentrated on the issues of communicating thoughts before the real snapshot of the utterance. Aristotle’s Poetics is viewed as a pioneer work at that time. Same in the case of ancient Greece, dialogue’s creation, the discourse and investigation of techniques for influence got to be distinctly known as persuasions. And this was just because of the Socretes. Whatever further advancement of stylistics there was, Missikova (2003), a researcher accepts, originated from three antiquated sources of dialectics, poetics and rhetoric. Poetics made the present field known as Literary Criticism while Rhetoric and Dialectics transformed into Stylistics. Missikova recommends that the advancement of stylistics in antiquated Rome exactly 300 years after the fact realized the qualification between the analogist style of speech presentation and the anomalist style. The characteristics of the analogists are as follow:
They focused on consistency and framework rules
They concentrated on the certainties and information
Their point was to make basic, clear and direct speeches
However, anomalists were:
Went for the creation and advancement of an elegant language code
Utilized un-natural syntactic examples, looked for imaginative frequently manufactured sentence structures
Constructed their theory of rhetoric on the distinction between three styles of high, center and middle.

As per Missikova (2003), there was practically no progress in the advancement of stylistics in the Middle Ages. Therefore, Cicero’s anomalism turned into model for public speaking, making appealing addresses, and helping speakers to build up their independent unique styles.
2.4 Evolution of StylisticsRhetoric in ancient history was the antecedent of what we know from the 20th century as “Stylistics”. People in those times (5th Century) had no writing activity however they knew about the fine characteristics of speaking discourse, a speech that is connected, full of information and important. The rhetorical devices, which were used during that time, incorporate the utilization of words to bring out mental images, proverbial expressions, detailed description, parallelism, reiteration, ellipsis, and alliteration. These devices which are called figure of speech, helped in the structure and elaboration of the form of an argument and to stir the feelings (Brooks & Warren, 1972). Therefore, the familiarity with these figure of speeches have been in presence from the pre-writing time of the man, and we can say with surety that they gave the simple and skeletal system for the acknowledgement of the style in later hundreds of years. Graham Hough (1969) supports this characteristic association amongst Stylistics and traditional rhetoric, when he says:
The modern investigation of style, i.e. stylistics has its underlying foundations in classical rhetoric: the ancient art of powerful effective speech, which has dependably had a close relation with writing literature. Because it was always viewed as a convincing discourses as well. Traditional rhetoric was prescriptive because it gave direction with reference to how to be powerful in speech, though stylistics is descriptive in modern times because it tries to call attention to the linguistics features that can be related with specific impacts.
The improvement of stylistics noticeably prominent with the work of Charles Bally, disciple of Ferdinand de Saussure. Moreover, the new period of linguistics stylistics is represented by the French School of Charles Bally, who generally acclaimed as the father of modern stylistics. He is known for his sincerely expressive origination of style. Charles Bally’s stylistics was writer-centered. Michael Halliday (1960) vigorously affected (called British Stylistics) with his structuralist way to deal with the linguistics analysis of any literary text. Stylistics prospered in Great Britain, and the America subsequently of the post-war advancements in descriptive linguistics in 1960. Therefore, it can be said that modern linguistic investigation of style split into three major areas:
Formalism: Russian Formalist Theory and New Criticism (2007),
Structuralism: Bally’s Expressive Theory, Jakobsonian Theory and Affective Theory (1987) and Functionalism: Discourse theories, Halliday’s Systematic Theory (2014)2.5 StylisticsThornborrow and Wareing (1998) distinguish three key points of stylistics. These are:
The utilization of linguistics to study literary texts
The discussion of the texts according to the objective criteria
The stress on the aesthetic features of language
According to Leech and Short (2007) :
“Stylistics is basically described as the (linguistic) investigation of style, is rarely undertaken for its own particular purpose, essentially as an activity in portraying what use is made of language.” They are additionally of the view that we regularly ponder style because we want to express something, and in general, literary stylistics has the objective of explaining the connection amongst language and aesthetic function.
Widdowson CITATION Wid13
l 1033 (2013) demonstrates the interdisciplinary function of stylistics in the following diagram:

Interdisciplinary nature of Stylistics
Peter Verdonk (2002) proposed that: ‘Stylistics, the systematic logical linguistic investigation of style, can be explained as the examination of particular expression in a language and the representation or illustration of its purpose and impact. How such analysis and illustration ought to be led, and how the connection between them is to be set up are the matters on which the researchers of stylistics or stylisticians deviate. He additionally perceives that ‘style does not emerge out of a vacuum but rather that its creation, purpose and impact are profoundly implanted in the specific setting in which both the author and the reader assume their unique, particular roles. We ought to recognize two sorts of context: linguistic and non-linguistic context. Linguistic setting or context alludes to the adjacent features of language within the text i.e. typography, expression, words, phrases and sentences, which are relevant to the explanation of other linguistics features. The non-linguistic setting or context is significantly more intricate idea because its include text-external elements affecting the language and style of the text which known as “linguo-scholarly elements”.
Stylistics is the scientific study of style. Stylistics analysis in this way includes a scope of general language qualities, which incorporate word usage, sentence and paragraph structure, imagery, repetition, cohesive devices and presentation of thoughts. Stylistics investigate and depict the formal features of the text, that is , the different levels of expression versus the content, consequently drawing out their functional importance for the elucidation of the work. The stylistician may depend on his instinct and explicative skills. To accomplish this, stylistics draws on pertinent and persuasive models of linguistics. As Wales (2009) sees, in later 1960s, Generative Grammar was persuasive; there was Discourse Analysis and Pragmatics in 1980s. In 1980 there was a move from the content to the reader and reader’s response towards the text, which gave birth to Affective Stylistics and Reader Response Theory.
2.6 Types of StylisticsUp till now we have seen that linguistics and literature meet on a marginal area known as stylistics. Stylistics draws its energy and methods from both of the disciplines; it depends on the critical interpretation of the literature and linguistics strategies in its analysis and examination of artistic works. The structure of stylistics is molded by its theme, principal tasks, viewpoints and techniques for research. With the passage of time, different types of stylistics came into existence i.e. general linguistics, linguistics stylistics, literary stylistics, textual stylistics, comparative stylistics, historical stylistics, feminist stylistics, cognitive stylistics, discourse stylistics and corpus stylistics etc. Every type assigns a particular investigation of units of language and their working in speech.

2.7 Review of related LiteratureIn review of related literature, the researcher reviewed different research works on style and stylistics. One study related to style is Aklile Alemu CITATION Ale15
l 1033 (2015), M.A. dissertation entitled as “Stylistics Analysis of the selected Short Stories of O’ Henry”. He analyzed four different short stories of O’ Henry named as After Twenty Years, A Harlem Tragedy, The Last Leaf, and The Furnished Room. As a theoretical framework, he employed checklist of linguistic categories provided by Leech and Short. For the analysis, lexical categories, grammatical categories and cohesion and context has been taken by Aklile. The current research differs from the Aklile’s research work because Aklile did analysis of different short stories but the present study used novel for analysis.

In M.A. dissertation “A Stylistics Analysis of A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner and its Turkish Translation” by Tuncay Tezcan CITATION Tez14
l 1033 (2014) used literary and comparative stylistics analysis as a main approach. He used modified model of Leech and Short for the critical interpretation of the text. He also compares the source text and target text of the A Rose for Emily and examined whether the target text also effects the target language readers in the same way or not. The present study is not comparative in nature.
Another related work of present study is “A Stylistics Analysis of Miss Brill by Katherine Mansfield” by Shenli Song CITATION Son09
l 1033 (2009). Her thesis was primarily concerned with the style of Katherine Mansfield. As a theoretical framework, she employed method of Prose Text Analysis for the integrative and systematic analysis of the short story. The analysis was done on three linguistics levels proposed by Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007).
Berhanu Mattews CITATION Mat
l 1033 (1994) in PhD thesis ” English Poetry in Ethiopia” begins by giving rationale for teaching English Literature, he widely looked at the standards and techniques of contemporary literary stylistics theory and investigated methods for utilizing stylistic analysis approach in educating literature. He examined that the use of stylistic approach for the students of English literature helps them in better understanding of literary text and also enhance the linguistics competence of the students.
The present study is different from the Berhanu’s research work, because he focused on the stylistics analysis of the poetry but the present study has stylistically analyzed novels of Coelho. He also extensively explained concept of stylistics and literary criticism while the concept of literary criticism is not used in present study.

One research paper on “Comparative Stylistics Analysis in the works of Kirk and Cece Winans” by Zenebech Zerfu CITATION Zer00
l 1033 (2000), related to present research. She comparatively analyzed two spiritual songs of two singers. As a theoretical framework, she used literary stylistics analysis and analyzed different literary devices i.e. repetition, metaphor, alliteration, ellipsis used in songs. Zerfu’s work differed from the present study: she chose songs for analysis but the current study is related to novels. Current study used lexical features, and grammatical features while Zehru’ s work was just on figure of speech.

2.7.1 Work on different intrigues of selected Novels
Here the researcher reviewed different works on the novels of Paulo Coelho’s entitled as; The Alchemist, The Zahir and The Winner Stands Alone from the different perspectives. One of the research work by Dr. Dhanesh Mohan Bartwal CITATION Bar15
l 1033 (2015) entitled “Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist: Exploration of Hidden Philosophies” in which he traced out the philosophies and mysteries of the life which the author has used in the novel and displayed it in an impactful way. The researcher also highlighted the learning of Santiago, which makes him ready to acknowledge and accomplish his dream. ‘A Main Character Analysis of The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho Using Hierarchy of Human Needs of Abraham H. Maslow’s Theory’ by Siti Mawaddah CITATION Maw10
l 1033 (2010) is another work on selected novel. In her work Siti discussed the different characteristics of the protagonist ‘Santiago’ of the novel. She also discussed Santiago’s struggle in fulfilling his needs and analyzed these need according to Maslow’s Theory.

Another research entitled “Journey Towards Destiny in Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist” by Parvathi Devi CITATION Dev12
l 1033 (2012), she discussed the importance of dreams and destiny in one’s life. She concluded that life is an incredible blessing for those who follow their destiny and achieve their goals. Another M-Phil dissertation on “Plural Society Portrayed in Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist” by Warso CITATION War15
l 1033 (2015) is meant to depict the characteristics of plural society portrayed in the Paulo Coelho’s novel The Alchemist explained the attitudes of the characters on the plural society. The researcher showed that there are twelve viewpoints or characteristics that turns into the depiction and impression of the the plural society in this novel. These are arts, symbols, values, belief, norms, traditions, knowledge, ethnics and religion. One of the study, Taxonomy Overview the Alchemist by Paulo Coelho classified the novel into four different aspects of plot, setting, author and theme. And the researcher further classified these categories according to Bloom’s Taxonomy. “Decision Making in Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist” by Lily Hasanah CITATION Has08
l 1033 (2008) is another study focuses on the selected novel. In this study, the researcher was concerned with the discussion on the protagonist’s decision-making process, which was broadly explained by the concept of Existentialism.
The present study is different from the above-discussed researches. Because the present study concerned with the stylistics analysis of the Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist, The Zahir and The Winner Stands Alone , which are analyzed by applying stylistic model proposed by Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007).
2.8 Models for Stylistics AnalysisIt was recommended by Enkvist CITATION Enk73
l 1033 (1973) that it is impractical to claim to know all theories and models of stylistics, similarly as nobody can claim to know all the exploration done in stylistics anywhere around the world. The investigation of style, in this way, ought to be fixing to any single linguistic model, however many models have virtues that the other models lack. Here are some important models i.e. traditional grammar model, behaviorist structuralists model, traditional grammar model, and systematic functional model. But the main focus of the study is on the Leech and Short model CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007).

2.9 Theoretical FrameworkIn any research, theoretical framework has an important role. Since the individual characteristics of all scholars and their artistic qualities vary, the researchers unable to find a firm system to apply for the investigation of styles of all the authors. It was distinctly expressed in Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007) as: The analysis of every style is an attempt to find out the rules and principles lying under the author’s choice of language. All authors and so far all literary texts have unique individual characteristics. Therefore, the elements or features, which call our attention in one content or text, will not really be vital in another content by the same or alternate writer. There is no reliable procedure for choosing what is significant. We need to clear ourselves for every artistic effect and linguistic detail of each text as a whole.
According to Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007), it is important to have a checklist of the features, which might possibly be important in a given text, or not. Linguistics stylistics and literary might be confusing terms for scholars. Linguistics stylistics deals with the linguistic theories involved in interpreting the style of the particular text or author whereas literary stylistics deals with the critical interpretation of the literary texts. Linguistic stylistics is a study of literature through linguistics, while literary stylistics is the study of literature it may referred to as literary criticism CITATION Wik17
l 1033 (1973). Enkvist CITATION Enk16
l 1033 (2016) in his book “Linguistic Stylistics” referred as “stylolinguistics”. According to him, stylolinguistics differs from literary criticism where the use of figurative language, allegorical responses is at high end. Its examination based on the rules and tenets of the language.

Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007) believes that stylistics analysis of every text includes choosing a few elements and ignoring or disregarding the other features. It is an exceptionally particular exercise, which might be one element or various elements. The stylistic choice includes the connection between the significances of a literary content and the linguistic characteristics in which the significances are shown. Therefore, it can be seen that two criteria of literary criticism and linguistic criterion are involved. Mixture of literary and linguistics discrimination gives us those specific elements of style, which calls for more cautious examination and these features are regarded as “style markers”. For linguistic stylistics analysis, they provide us checklist of style markers in four classifications. These classifications will provide a range of information that might be inspected in relation to the literary, artistic effect of each passage. The list provided by them, empowers us to gather information on systematic basis. It is not too comprehensive, obviously, but rather a list of ‘good bets’, categories that are probably going to stylistically analyze the relevant information.
2.9.1 Leech and Short Model
The checklist, which was provided, by the Leech and Short in book “Style in Fiction” helps the stylisticians to systematically analyze the literary data. It was mainly consisted on four headings: lexical categories, grammatical categories, figure of speech, cohesion, and context.

2.9.1.1 Lexical CategoriesA lexical category is a syntactic category for elements that are part of the lexicon of a language. These elements are at the word level. Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007) divides the checklist for the lexical categories into five points: general, nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs.

General: It investigates that what type of vocabulary has used in a text. Whether it is simple or complex, general or specific, is it descriptive in nature or evaluative, colloquial or formal. It also studies that what type of idiomatic phrases used in a text and are these phrases related to certain dialect or register.
Nouns: It studies what type of nouns are used whether they are abstract noun, concrete noun, collective noun, common noun, countable noun or uncountable noun. And what kind of nouns occur in a text.
Adjectives: It studies that are the adjectives repeatedly used in the text? And what types of roles do adjectives assign: physical, psychological, visual, auditory, color, referential, emotive? Are adjectives attributive or predicative?
Verbs: What types of verbs used in the text? Are they referring towards some states, referring towards some action or event? Verbs are static or dynamic, transitive, intransitive, or linking verbs. Do verbs ‘refer’ to movements, physical acts, speech acts, psychological states or activities?
Adverbs: – What types of adverbs used and what type of function they perform, whether they are adverb of manner, adverb of place, adverb of time or adverb of degree.

2.9.1.2 Grammatical CategoriesThe grammatical categories divided into nine points: sentence type, sentence complexity, clause types, clause structure, noun phrases, verb phrases, other phrase types, word classes and general.

Sentence type: It studies that does the author use only declarative statements or does he/she also use questions, commands, exclamations, or minor sentence types (such as sentences with no verb)? And what type of functions these sentences performs.

Sentence complexity: The sentences used by the author have simple or complex in nature. How many numbers of words are in sentences? Do the sentences overall have a simple or a complex structure? Are dependent clauses more frequently used then independent clauses and what is their ratio? Does the complexity varies, and due to which reason it occurs whether by coordination or subordination.
Clause types: It examines what types of clauses used by the author? Are they relative clause, adverbial clause, noun clause, verb clause, finite clause, infinite clause, nominal clause, dependable clause or in dependable clause.
Clause structure: What type of clause structure is there anything significant about clause elements? It also notes whether there are any irregular orderings i.e. fronting of object and complement rather than subject? Is there any special kind of clause construction in the text?
Noun phrases: Noun phrases used in the text are simple or complex. Whether noun phrases occurs after adjective in pre-modification or in post modification by relative and prepositional phrases and clauses?
Verb phrases: It studies what type of verbs used in text. Are the whole text is in simple past tense (i.e. left/went), in present tense (i.e. appears), in progressive (i.e. was sleeping), in perfective aspect (i.e. have/had done) or modal verbs (i.e. could, must, would, should) frequently used.
Other phrase types: It studies what other types of phrases used by the author except noun, verb, adverb, adjective and prepositional phrase. For example gerund phrase, and infinitive phrase etc.
Word classes: It considers the major and minor word classes. Major word classes are also known as lexical words, and minor word classes as functional words. Major word classes include nouns, verbs, adverbs and adjectives. While minor word classes include preposition, determiners, auxiliaries, conjunctions, interjections, and pronouns. It also studies whether these words from different word class used for particular effect, for example, they are demonstrative, negative, definite or indefinite in nature.

General: It studies here what types of grammatical constructions are used for certain effect; whether the constructions are comparative, parenthetical, coordinative, or superlative. Is there any variation in order to avoid repetition by the substitution of any descriptive phrase e.g. the use of ‘decent girl’ or ‘her daughter’ may substitute Ms Elsa). Whether the lists of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and coordination tend to occur with two, three or more than three members?
2.9.1.3. Figures of SpeechHere the researchers consider the occurrence of features which are fore grounded by virtue of departing somehow from the general standards of communication, for example, exploitation of regularities of formal patterning, or of deviations from the linguistic code. For distinguishing such elements, traditional figure of speech i.e. schemes and tropes are used.
Grammatical and lexical schemes: Under this heading, the researcher studies that are there any cases of formal and structural repetition i.e. anaphora, parallelism, etc or of mirror image patterns i.e. chiasmus? Is the rhetorical effect of anticlimax, climax, reinforcement, and antithesis, etc?
Phonological schemes: In the text, are there any phonological patterns of rhyme, alliteration, assonance, or any salient rhythmical patterns? Do vowel and consonant sounds pattern or cluster in particular ways? Moreover, how these phonological features and patterns associated with meaning?
Tropes: It examines that are there any obvious violations from the linguistic code. For example, are there any neologisms (newly coined words) such as ‘webinar’ by joining two words web and internet, used? Are there any semantic, syntactic, phonological, or graphological deviations?
2.9.1.4. Context and CohesionThe researcher observes how the writer has used cohesion and how one part of a text is logically and systematically linked to another part are considered.

1. Cohesion: Cohesion is the logical connection between sentences. It studies whether the whole text contains systematic and logical connection between the sentences. Whether coordinating conjunctions, linking adverbials used in the sentences. What types pronouns (i.e. he, she, it, they etc) used for cross-referencing. Are meaning connections reinforced by repetition of words and phrases, or by repeatedly using words from the same semantic field?
2. Context – The researcher observes does the writer address the reader directly, or through the words or thoughts of some fictional character. Whether the author used linguistic cues for example first person pronouns (i.e. I, me, mine my), second person pronouns (i.e. he, she, it) or third person pronouns (i.e. his, her, them). What point of view does the author implicate towards this subject? If a character’s works or thoughts are represented by direct speech, or by indirect speech. Are there significant changes of style occurring to who is supposedly speaking the works on the page?
2.9.2 Selected Categories for the ResearchAmong the above discussed linguistics categories proposed by Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007), the present study concerned only with selected linguistics and stylistics categories i.e. lexical features, and grammatical features. These two categories have been employed to the selected novels.

2.10 Style of Paulo CoelhoPaulo Coelho is now considered as the world ambassador to literature because he is considered to be, the understood writer of his time. His work includes both fictional and non- fictional work. He uses simple language in his work to persuade his readers CITATION Placeholder1 l 1033 (Sheme, 2013). By making his reading transparent through his writing, he calls his readers into the world of supposition. The interesting thing about Coelho’s work is that the author is almost invisible as the referent and takes part in text as a reader who shares his reading with the audience. The use of inter-textuality of sacred texts causes the reader’s ability to influence the world and to mould it according to his understanding. The quality of the Coelho’s work is that in his work the readers are given a special attention and the readers try to read the world directly with their physical senses along with the literary text. CITATION Mar12 l 1033 (Figueredo, 2012). His readership knows no boundary of age, sex, class, religion and creed because he tries to share the same concepts as his readers have in their minds. He is loved by his followers because of his simple, realistic and optimistic approach towards life. Through his multicultural approach, he was appointed a United Nations messenger of peace in September 2007. However, many critics consider the Coelho’s work of low quality and exclude it from the work of literature as it conveys nothing but only common sense ides and unrealistic plots. In addition, they consider his followers as non-expert readers. In Literary Criticism, the readers are given a very little place. In 2012, however, it arouses a controversy between Paulo Coelho and different group of readers. Coelho said that Ulysses by James Joyce had focused on the style only, ignoring the readers. To answer this statement, Stuart Kelly in his article the Guardian 2012, wrote that Coelho has insulted the readers of Ulysses. In response to this, Coelho said that what about my readers who were insulted all these years. All these attacks on Coelho’s work were just because Brazil is very unequal country, and the large population of this country is illiterate. These books were considered as a product of propaganda, without any literary value CITATION War07
l 1033 (2007). However, Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani girl who has become an education activist denoted The Alchemist to a library because according to her this book can educate people and has the power to change our lives.
The style of writing is depended on the personality of the author because his choice of the sounds, words and syntactic patterns are reflected through his work. Paulo Coelho is known for making use of literary devices in his texts. His writing style is simple and straightforward. He mostly uses proverbs in his work. The literary devices used in the text are as follow: foreshadowing, irony, personification, symbolism, motifs, imagery, metaphors and symbols. He uses imagery in his works just to make the reader understand the importance of the scene and settings. He describes his imagery in such a beautiful way that in seems that every word carry life in it. The themes of his novels convey the readers messages related to their lives. Foreshadowing tells the reader that the characters will perform important events in the upcoming chapters. From the above literature review, it became clear that the study of style is very important in our lives. Moreover, one should be conscious of adopting a good and particular style of reading and writing in this way the message will be conveyed in a beautiful and clear manner.
2.11 Summary of the ChapterIn the above discussion, the researcher has tried to review the related literature that deals with the key points of the study. The researchers discussed the concept of style, stylistics, stylistics analysis and models of stylistics analysis in a brief manner. The researcher also reviewed the different works on selected novels, The Alchemist The Zahir and The Winner Stands Alone, from different perspectives and highlighted how the present study is different from the previous works. While discussing the theoretical framework the researcher showed that it is not possible to apply one model on the works of al writer. The researcher used Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007) Model of linguistic and stylistics categories for the analysis of the novels The Alchemist, The Zahir and The Winner Stands Alone by Paulo Coelho. Accordingly the present study based on the analysis of lexical categories, and grammatical categories. In the next chapter, the methods of study and research design have discussed by the researcher.
Chapter ThreeResearch Methodology3.1 OverviewThis chapter presents the methodology used in the present study. This chapter concerned with the research procedures, research design, data collection tools, research area, sample and sampling techniques and data analysis procedures. The present research used linguistics stylistics analysis as the actual approach. Linguistics stylistics analysis is selected because it given an opportunity to interpret linguistic description of literary text. As a research framework, the stylistic model of Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007) has been employed. They described a list of different categories but present study focus on two general headings lexical categories, and grammatical categories. To this end, the textual details of the novels carefully analyzed following the stylistic model.

3.2 Theoretical Framework
As a theoretical framework, the stylistic model of Leech and Short is used for the analysis of novels. Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007) believes that stylistics analysis of every text includes choosing a few elements and ignoring or disregarding the other features. It is an exceptionally particular exercise, which might be one element or various elements. The stylistic choice includes the connection between the significances of a literary content and the linguistic characteristics in which the significances are shown. Therefore, it can be seen that two criteria of literary criticism and linguistic criterion are involved. Mixture of literary and linguistics discrimination gives us those specific elements of style, which calls for more cautious examination and these features are regarded as “style markers”. For linguistic stylistics analysis, they provide us checklist of style markers in four classifications. These classifications will provide a range of information that might be inspected in relation to the literary, artistic effect of each passage. The list provided by them, empowers us to gather information on systematic basis. It is not too comprehensive, obviously, but rather a list of ‘good bets’, categories that are probably going to stylistically analyze the relevant information. Below is the checklist given by Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007).
Checklist used for Lexical Analysis and grammatical analysis of the selected novels is given in appendix 1.

3.3 Research DesignThe most important part of the research methodology is research design. William Zikmund CITATION Zik03
l 1033 (2003) described it as the master plan of the study that identifies the procedures, methods and techniques used to collect and analyze relevant information. It is a plan and structure for conduction research, and to get the answers of research questions. Research design includes the identification of the research-participants, and data collection tools. In this study, the researcher used both qualitative and quantitative approach, which is also known as “mixed approach”. Mixed approach “Involved integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches to generating new knowledge and can involve either concurrent or sequential use of these two classes of methods to follow a line of inquiry.” CITATION Sta06 l 1033 (Stange, 2006) Moreover, the “mixed research
3.4 Sample and Sampling DesignGenerally, in mixed research the sampling design involves “purposive sampling” for selecting particular individuals, groups or texts related to the study. Purposive sampling design suits best to the study as the researchers find it appropriate to choose the particular respondents. CITATION Kot04 l 1033 (Kothari, 2004) The present study used non-random sampling design. Moreover, purposefully chooses three novels of the Paulo Coelho entitled The Winner Stands Alone and The Zahir and The Alchemist. Therefore, the selected sample is the representation of whole population.

3.4.1 Sample
The selected sample of the research, are the three novels of Paulo Coelho; The Winner Stands Alone and The Zahir and The Alchemist. These themes of the novels have been analyzed as representative of all works of Paulo Coelho. Leedy and Ormrod CITATION Lee12
l 1033 (2012) preferred the use of purposeful sampling in the literary research, because the researcher wanted to extract particular feature or information of literary text.
3.5 Data Collection MethodsIn this study, the researcher used secondary source of data collection. The study applies the method of data collection by having closer reading to the novels, making data classification, and determining the data based on criteria. The collecting data process is note-taking technique. So, this study is also categorized as library research.

3.6 Data Collection InstrumentResearch instrument or a tool is defined as a tool used to collect the data. The type of data collection instrument used by the researcher depends on the data collection method. It is said by Massey that the development of the data collection tool or instrument requires a high level of research skill, as it must be valid and well grounded. Tool of data collection used in this research is close-reading and writing notes on the selected text. The notebook used to write the summary and key features while reading the selected novel and to identify the lexical features, grammatical features and, the cohesion and context of selected sample. For triangulation of the lexical data collection of the novels, the researcher has used a tool “Tropes V8.4 English”.

3.7 VariablesAnything that has the quality and quantity that varies is called variable. CITATION Kot09
l 1033 (2009) Independent variable is that on which researcher is doing research and dependent variable is that which is dependent and effected by independent variable.
3.7.1 Dependent Variable
The selected three novels; The Alchemist, The Zahir and The Winner Stands Alone by Paulo Coelho are dependent variables.

3.7.2 Independent Variable
The linguistic, stylistic features and time constraints are independent variables.
3.8 Data Analysis ProcedureThe analysis of the data of the selected text showed that how the implication of linguistic and stylistics features to the literary text help in understanding the meanings and themes of the novel. The procedure of the data analysis included exploring the representation of every linguistic and stylistic features used in the novels The Alchemist, The Zahir and The Winner Stands Alone. The result was to show stylistics features and their usefulness in interpreting message.
3.9 Limitation of the ResearchThe present study has limited to just major themes of three extensive novels of the Coelho.
3.10 Ethical ConsiderationsThe researcher kept in mind the ethical consideration while doing research. All data including sample, population, data collection tool has not used without the prior permission. Current study is beneficence, not harmful for anyone.
3.11 Summary of the ChapterThis chapter of the research studied the research methodology, research design, sample techniques of sampling, instrument of data collection, dependent and independent variables and finally the procedure of data analysis. In the next chapter, the researcher applied the lexical categories and grammatical categories as the framework to analyze the novels The Alchemist, The Zahir and The Winner Stands Alone by Paulo Coelho.

Chapter FourData Collection and Data Analysis4.1 OverviewThis chapter discusses the process of data collection, data analysis and findings of the research. The research tool which is being used by the researcher for data collection is close-reading and notes taking. For the corpus data ‘Tropes V8.4 English Tool’ is carefully employed to ensure that the data gathered is clearly presented with the aid of tables and percentages. Data Analysis process of the whole sample is being analyzed by employing Stylistic Model proposed by Leech & Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007) . Leech & Short Model CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007) deals with four different categories: lexical categories, grammatical categories, figure of speech, cohesion and context in literary text. But the researcher delimits the model and analyzed just the lexical and grammatical categories of the sample. In this chapter, three novels of Coelho: The Alchemist, The Zahir and The Winner Stands Alone, are examined. The theoretical framework applied for the analysis of novels is lexical and grammatical categories respectively.
4.2 Stylistic Analysis of The Winner Stands AloneIn this section The Winner Stands Alone has been lexically analyzed.

4.2.1 Lexical Categories As it is discussed in theoretical framework of the research that lexical categories deals with the major and minor word classes. Major word classes consist of nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Each of them has discussed in relation to the novel under discussion.

Table below has the checklist of lexical categories used in The Winner Stands Alone
Table 4. 1 Lexical Categories of ‘The Winner Stands Alone’Lexical Categories of The Winner Stands Alone
1- General Simple Vocabulary Yes
Complex Vocabulary No
Formal Vocabulary No
Colloquial Vocabulary Yes
Descriptive Vocabulary Yes
Evaluative Vocabulary No
Emotive Vocabulary Yes
Specialized Vocabulary Yes
Compound Words Yes
Words with suffixes Yes
Semantic Field 2- Nouns Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns Proper Nouns Collective Nouns 3- Verbs Stative Verbs 410
Dynamic Verbs 442
Transitive Verbs 273
Intransitive Verbs 105
Factive Verbs Non-Factive Verbs Copula Verbs 413
4- Adjectives Psychological Visual Auditory Referential Color Emotive Evaluative 5- Adverbs Manner 95
Place 50
Time 117
Degree 56
Frequency 79
4.2.1.1 General Comments on vocabularyThe vocabulary used in the novel The Winner Stands Alone by Paulo Coelho is simple to understand. Coelho’s selection of diction is very effective. He has hit the target in conveying the dark realities of the showbiz society. The writer tries to convey the important and complex theme of the novel “importance of paying the price of dreams” in simple words. Coelho has great power of giving fine and detailed description of things, characters, events and places. That can be seen throughout the text that is remarkably brilliant as the scenes and events of the superclass society has keen and systematically observed and analyzed to highlight the deepest and darkest realities of elite class. The majority of diction used in the novel is descriptive in nature. Some of them describe the setting of the story, and some describe the physical appearances, psychological process of the characters.
4.2.1.2 NounsThe writer has used different varieties of nouns: concrete nouns, abstract nouns, proper nouns and collective nouns have been used in the novel “The Winner Stands Alone”. Above mentioned table clearly depicts the highest rate of use of nouns in the novel under discussion which showed that the writer gives more emphasis on the description of action.
Below is the list of concrete nouns, abstract nouns and proper nouns used in the novel
Table 4. 2 Varieties of Nouns in ‘The Winner Stands Alone’Concrete Noun Abstract Noun Proper Noun
Clothes Love Igor
Fabrics Soul Hamid HussainEmbroideries Dreams Cannes
Accessories Beauty Moscow
Wristwatches Desires Rwanda
Victims Expectations Olivia
Glasses God Javits Wild
The concrete nouns refer to the description of the setting, the surrounding of the setting and the characters in the novel like accessories, diamonds, and clothes. The abstract nouns comprise of nouns: referring to perception like beauty, desires, dreams and expectations; referring to event such as appointment. The proper nouns are used to refer to the different characters in the novel: Igor, Olivia, Gabriela, Javits Wild and Jasmine and the places/cities where they live. Collective nouns are used in few numbers in the novel.

4.2.1.3 VerbsIn the novel, verbs are used in abundance. The verbs take 31% of the major word classes as seen on table1 .This makes them the second dominant in categories. The verbs carry an important part of the meaning as they contribute a lot by, mainly, describing actions and to a certain extent playing a stative role in the story. The verbs, to a great extent, are dynamic. There are also stative verbs though they are very few compared to the dynamic ones.

Below is a list that can show examples of verbs of different nature and purposes.

Table 4. 3 Varieties of Verbs in ‘The Winner Stands Alone’
Stative Verb Dynamic Verb Transitive Verb Intransitive Verb Copula Verb
Belong Called Is worried Coming Be
Have Carrying Had gone Plants Is
Contain Creates Are staying Confesses Looks
Keep Accepted Had Taken Promotes Had
Believe Fought Doesn’t create Seize Will
Think Adapt Be transformed Knows Am
Survive Rehearsed Is analyzing Appears Getting
The verbs in general serve purposes. Most commonly used verbs in the novel are dynamic verbs which refer to the movement and action. For example: fought, adapt, called, carrying and moving etc. Stative verbs are referred to psychological state, emotions, activities and perceptions like: thinks, agreed, knows, and wished etc. The writer also made use of transitive verbs in the novel. Transitive verbs referred to verbs have proper subject and object. For example; had gone, was taking, had released etc. Verbs referring to speech acts are: spoke, said, heard, listened, etc. Copula verbs are used to connect subject with the object as looks, had, will, and be etc.

4.2.1.4 AdjectivesThe author has used different types of adjectives in the novel. They attribute to physical, psychological, colour, evaluative, etc references. Referring toTable1 it can be seen that adjectives are the third dominant major word classes.

The adjectives refer to different attributes. This can be clarified more with examples below.

Table 4. 4 Varieties of Adjectives in ‘The Winner Stands Alone’Physical Adjective Psychological
Adjective Color
Adjective Evaluative
Adjective Referential
Adjective
Handsome Idiotic Red-carpeted Best Long
Luxury Confident Dark glasses Important Alive
Vast Subtle Light-clothed Jealous High
Divine Discreet Blonde First Official
Lifeless Crazy Black Largest Sophisticated
Filthy Wise Worried Harmful
Freezing Weird Major Glossy
The different attributes referred by the adjectives in the above list show that the author has benefited from using varieties of attributes of the adjectives to richly describe the physical, psychological, etc conditions of the setting of the story and the characters in the story. In the novel The Winner Stands Alone, the writer made use of physical adjectives while describing the superclass, Cannes film festival, actresses, actors, film director and distributors, for example; luxury, sexy, and filthy etc. The writer also used evaluative adjectives like major, largest, first, and important etc. Referential adjectives can also be seen in the novel as sophisticated, high, alive, glossy etc. The author also used restrictive adjectives so that the readers get the messages easily and to the point.

4.2.1.5 AdverbsIn the novel The Winner stands Alone, a number of adverb types have been used. They are: adverbs of manner, adverbs of place, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of time, and adverbs of degree. As stated in Table1, adverbs are the least dominant in the major word classes having only14% share. The adverbs in the novel perform different semantic functions such as referring to manner, place, direction, time and degree.

List of different functions of adverbs are given below in the table
Table 4. 5 Varieties of Adverbs in ‘The Winner Stands Alone’Adverb of Manner Adverb of
Place Adverb of
Time Adverb of Frequency Adverb of Degree
Carefully Where For the first time All Very
Merely Around Then Far more More
Clearly Nearby Still A great deal So
Genuinely Along Twice At least At all
Rather Further Meanwhile Usually Obviously
Even Here Always Really Only
The most notable classes of adverb are those of time and manner. They emphasize the movements of the characters and the time of that particular twenty-four hours in which the whole story of the novel took place. Adverb of time has used more than other adverbs like still, twice, always, meanwhile, and for the first time. Adverb of time shows that how many times or at what time certain action take placed in the novel. Adverb of manner like clearly, genuinely, rather, even has been also used to show the movements.
In the foregoing discussion, attempts have been made to stylistically analyze The Winner Stands Alone using the lexical categories namely Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs and Adverbs. While doing the analysis the researcher notes that Coelho richly employed varieties of classes of noun (concrete, abstract, and proper nouns) which enables him to clearly describe the setting and its surrounding and the characters in the novel. The classes of adjectives are other areas where Coelho properly employed in an effective manner. To this effect, he has incorporated adjectives referring to different attributes such as physical, psychological, colour, evaluative, and referential. With the help of these attributes the author elaborates his work of art. The classes of verb comprising dynamic, stative and linking (intensive) verbs also have been properly used in order to give a clear picture of the whole scenario. The classes of adverb, in different functions such as manner, place, time, frequency and degree, have played a significant role in clarifying the movements of and activities carried out by characters, emphasizing the time and those areas of Cannes Film Festival and Paris where the story took place.

4.3 Stylistic Analysis of The ZahirIn this section, the 2nd novel of Coelho ‘The Zahir’ has been lexically analyzed
Table 4. 6 Lexical Categories of ‘The Zahir’Lexical Categories of The Zahir
1- General Simple Vocabulary Complex Vocabulary Formal Vocabulary Colloquial Vocabulary Descriptive Vocabulary Evaluative Vocabulary Emotive Vocabulary Specialized Vocabulary Compound Words Words with suffixes Semantic Field 2- Nouns Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns Proper Nouns Collective Nouns 3- Verbs Stative Verbs Dynamic Verbs Transitive Verbs Intransitive Verbs Factive Verbs Non-Factive Verbs Copula Verbs 4- Adjectives Psychological Visual Auditory Referential Color Emotive Evaluative 5- Adverbs Manner Place Time Degree Frequency 4.3.1 General Comment on VocabularyThe Zahir uses rich vocabulary to take the readers across the lands of Kazakhstan in search of “Zahir” with the protagonist author. Coelho’s use of strong language helps to journey along with the ‘Hero’. Esther and Mikhail. His writing style is universal. Through this novel he tries to convey the message of discovering his own self. The vocabulary used is simple, descriptive and easy to understand. In ‘The Zahir’ he presented major, complex and philosophical themes in very easy and effective way.

4.3.2 NounsThe Zahir, 2nd under discussed novel of Coelho is richer in having different varieties of nouns: concrete nouns, abstract nouns, proper nouns and collective nouns. In above mentioned table it can be clearly seen the highest rate of use of nouns in the novel under discussion which showed that the writer gives more stress on the description of actions.
Below is the list of concrete nouns, abstract nouns and proper nouns used in the novel.
Table 4. 7 Varieties of Nouns in ‘The Zahir’Concrete Noun Abstract Noun Proper Noun
Things Enthusiasm Esther
Heavens Intelligence Tengri
Universe God Mikhail
Bunch Creativity Marie
People Dreams Paris
Station Jealous Saint Paul Castle
Stars Love Kazakhstan
The concrete nouns refer to the objects that can be sensed by five senses. They used to describe the setting, events, scenes and characters in the novel. For example, flowers, insects, people, heavens, grapes, bunch, neighbor, and earth etc. Abstract nouns denote to the idea, state or quality, for example creativity, intelligence, love, power, and enthusiasm etc. The proper nouns are used to refer to the different characters and places in the novel: Esther, Author, Mikhail, Marie and the places/cities like Paris, Kazakhstan where they live, or travel. Collective nouns are also used in the novel
4.3.3 VerbsIn the novel, after the nouns the most used category is verb. The verbs take 31% of the major word classes as seen on table1.This makes them the 2nd dominant in the group. The verbs have an important part of meaning in the text as they used to describe the actions in the story. Different varieties of verbs, like stative, dynamic, transitive, intransitive, copula and speech acts verbs has been used in the novel.
Below is a list that can show examples of verbs of different nature and purposes.

Table 4. 8 Varieties of Verbs in ‘The Zahir’Stative Verb Dynamic Verb Transitive Verb Intransitive Verb Copula Verb
Loves Doing Have entrusted Breath Are
Needing Enjoy Are connected Loved Become
Contains Deposited Was built Can
Consisted Transforms Make it go Seems
Suffer Leading Will be thrilled Be
Attract Spoken Don’t deserve Were
Respected Hoarded Had ruined Grew
The verbs in general serve purposes. Dynamic verbs used in large quantity as compared to the other varieties of the verbs. Stative verbs refer to the actions and movements, for example deposited, transforms. Hoarded, and doing etc. Physical acts are referred to by verbs such as released, snapped, trembled, etc. Verbs referring to speech acts are: spoke, said, heard, listened, etc. Verbs referring to psychological states, activities or perceptions are: love, needing, contains, consisted and attract etc.

4.3.4 AdjectivesThe writer has made use of different varieties of the adjectives in the novel. Referring to the Table 1 it can be clearly seen that adjectives used in the selected text has third dominant major word classes. All adjectives refer to different attributes. Some are physical, psychological, color and some are referential and evaluative.
The adjectives refer to different attributes. This can be clarified more with examples below.

Table 4. 9 Varieties of Adjectives in ‘The Zahir’
Physical Adjective Psychological
Adjective Color
Adjective Evaluative
Adjective Referential
Adjective
Single Divine Red Astonished Upright
Wild Miraculous Black Fraudulent Many
Free Obsessed Blonde True Some
Untrammeled Sympathetic Brown Finest Own
Alive Loyal Dark Whole All
Ordinary Spiritual Bright Central Certain
Metal Creative Dull Awful Tall
The different attributes referred by the adjectives in the above list show that the author has benefited from using varieties of attributes of the adjectives to richly describe the physical, psychological, etc conditions of the setting of the story and the characters in the novel.
4.3.5 AdverbsIn this novel, a number of adverb types have been used. They are: adverbs of manner, adverbs of place, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of time, and adverbs of degree. As stated in Table1, adverbs are the least dominant in the major word classes having only14% share. The adverbs in the story perform different semantic functions such as referring to manner, place, direction, time and degree.

List of different functions of adverbs are given below in the table
Table 4. 10 Varieties of Adverbs in ‘The Zahir’Adverb of Manner Adverb of
Place Adverb of
Time Adverb of Frequency Adverb of Degree
Directly Where Forever Much Quite
Merely Close to Ever faster So Just
In truth Across Once more Many Almost
Such Down there Tonight Also Enough
Obsessively Everywhere For a while More Too
Unconsciously Down Again Very Extremely
The most notable classes of adverb are those of manner and time. They emphasize the movements of the characters and the time of that particular In the foregoing discussion, attempts have been made to stylistically analyze The Zahir using the lexical categories namely Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs and Adverbs. While doing the analysis the researcher notes that Coelho richly employed varieties of classes of noun (concrete, abstract, and proper nouns) which enables him to clearly describe the setting and its surrounding and the characters in the story. The classes of adjectives are other areas where Coelho properly employed in an effective manner. To this effect, he has incorporated adjectives referring to different attributes such as physical, psychological, colour, evaluative, and referential. With the help of these attributes the author elaborates his work of art. The classes of verb comprising dynamic, stative and linking (intensive) verbs also have been properly used in order to give a clear picture of the whole scenario. The classes of adverb, in different functions such as manner, place, time, frequency and degree, have played a significant role in clarifying the movements of and activities carried out by characters.

4.4 Lexical Analysis of ‘The Alchemist’In this section, third selected novel of Coelho ‘The Alchemist’ will be analyzed stylistically. To implement the analysis, theoretical framework used is Lexical Analysis.

Table 4. 11 Lexical Categories of ‘The Alchemist’
Lexical Categories
1- General Simple Vocabulary Complex Vocabulary Formal Vocabulary Colloquial Vocabulary Descriptive Vocabulary Evaluative Vocabulary Emotive Vocabulary Specialized Vocabulary Compound Words Words with suffixes Semantic Field 2- Nouns Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns Proper Nouns Collective Nouns 3- Verbs Stative Verbs Dynamic Verbs Transitive Verbs Intransitive Verbs Factive Verbs Non-Factive Verbs Copula Verbs 4- Adjectives Psychological Visual Auditory Referential Color Emotive Evaluative 5- Adverbs Manner Place Time Degree Frequency 4.4.1 General Comment on VocabularyThe vocabulary use in the novel is rich profound symbolic meaning. In the novel, the writer used more abstract vocabulary which shows that writer talks about the things happened beyond time and place. The writer used complex ideas of alchemy, personal legend in the novel. Through Santiago’s journeys towards Arab shows that Paulo Coelho well aware of the culture of other nations too. The way he describes the life of desert, pilgrimage of Santiago to different places in order to discover his treasure, shows Coelho’s vivid descriptions, illusions and rich imagery.

4.4.2 NounsDifferent varieties of nouns: concrete nouns, abstract nouns, proper nouns and collective nouns have been used in the novel “The Alchemist”. Above mentioned table clearly depicts the highest rate of use of nouns in the novel under discussion which showed that the writer gives more emphasis on the description of action.
Below is the list of concrete nouns, abstract nouns and proper nouns which are used in the novel.
Table 4. 12 Varieties of Nouns in ‘The Alchemist’
Concrete Noun Abstract Noun Proper Noun
Desert Dreams Santiago
Treasure Soul Fatima
Hawks God Andalusia
Oasis Blessings Bedouins
Sky Truth Egypt
Heart Desire Caravan
Pyramids Wisdom Englishman
The use of concrete nouns is frequent in the novel The Alchemist for describing the things and persons as treasure, chief, hawks, desert, food, water etc. After concrete nouns, abstract nouns are mostly used in the novel, like dreams, desires, quest, wisdom etc. Proper nouns also used because the protagonist Santiago met different people during his journey of finding treasure. The use of collective nouns is less as compared to the other varieties of the nouns, for example sheep, flock, caravan, people etc.

4.4.3 VerbsIn the novel, verbs are used in abundance. The verbs take 31% of the major word classes as seen on table1.This makes them the 2nd dominant in the group. The verbs carry an important part of the meaning as they contribute a lot by, mainly, describing actions and to a certain extent playing a stative role in the story. The verbs, to a great extent, are dynamic. There are also stative verbs though they are very few compared to the dynamic ones.

Below is a list that can show examples of verbs of different nature and purposes.

Table 4. 13 Varieties of Verbs in ‘The Alchemist’Stative Verb Dynamic Verb Transitive Verb Intransitive Verb Copula Verb
Need Sheared Had Attended Live Was
Keep Responding Have Forgotten Rise Did
Stay Recalled Been Ruined Remained Are
Remained Prodded Has Scared Stay Had
Had Strayed Had Bought Arrive Seem
Stay Slaughtered Was Tempted Smiled Have been
Having Haunted Has Taught Occurred Will
The verbs in general serve purposes. Some of them refer to movements; for example: moved, twirling, walked, stopped, etc. Physical acts are referred to by verbs such as released, snapped, trembled, etc. Verbs referring to speech acts are: spoke, said, heard, listened, etc. Verbs referring to psychological states, activities or perceptions are: thinks, agreed, forget, wish, and know.

4.4.4 AdjectivesThe author has used different types of adjectives in the short story. They attribute to physical, psychological, colour, evaluative, etc references. Referring toTable1 it can be seen that adjectives are the third dominant major word classes.

The adjectives refer to different attributes. This can be clarified more with examples below.

Table 4. 14 Varieties of Adjectives in ‘The Alchemist’Physical Adjective Psychological
Adjective Color
Adjective Evaluative
Adjective Referential
Adjective
Gypsy Thinking Blonde So Destroyed
Big Mysterious Grey Eyed Much Ruined
Extraordinary Grateful Brown Many Finished
Ancient Faithful White Crystal All Huge
Angry Miraculous Black People Little Inexhaustible
Refreshing Respectful Fair Very Recurrent
Silent Embarrassed Dark Remarkable Hidden
The different attributes referred by the adjectives in the above list show that the author has benefited from using varieties of attributes of the adjectives to richly describe the physical, psychological, etc conditions of the setting of the story and the characters in the novel. The author also saves readers from boredom (also helps them save time) by using only restrictive adjectives so that they get the messages easily and to the point.

4.4.5 AdverbsIn this novel, a number of adverb types have been used. They are: adverbs of manner, adverbs of place, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of time, and adverbs of degree. As stated in Table1, adverbs are the least dominant in the major word classes having only14% share. The adverbs in the story perform different semantic functions such as referring to manner, place, direction, time and degree.

List of different functions of adverbs are given below in the table
Table 4. 15 Varieties of Adverbs in ‘The Alchemist’Adverb of Manner Adverb of
Place Adverb of
Time Adverb of Frequency Adverb of Degree
On the Spot There Longer A bit So
Vaguely Across During Many Well
One by one Behind Sometimes More Only
Generously Close to Usually Most At all
Basically Out Each Day Completely Too
Even Thereby Now Finally Enough
The most notable classes of adverb are those of manner and time. They emphasize the movements of the characters and the time of that particular.
The researcher has made lexical analysis of three selected novels of Coelho. The researcher has presented the data in tabulation form to show the percentages and most commonly used lexical categories in the novels. In the next section the selected sample of three novels will be grammatically analyzed.
4.5 Grammatical Analysis
In this section, the three selected novels; The Winner Stands Alone, The Zahir and The Alchemist will be stylistically analyzed. Grammatical categories have been used as the theoretical framework. Checklist for grammatical categories proposed by Leech and Short has given below
Table 4. 16 Grammatical Categories of ‘The Winner Stands Alone’Grammatical Categories of The Winner Stands Alone
1- Sentence Type
Declarative Sentences
Commands
Questions
Exclamations
Minor sentences without verb
2- Sentence Complexity No of Independent Clauses
No of Dependent Clauses 3- Clause Types Finite Clauses
Adverbial Clauses Noun Clauses Relative Clauses Comparative Clauses Non-Finite Clauses Infinitive Clauses Participle Clauses (-ing) Participle Clauses (-ed) Verbless Clauses 4- Clause Structure Independent Clauses Dependent Clauses Co-ordinate Clauses Subordinate Clauses 5- Noun Phrases Simple Phrases Complex Phrases Pre-modification
Post-modification
6- Verb Phrases Modal Auxiliaries Progressive Aspect (-ing) Perfective Aspect (-ed) Passive Voice 7- Other Phrases Adverb Phrases
Prepositional Phrases Adjective Phrases 8- Word Classes MinorWord Classes
Conjunctions
Prepositions Determiners Pronouns Auxiliaries Interjection 9- General Comparative Constructions
Superlative Constructions
Parenthetical Constructions
Coordinative Constructions
Listing Constructions
Appended Structures
Interpolated Structures
4.5.1 Grammatical Analysis of ‘The Winner Stands Alone’As pointed in above mentioned table, grammatical categories include, sentence type, sentence complexity, clause types, clause structures, noun phrases, verb phrases, other phrase types, minor word classes and general. The whole sample of the selected novel will be discussed and grammatically analyzed according to the checklist.
4.5.2 Sentence Type:One grammatical feature prominent in the novel ‘The Winner Stands Alone’ is sentence type. The sentence type used in the novel was mostly descriptive in nature. Declarative sentences ratio is more than other type of sentences. For example in the novel when writer described the real world of ‘Powerful’ people as “In the real world, the Powerful are, at this moment, locked in their rooms, checking their emails, complaining that these parties are always the same, that their friends was wearing bigger jewel than they were” CITATION Coe081 p 05
y l 1033 (p. 05) , clearly described the descriptive nature of the sentences used in the novel. Another sentence type of question and exclamation is also used in the selected sample. Exclamatory sentences are used to show the emotions and feelings of the characters used in novel. For example, “You’re young now, but what will become of you in a few years time? And one example of exclamatory sentence from the novel when Igor came from Moscow to make his wife return to him and met Olivia a sales girl to whom Igor later killed is “Forgive my rudeness. I only said I wasn’t interested in buying anything to see if you would lower the price. CITATION Coe082 p 13
y l 1033 (p. 13). Minor sentences without verbs are very less in the novel.

4.5.3 Sentence ComplexityAnother grammatical feature employed in the novel is sentence complexity. Sentence complexity refers to the number of dependent and independent clauses in the novel. The sentence structure is simple and complex both. In detailed description there are long sentences having more dependent clauses and less independent clauses. Below is the example of the sentence complexity from the extract of the novel ‘The Winner Stands Alone’
“It doesn’t even occur to the hopefuls that the Powerful only talk to Powerful, that they need to get together now and then for lunches and supper, to lend allure to big festivals, to feed the fantasy that the world of luxury and glamour is accessible to all those with the courage to pursue an idea, where they feel this might bring them more power and more money, to pretend that they are happy, because the vanity of Superclass consists in competing with itself to see who is the top of the tops” CITATION Coe081 p 05
y l 1033 (p. 05)From this chunk of the novel it is clear that the writer made use of complex sentences consisting on more than two dependent clauses in single sentence. The writer also use short sentences consist on only one dependent and independent clauses for the accuracy of the message the writer wants to convey to his reader.

4.5.4 Clause TypesAnother grammatical category in the novel is clause type. It refers to the types of clauses used in the novel. Leech and Short first categorize clauses into two major type; finite clauses and non finite clauses. Finite clauses are the clauses which contains verb and show action. And non-finite clauses are the clauses which contain verb without action. CITATION Hun15 l 1033 (Hunston, 2015) In the novel, various types of finite clauses; adverbial clauses, noun clauses, relative clauses comparative clauses, and non-finite clauses; infinitive clauses, participle clauses ending with –ing, participle clauses ending with-ed are employed in the novel.

4.5.4.1 Adverbial Clauses
Adverbial clauses are dependent clauses which used in sentences to indicate the time, place, manner, frequency and degree as adverbs. Adverbial clauses are being discussed in the novel using the following example; when the author talked about ‘fashion’ in the novel by saying “Ever since groups of men and women started living in caves, fashion has been the only language everyone can understand”. And in the next line too, “After every six month, they spend a fortune changing.”
In the lines above, ‘ever since, only, everyone, and after every, are adverbs and so the adverbial clauses.
4.5.4.2 Noun ClausesThe use of noun clauses in the novel is common. Noun clauses are those clauses in which noun functions as head or at head position. For example; people who had achieved stardom, Javits had equipped his new toy, are examples of noun clauses from the novel. The subordinate clause which begins with the ‘that’ is called ‘that-clause’. The example of that-clause from the novel ‘The Winner Stands Alone’ is given below.

“All have a purpose in creation and that purpose is called love. That love, shouldn’t be concentrated in just one person, it should be scattered throughout the world, waiting to be discovered. Wake up that love”.

In the example above ‘that purpose is called love’, ‘that love’ and ‘wake-up that love’ are the examples of that-clauses.

4.5.4.3 Relative ClausesRelative clauses are also found in the novel. Relative clauses refer to the clauses that cannot stand independently and tells about the noun comes in a sentence before it. They always begin with a relative pronoun in a sentence CITATION Cam13
l 1033 (2013). Extract from the novel on relative clause is as ‘The policeman who takes no notice when a criminal confess to a crime’, and another example ‘Fashion is, about clothing the body, although it does not inevitably reflect a great deal of what’s going on in the soul as well.  The main purpose of relative clauses is to add more information related to something as it has shown in the above example.
Wh-clauses are those clauses which starts with the wh-words like which, what, who etc. Wh-clauses are subordinate clauses. Some examples of wh-clauses are as follow;
“Say no to powerful people, even when doing so is taking a great risk”
“We will control everything from the way you cut your hair, what to eat, where to go and to whom to you will talk.”
4.5.4.4 Non-finite clauses:In the novel the writer also used non-finite clauses. As it is described earlier that non-finite clauses are the clauses which have verbs that shows no action. Non-finite clauses include; infinitive clauses, participle clauses ending with -ing, participle clauses ending with-ed and verbless clauses.
4.5.4.4.1 Infinitive Clauses
Infinitive clauses are those clauses which start with “to” and they can function as the subject and object in a sentence. Examples of the sentences from the novel of infinitive clauses are as follow;
If you’re successful you will have to learn to live with two women.

There is always a new mountain to climb
There is always a competitor to be convinced or crushed.

Participle with ing ending also used in the novel. For example, when author was explaining the power and said
“They genuinely thought that they are helping others”
“He is sweating”
He needed the woman he most loved to know he was capable of doing anything for her, including destroying universes.

Participle with –ed endings are also used in ‘The Winner Stands Alone’.

Cannes is a film festival, protocol must be rigorously observed
The n they have to go to another party, to be seen, admired and desired
Finally the big day arrived.

There is no use of verbless clauses in the novel.

4.5.5 Noun PhrasesNoun phrases are used in the novel in abundance. Noun phrases refer to the phrases where nouns are at head position. In the novel, simple noun phrases and complex noun phrases both are used.
They feel special, superior to the average person, because they’re doing something useful
And when they realize they are about to vanish from the spotlight, they start to get marry or have messy divorces and create public scandals
More bodyguards, more dark glasses, more bikinis on the beach, more light-colored clothes and more embellishing jewelry attending lunches, more people hurrying along as if they had something very important to that more, more photographs, more magazines and free newspapers about what’s happening at the festival.

4.5.6 Verb PhrasesAnother prominent grammatical feature used in ‘The Winner Stands Alone’ is the verb phrase. In the novel, the writer used mostly present tense. There are function, scenes and occurrences in the present tense; of progressive aspect ending with –ing, perfective aspect ending with –ed and modal auxiliaries are also used in the novel. There are also use of past participle when describing the real life of actor, actress, models, film maker and distributors.
They step out of the childhood straight into the world of glitz and glamour, without passing through the adolescence.

He orders tea and toast, lights a cigarette, and looks around him at the same scene you might see in any chic place anywhere in the world.

Progressive Aspect with –ing ending
I’m going to study philosophy. I’m just working to pay for my studies.

They pretending to be listening to what their friends are saying when they’re really on the lookout for someone more interesting to have into view.

Perfective aspect ending with –ed
They have all attended hundred, possibly thousands of parties like this.

She over spent her budget, and travelled for more than twenty hours
4.5.7 Modal auxiliariesThe celebrity syndrome can destroy careers, marriages and Christian values, and can blind both the wise and ignorant.

You can either sign without reading it or take it home, phone your lawyer, and say you need more time to think before deciding.

From the above discussion it is clearly seen that the writer does not only made use of simple tense but he also used progressive, perfective aspects and modal auxiliaries to show the occurrences and functions.

4.5.8 Other phrasesOther prominent grammatical features used in the novel are other phrase types which consist of adverb phrases, adjective phrases and prepositional phrases
Example of Adverbial phrase;
She’s twenty-five already and nearly too old for the dream factory. She knows three things (a) that men are less treacherous than women; (b) that they never notice what a woman is wearing because they’re always mentally undressing her; (c) as long as you’ve chest, thighs, buttocks and belly in good trim, you can conquer the world.

Example of Adjective phrase;
They nurtured the same dream: the moment would come when that frenetic life would be a distant memory. The scars from that tough period would be like medals won in the war waged in the name of faith and dreams.

Example of Prepositional Phrase:
She knows people who have achieved stardom on that stage and, contrary to her expressions; they’re not at peace with themselves.

4.5.9 Minor Word ClassesIn the novel there is a great number of minor word classes used. They are also called functional words. Minor word classes include; conjunctions, prepositions, determiners, pronouns, auxiliaries and interjections.

Below is the table of minor word classes used in the novel ‘The Winner Stands Alone’
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 17 List of Minor Categories in ‘The Winner Stands Alone’Preposition Conjunction Pronoun
Negative words Determiners Interjection Auxiliaries
1st Person 3rd Person Demonstrative In Although I He This No A Hello Can
On And My She That Not An Hey Could
At Even Me It Those Nothing The Cheers Would
Upon Though Mine His These Neither A few Congratulation Should
By In order to Us Her None Little Alas Have
About If We Him Such Much Bravo Does
Into However Our Himself A lot Oh Do
From Because Ours Herself Enough Well Is
Up Along with Myself They Some Oops Are
Out Or Our self Them One Thanks Were
Off That Themselves Twenty Wow Had
Of Than That Had been
Above is the list of most commonly used minor word classes in the novel.

4.5.10 GeneralIn the above discussion, the researcher has made analysis of the novel ‘The Winner Stands Alone’ by applying different features of grammatical categories. The author has employed different types of sentences which are not only declarative in nature but also in question and command form. Sentences used in the novel are simple and average words in a single sentence of about fourteen words. There are also some long sentences with more than three and four dependent clauses. Different phrase structure can also be seen in the novel. The writer also has also incorporated different varieties of noun phrases, verb phrases, adverb phrases, adjective phrases and prepositional phrases in the novel. Minor word classes have also been used at some instances.

4.6 Grammatical Analysis of ‘The Zahir’In this section the second selected novel for analysis ‘The Zahir’ will be analyzed according to the grammatical categories suggested by Leech and Short CITATION Lee071
l 1033 (2007)Table 4. 18 Grammatical Categories of ‘The Zahir’Grammatical Categories of The Zahir
1- Sentence Type
Declarative Sentences
Commands
Questions
Exclamations
Minor sentences without verb
2- Sentence Complexity No of Independent Clauses
No of Dependent Clauses 3- Clause Types Finite Clauses
Adverbial Clauses Noun Clauses Relative Clauses Comparative Clauses Non-Finite Clauses Infinitive Clauses Participle Clauses (-ing) Participle Clauses (-ed) Verbless Clauses 4- Clause Structure Independent Clauses Dependent Clauses Co-ordinate Clauses Subordinate Clauses 5- Noun Phrases Simple Phrases Complex Phrases Pre-modification
Post-modification
6- Verb Phrases Modal Auxiliaries Progressive Aspect (-ing) Perfective Aspect (-ed) Passive Voice 7- Other Phrases Adverb Phrases
Prepositional Phrases Adjective Phrases 8- Word Classes Minor Word Classes
Conjunctions
Prepositions Determiners Pronouns Auxiliaries Interjection 9- General Comparative Constructions
Superlative Constructions
Parenthetical Constructions
Coordinative Constructions
Listing Constructions
Appended Structures
Interpolated Structures
As pointed in above mentioned table, grammatical categories include, sentence type, sentence complexity, clause types, clause structures, noun phrases, verb phrases, other phrase types, minor word classes and general. The whole sample of the selected novel will be discussed and grammatically analyzed according to the checklist.
4.6.1 Sentence Type:One grammatical feature prominent in the novel ‘The Zahir’ is sentence type. The sentence type used in the novel was mostly descriptive in nature. Declarative sentences ratio is more than other type of sentences. For example in the novel when Hero’s wife Esther disappeared, he said to himself; I’m free. I’m out of prison, my wife has disappeared under mysterious circumstances, I have no fixed timetable for work, I have no problem meeting new people, I’m rich, famous, and if Esther really has left me, I’ll soon find someone to replace her. I’m free, independent. CITATION Coe051 p 10
y l 1033 (p. 10)The above mentioned chunk from the novel clearly described the descriptive nature of the sentences. Another sentence type of question and exclamation is also used in the selected sample of The Zahir. Exclamatory sentences are used to show the emotions and feelings of the characters used in novel. For example, in the novel when the hero’s wife left her without telling her any reason and in obsession he said; In the world of my imagination, Esther was still my companion. And in the real world, she was pure obsession, sapping my energy, taking up all the space, and obliging me to make an enormous effort just to continue with my life, my work and my meeting.
Above mentioned chunk of the novel shows the feeling of loneliness, numbness of the hero. That he can’t able to do anything because of her wife’s sudden disappearance. There is no use of verbless sentences in the novel. There is also some use of question sentences when the protagonist asked about his own existence.

4.6.2 Sentence ComplexityAnother grammatical feature employed in the novel ‘The Zahir’ is sentence complexity. Sentence complexity refers to the number of dependent and independent clauses in the novel. The sentence structure is simple in nature. Average words in a single sentence are twenty. Below is the example of the sentence complexity from the extract of the novel ‘The Zahir’
What we need to learn is always there before us, we just have to look around us with respect and attention in order to discover where God is leading us and which step we should take next.

From this chunk of the novel it is clear that the writer made use of simple sentences for the accuracy of the message the writer wants to convey to his reader.

4.6.3 Clause TypesAnother grammatical category in the novel is clause type. It refers to the types of clauses used in the novel. Leech and Short first categorize clauses into two major type; finite clauses and non finite clauses. Finite clauses are the clauses which contains verb and show action. And non-finite clauses are the clauses which contain verb without action. CITATION Hun15 l 1033 (Hunston, 2015) In the novel, various types of finite clauses; adverbial clauses, noun clauses, relative clauses comparative clauses, and non-finite clauses; infinitive clauses, participle clauses ending with –ing, participle clauses ending with-ed are employed in the novel.

4.6.3.1 Adverbial Clauses
Adverbial clauses are dependent clauses which used in sentences to indicate the time, place, manner, frequency and degree as adverbs. Adverbial clauses are being discussed in the novel using the following example: “After I’ve let the divine energy pass through my body, I know the energy for everything.”
But in love, neither good, not evil, there is neither construction nor destruction, there is merely movement.

In the lines above, ‘after, neither, nor, and merely are adverbs and so the adverbial clauses.
4.6.3.2 Noun ClausesThe use of noun clauses in the novel is common. Noun clauses are those clauses in which noun functions as head or at head position. For example;
“The white clothed figure start to spin, and in that packed space, the audience makes room so that skirts can trace movements in the air” is examples of noun clause from the novel.

The subordinate clause which begins with the ‘that’ is called ‘that-clause’. The example of that-clause from the novel ‘The Zahir’ is: Love is the only thing that activates our intelligence and our creativity that purifies and liberates us.

In the example above ‘that activates our intelligence’, and ‘that purifies’ are the examples of that-clauses.

4.6.3.3 Relative clausesRelative clauses are also found in the novel. Relative clauses refer to the clauses that cannot stand independently and tells about the noun comes in a sentence before it. They always begin with a relative pronoun in a sentence CITATION Cam13
l 1033 (2013). Extract from the novel on relative clause is as ‘But the Zahir, about which I initially used to think with either irritation or affection, continued to grow in my soul. Relative clauses give more information about things.
Wh-clauses are those clauses which starts with the wh-words like which, what, who etc. Wh-clauses are subordinate clauses. One example of wh-clauses is as follow;
Love is an untamed force. When we try to control it, it destroys us. When we try to imprison it, it enslaves us. When we try to understand it, it leaves us feeling lost and confused.

4.6.4 Non-finite clauses:In the novel the writer also used non-finite clauses. As it is described earlier that non-finite clauses are the clauses which have verbs that shows no action. Non-finite clauses include; infinitive clauses, participle clauses ending with -ing, participle clauses ending with-ed and verbless clauses.
4.6.4.1 Infinitive ClausesInfinitive clauses are those clauses which start with “to” and they can function as the subject and object in a sentence. Example of the sentence from the novel of infinitive clauses is as follow;
When I had nothing more to lose, I was given everything. When I ceased to be who I am, I found myself. I understood I was free to choose my own destiny.
Participles with ing ending are also used in the novel. For example,
‘You keep calling it a performance. I’ve told you before, it’s a meeting, a way of reviving what we have lost, the tradition of conversation. I was making a huge effort of keep talking.

Participle with –ed endings are also used in ‘The Zahir’.

Grace cannot be hoarded. There are banks where it can be deposited to be used when I feel more at peace with myself.
4.6.5 Noun PhrasesNoun phrases are used in the novel in abundance. Noun phrases refer to the phrases where nouns are at head position. In the novel, simple noun phrases and complex noun phrases both are used.
Few examples of noun phrases are; God doesn’t play dice with universe,
God has passed through my soul,
Love is a disease no one wants to get rid of. Those who catch it never try to get better, and those who suffer do not wish to be cured.

4.6.6 Verb PhrasesAnother prominent grammatical feature used in ‘The Zahir’ is the verb phrase. In the novel, the writer used mostly past tense. There are function, scenes and occurrences in the past tense; of perfective aspect ending with –ed. Perfective aspect ending with –ed and modal auxiliaries are also used in the novel. There is also use of past participle when describing the real life of actor, actress, models, film maker and distributors.
He is a good man. He knows that love transforms and he allows himself to be transformed by love. He still carries much of his personal history in his soul, but he is continually trying to free himself from it, which is why he stayed with us tonight.

Progressive Aspect with –ing ending and perfective aspect ending with –ed are also used in the 2nd selected novel under discussion. Examples of perfective phrases are; stayed with us, to be transformed by love, connected by energy we call love.

4.6.7 Modal auxiliariesThe writer also used modal auxiliaries in the novel. Few chunks from the novel are as follow;
We can harness the energy of the winds, the sun and the seas.

That’s how love got lost, when we started laying down rules for when love should or should not appear.

From the above examples, it is clearly seen that the writer does not only made use of simple tense but he also used progressive, perfective aspects and modal auxiliaries to show the occurrences and functions.

4.6.8 Other phrasesOther prominent grammatical features used in the novel are other phrase types which consist of adverb phrases, adjective phrases and prepositional phrases
Example of Adverbial phrase;
Shortly before dark, he took the bunch of grapes to Brother Poter. Eat and enjoy.

Example of Adjective phrase;
If we try to make love go in the direction we want, we end up desperate, frustrated, disillusioned, because that energy is free and wild
Example of Prepositional Phrase:
Everywhere, even those places I have never visited before-reminds me of my private Zahir
4.6.9 Minor Word Classes:In the novel there is a great number of minor word classes used. They are also called functional words. Minor word classes include; conjunctions, prepositions, determiners, pronouns, auxiliaries and interjections.

Below is the table of minor word classes used in the novel ‘The Zahir’
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 19 List of Minor Word Categories in ‘The Zahir’Preposition Conjunction Pronoun
Negative words Determiners Interjection Auxiliaries
1st Person 3rd Person Demonstrative In Although I He This No A Hello Can
On And My She That Not An Hey Could
At Even Me It Those Nothing The Cheers Would
Upon Though Mine His These Neither A few Congratulation Should
By In order to Us Her None Little Alas Have
About If We Him Such Much Bravo Does
Into However Our Himself A lot Oh Do
From Because Ours Herself Enough Well Is
Up Along with Myself They Some Oops Are
Out Or Our self Them One Thanks Were
Off That Themselves Twenty Wow Had
Of Than That Had been
Above is the list of most commonly used minor word classes in the novel.

4.6.10 GeneralIn the above section, the researcher has made analysis of the novel ‘The Zahir’ by applying different features of grammatical categories. The author has employed different types of sentences which are not only declarative in nature but also in question and command form. Sentences used in the novel are simple and average words in a single sentence of about fourteen words. Different phrase structure can also be seen in the novel. The writer also has also incorporated different varieties of noun phrases, verb phrases, adverb phrases, adjective phrases and prepositional phrases in the novel. Minor word classes have also been used at some instances.

4.7 Grammatical Analysis of The AlchemistIn this section the “The Alchemist’ will be grammatically analyzed. Grammatical categories include, sentence type, sentence complexity, clause types, clause structures, noun phrases, verb phrases, other phrase types, minor word classes and general.
Table 4. 20 Grammatical Categories of ‘The Alchemist’Grammatical Categories of The Alchemist
1- Sentence Type
Declarative Sentences
Commands
Questions
Exclamations
Minor sentences without verb
2- Sentence Complexity No of Independent Clauses
No of Dependent Clauses 3- Clause Types Finite Clauses
Adverbial Clauses Noun Clauses Relative Clauses Comparative Clauses Non-Finite Clauses Infinitive Clauses Participle Clauses (-ing) Participle Clauses (-ed) Verbless Clauses 4- Clause Structure Independent Clauses Dependent Clauses Co-ordinate Clauses Subordinate Clauses 5- Noun Phrases Simple Phrases Complex Phrases Pre-modification
Post-modification
6- Verb Phrases Modal Auxiliaries Progressive Aspect (-ing) Perfective Aspect (-ed) Passive Voice 7- Other Phrases Adverb Phrases
Prepositional Phrases Adjective Phrases 8- Word Classes Minor Word Classes
Conjunctions
Prepositions Determiners Pronouns Auxiliaries Interjection 9- General Comparative Constructions
Superlative Constructions
Parenthetical Constructions
Coordinative Constructions
Listing Constructions
Appended Structures
Interpolated Structures
4.7.1 Sentence TypeSentence type is concerned with the nature of the sentences used in the novel. For example whether the sentences are descriptive in nature, question sentences are used, exclamatory sentences are employed by the writer or command sentences. Descriptive sentences are those sentences in which description of the events, characters and occurrences discussed in detail. Exclamatory sentences show the emotions of the characters of the novel. There is use of exclamatory sentences in the novel which shows the emotions of Santiago, Fatima, crystal man and all other secondary characters who fail to pursue their dreams.
4.7.2 Sentence ComplexityAnother grammatical feature employed in the novel ‘The Alchemist’ is sentence complexity. Sentence complexity refers to the number of dependent and independent clauses in the novel. The sentence structure is simple in nature. Below is the example of the sentence complexity from the extract of the novel ‘The Alchemist’
The alchemists spent years in their laboratories, observing the fire that purified the metals. They spent so much time close to the fire that gradually they gave up the vanities of the world. They discovered that the purification of the metals had led to a purification of themselves
From this chunk of the novel it is clear that the writer made use of simple sentences for the accuracy of the message the writer wants to convey to his reader.

4.7.3 Clause TypesAnother grammatical category in the novel is clause type. It refers to the types of clauses used in the novel. Leech and Short first categorize clauses into two major type; finite clauses and non finite clauses. Finite clauses are the clauses which contains verb and show action. And non-finite clauses are the clauses which contain verb without action. CITATION Hun15 l 1033 (Hunston, 2015) In the novel, various types of finite clauses; adverbial clauses, noun clauses, relative clauses comparative clauses, and non-finite clauses; infinitive clauses, participle clauses ending with –ing, participle clauses ending with-ed are employed in the novel.

4.7.3.1 Adverbial Clauses
Adverbial clauses are dependent clauses which used in sentences to indicate the time, place, manner, frequency and degree as adverbs. Adverbial clauses are being discussed in the novel using the following example; when the author talked about ‘fashion’ in the novel by saying
Before the dream is realized, the Soul of the world test everything that was learned the along the way.

4.7.3.2 Noun ClausesThe use of noun clauses in the novel is common. Noun clauses are those clauses in which noun functions as head or at head position. For example; People are afraid to pursue their most important dreams, because they feel that they don’t deserve them, or that they’ll be unable to achieve them.
The subordinate clause which begins with the ‘that’ is called ‘that-clause’. The example of that-clause from the novel ‘The Alchemist’: Tell your heart that the fear of suffering is worse than the suffering itself.”
4.7.3.3 Relative ClausesRelative clauses are also found in the novel. Relative clauses refer to the clauses that cannot stand independently and tells about the noun comes in a sentence before it. They always begin with a relative pronoun in a sentence CITATION Cam13
l 1033 (2013). Extract from the novel on relative clause is as ‘I dreamed that I should travel to the fields of Spain and look for a ruined church where shepherds and their sheep slept. Wh-clauses are those clauses which starts with the wh-words like which, what, who etc. Wh-clauses are subordinate clauses. One example of wh-clauses is as follow;
When you are loved, you can do anything in creation. When you are loved, there’s no need at all to understand what’s happening, because everything happens within you.” 
4.7.4 Non-finite clauses:In the novel the writer also used non-finite clauses. As it is described earlier that non-finite clauses are the clauses which have verbs that shows no action. Non-finite clauses include; infinitive clauses, participle clauses ending with -ing, participle clauses ending with-ed and verbless clauses.
4.7.4.1 Infinitive ClausesInfinitive clauses are those clauses which start with “to” and they can function as the subject and object in a sentence. Example of the sentence from the novel of infinitive clauses is as follow;
We have stopped for a moment to encounter each other, to meet, to love, to share
Participles with ing ending are also used in the novel. For example,
I’m on the march, I just concentrate on marching
There is no use of verbless clauses in the novel.

4.7.5 Noun PhrasesNoun phrases are used in the novel in abundance. Noun phrases refer to the phrases where nouns are at head position. In the novel, simple noun phrases and complex noun phrases both are used.
Few examples of noun phrases are;
In order to find the treasure, you will have to follow the omens. God has prepared a path for everyone to follow. You just have to read the omens that he left for you.

4.7.6 Verb PhrasesAnother prominent grammatical feature used in ‘The Alchemist’ is the verb phrase. In the novel, the writer used mostly past tense. There are function, scenes and occurrences in the past tense; of perfective aspect ending with –ed. Perfective aspect ending with –ed and modal auxiliaries are also used in the novel.
He thought of the many roads he had traveled, and of the strange way God had chosen to show him his treasure. If he hadn’t believed in the significance of recurrent dreams, he would not have met the Gypsy woman, the king, the thief, or…”Well, it’s a long list. But the path was written in the omens, and there was no way I could go wrong,
Progressive Aspect with –ing ending and perfective aspect ending with –ed are also used in the 2nd selected novel under discussion. Examples of perfective phrases are; stayed with us, to be transformed by love, connected by energy we call love.

4.7.7 Modal auxiliariesThe writer also used modal auxiliaries in the novel. Few chunks from the novel are as follow;
When you are loved, you can do anything in creation
From the above discussion it is clearly seen that the writer does not only made use of simple tense but he also used progressive, perfective aspects and modal auxiliaries to show the occurrences and functions.

4.7.8 Other phrasesOther prominent grammatical features used in the novel are other phrase types which consist of adverb phrases, adjective phrases and prepositional phrases
Example of Adverbial phrase;
If you will always concentrate on present, you will be a happy man.

Example of Adjective phrase;
Intense, unexpected sufferings passes more quickly than suffering that is apparently bearable.
Example of Prepositional Phrase:
That’s the point at which most people give up. It’s the point at which, as we say in the language of the desert, one ‘dies of thirst just when the palm trees have appeared on the horizon.” 
4.7.9 Minor Word Classes:In the novel there is a great number of minor word classes used. They are also called functional words. Minor word classes include; conjunctions, prepositions, determiners, pronouns, auxiliaries and interjections.

Below is the table of minor word classes used in the novel ‘The Alchemist’
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 21 List of Minor Word Categories in ‘The Alchemist’Preposition Conjunction Pronoun
Negative words Determiners Interjection Auxiliaries
1st Person 3rd Person
Demonstrative In Although I He This No A Hello Can
On And My She That Not An Hey Could
At Even Me It Those Nothing The Cheers Would
Upon Though Mine His These Neither A few Congratulation Should
By In order to Us Her None Little Alas Have
About If We Him Such Much Bravo Does
Into However Our Himself A lot Oh Do
From Because Ours Herself Enough Well Is
Up Along with Myself They Some Oops Are
Out Or Our self Them One Thanks Were
Off That Themselves Twenty Wow Had
Of Than That Had been
Above is the list of most commonly used minor word classes in the novel.

4.7.10 GeneralIn the foregoing discussion, the researcher has made analysis of the novel ‘The Alchemist’ by applying different features of grammatical categories. The author has employed different types of sentences which are not only declarative in nature but also in question and command form. Sentences used in the novel are simple and average words in a single sentence of about fourteen words. Different phrase structure can also be seen in the novel. The writer also has also incorporated different varieties of noun phrases, verb phrases, adverb phrases, adjective phrases and prepositional phrases in the novel. Minor word classes have also been used at some instances.