Referencing refers to the practice of acknowledging the sources of your ideas when you are writing assignments

Referencing refers to the practice of acknowledging the sources of your ideas when you are writing assignments, examinations, reports and other material associated with your unit of study . Writers need to show their awareness of previous and related research within the academic field. In some disciplines, essays and research papers have a designated part for previous research, whereas such acknowledgements may be given anywhere in the text in other disciplines (citation). In academic writings the writer should acknowledge previous research in their fields, by referring to previous relevant studies, when writers present opposing views within the field they must give a clear background information on the topic. In doing this, they also provide a basis for their own argument.
Referencing is mainly done to prevent plagiarism. Plagiarism is a form of intellectual dishonesty and in academic work is considered to be cheating. CQ University regards plagiarism as a serious offence and it can have serious consequences for you as a student. Referencing and citations are not used simply to avoid plagiarism; they have other important roles too. Referencing allows you to acknowledge the contribution of other writers and researcher in your work. Any university assignments that draw on the ideas, words or research of other writers must contain citations. Referencing is also a way to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and idea
Referencing is an important part of writing at university(academic writing) because it adds to the shared knowledge of all involved in an academic area. Using others’ ideas in your academic writing without appropriate acknowledgement is regarded as a form of intellectual dishonesty.
In referencing proper citation allows readers to locate the materials you used. Citations to other sources helps readers expand their knowledge on a topic. In most social sciences disciplines, one of the most effective strategies for locating authoritative, relevant sources about a topic is to follow footnotes or references from known sources “citation tracking”.
Citing other people’s words and ideas indicates that you have conducted a thorough review of the literature on your topic and, therefore, you are operating from an informed perspective. This increases your credibility as the author of the work.
Other researcher’s ideas can be used to reinforce your arguments, or, if you disagree with them, can act as positions from which to argue an alternative viewpoint. In many cases, another researcher’s arguments can act as the primary context from which you can emphasize a different viewpoint or to clarify the importance of what you are proposing.
Just as other researcher’s ideas can bolster your arguments and act as evidence for your ideas, they can also detract from your credibility if they are found to be mistaken or fabricated. Properly citing information not unique to you prevents your reputation from being tarnished if the facts or ideas of others are proven to be inaccurate or off-base.
Outside academe, ideas are considered intellectual property and there can serious repercussions if you fail to cite where you got an idea from. In the professional world, failure to cite other people’s intellectual property ruins careers and reputations and can result in legal action. Given this, it is important to get into the habit of citing sources.
Referencing also enhances your writing and assists your readers by: Showing the breadth of your research; Strengthening your academic argument; Demonstrating your understanding of academic requirements; Acknowledging and rewarding others for their contribution; Showing the readers the sources of your information; Allowing your readers to consult your sources independently and allowing readers to verify your information.
By using referencing appropriately you will avoid plagiarism, Plagiarism means taking and using the thoughts, writings, inventions and claiming someone else’s words or ideas as your own and using them as your own without acknowledging their source In your academic writing. W hich is, you will often need and be expected to draw on the ideas of others and sometimes to quote their exact words or copy their graphics.
The important thing to remember is that you must not attempt to pass these borrowed ideas and words off as your own. The presentation of your own work for more than one assessment, without acknowledgement and referencing is considered to be self-plagiarism. To avoid plagiarism, you must acknowledge the source of the ideas through an academically acceptable system of referencing.
You need to provide references to the work and ideas of other people in most forms of writing you do as part of your unit requirements. If referencing requirements are not made clear to you in your lectures, tutorials or unit materials, then you should check with your lecturer.
References must be provided whenever you use someone else’s opinions, theories, data or methods of organizing material. You need to reference information from books, journals, magazines, newspapers, videos, sound recordings, websites, lectures and personal communications – in fact any borrowed or adapted information, whichever medium it first occurs in.
A reference is required if you; Quote (use someone else’s exact words); Copy (use someone else’s figures, pictures, diagrams, tables or structure); Paraphrase or adapt (convert someone else’s ideas or artwork into your own words or design requirements); Summaries (use a brief account of someone else’s ideas)
Using the right sources in your work provides you with the supporting evidence you need in your assignment. Referencing is the acknowledgement of the sources that you use in your work. You must reference all sources that you use in your assignment, including words and ideas, facts, images, videos, audio, websites, statistics, diagrams and data.
Enables the reader to locate the sources referred to in your paper Researchers rely on referencing to locate sources. Supports and strengthens your argument An academic paper is a carefully constructed argument in the sense that you take a position on an issue and support it with evidence gathered from the sources you have read, to try to convince your readers.
Parker (1903) in his study suggests that references demonstrate the depth and the breadth of your reading they also demonstrates academic integrity thus, proper referencing ensures that you have acknowledged your sources and that you have done your best to avoid plagiarism – the use of other people’s words, ideas or materials without proper acknowledgement. Plagiarism can be intentional (deliberate cheating) or unintentional (happen accidentally). Academic misconduct – any act where the honesty, reliability or integrity of a work has been compromised – can incur serious penalties by the University.
Some referencing styles use footnotes (e.g. Oxford), while others require the name of the author(s) and year of publication in the body of the paper (e.g. Harvard and APA). Different units may use different referencing styles, so always check carefully which style is required for each of your assignments. When reading and taking notes, always write down the full details of the source (author/s, title, page number and other publication details). This will make the writing and referencing process much easier later on, and also help you to avoid accidentally copying and plagiarizing someone else’s work Chernin (1988)..
This site provides advice on the appropriate referencing style for your unit (select from CQ University referencing guides list at left), and gives guidelines for using each of the referencing styles. By acknowledging all sources that have been used in the preparation of a text, writers form part of the ongoing exchange of ideas and data that signifies the academic community. In fact, as linguist Ken Hyland (2004) has argued, “Appropriate textual practices are crucial to the acceptance of claims”. By this he means that the way we write is essential for the understanding of the research that we aim to present in our writing. Explicit reference to prior literature is a substantial indication of a text’s dependence on contextual knowledge and thus a vital piece in the collaborative construction of new knowledge between writers and readers.
The embedding of arguments in networks of references not only suggests an appropriate disciplinary orientation, but reminds us that statements are invariably a response to previous statements and are themselves available for further statements by others. In order for a text to function as such a “response to previous statements and to be available for further statements by others, it must follow the reference conventions of its discipline and of the type of text. In other words, writers need to conform to the tradition in which they write.
This is one reason why supervisors pay so much attention to formal aspects of academic essay writing. By teaching their students how a scholarly text is structured and in what manner references are given, supervisors guide them into the research community of their field.
Refferencing is a form of demonstrating that you have researched and you have knowledge on what you have written, it also shows that you are able to relate other people`s information to yours and come to a conclusion. By referencing in academic writing, one shows his/her ability to back up his/her arguments by valid and reliable sources.
Referencing allows you to acknowledge the contribution of other writers and researcher in your work. Any university assignments that draw on the ideas, words or research of other writers must contain citations. Relevant source in academic referencing speaks the language of your discipline and appropriate to the level you are writing.
Referencing is also a way to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas. By citing the work of a particular scholar you acknowledge and respect the intellectual property rights of that researcher. As a student (or an academic) you can draw on any of the millions of ideas, insights and arguments published by other writers, many of whom have spent years researching and writing. All you need to do is acknowledge their contribution to your assignment.
Referencing is a way to provide evidence to support the assertions and claims in your own assignments. By citing experts in your field, you are showing your marker that you are aware of the field in which you are operating. Your citations map the space of your discipline, and allow you to navigate your way through your chosen field of study, in the same way that sailors steer by the stars.
References should always be accurate, allowing your readers to trace the sources of information you have used. The best way to make sure you reference accurately is to keep a record of all the sources you used when reading and researching for an assignment. Citations also make your writing more persuasive.
References in academic writing have different functions. As Taylor (2002) states, References may be used as the ultimate authority upon which to base arguments. Alternatively, they may be a temporary authority whose validity you intend to challenge or they may be considered as obviously wrong. Herein lies the essence of comparison and contrast between the authors’ findings and those of others.
The “comparison and contrast” brought up by Taylor are key issues in referencing. In order to present their ideas and findings, writers have to discuss them in comparison or in contrast to previous research. A reference should always have a clear function and it must be relevant to the argument of the text
Printed books are not the only sources that require acknowledgement. ANY words, ideas or information taken from ANY source requires a reference. Reference when you are using words or ideas from: books and journal articles; newspapers and magazines; pamphlets or brochures; films, documentaries, television programs or advertisements; websites or electronic resources; letters, emails, online discussion forums; personal interviews; lecturers or tutors (not always necessary, but check with your lecturer or tutor about their preferences before you draw on their ideas). Referencing is also done when you reprint any diagrams, illustrations, charts or pictures.
Berry (2004) views as a backup mechanism used in academic writing. ). Depending on discipline, writers use different kinds of primary data to support their claims, and the use they make of such data will differ ( A research article within the fields of Medicine or Science will be backed up by clinical or experimental evidence (that is, evidence gathered and analysed for the study that is being reported). Similarly, a literary analysis will be backed up by textual evidence (that is, evidence from the text that is being analysed). As practices vary between disciplines, students are advised to consult their supervisors regarding appropriate ways of presenting primary data. The first paragraph may be just as interesting as the second, but within an academic context, a context that requires you to show from where you have taken ideas, the second has far more authority, it is more persuasive. It shows that the ideas you are discussing are matters that are important to your particular academic community.
Berry (2004) is of the view that, there is no need to reference when you are writing your own observations or experiment results (for example, a report on a field trip); when you are writing about your own experiences (for example, a reflective journal); when you are writing your own thoughts, comments or conclusions in an assignment; when you are evaluating or offering your own analysis; when you are using ‘common knowledge’ (facts that can be found in numerous places and are likely to be known by a lot of people) or folklore; when you are using generally accepted facts or information (this will vary in different disciplines of study. If in doubt, ask your tutor)
Pertaining to the assay above one can conclude to say, it is important to consider the relevance of the references that are being used. In the hope of showing everything that the writer has read, a common beginner’s mistake is to insert too many and, thereby, irrelevant references. A common kind of over-referencing occurs when references are given to facts that can be seen as common knowledge; if readers to whom the text is directed can be expected to know a general fact that is being stated in the text, no reference is needed. Consequently, writers need to be aware of the audience for which they are writing. In conclusion one should note that over-referencing does not strengthen the writer’s argument but may have the opposite effect!