Dr. Aseel Khalid Ahmed
Computer Science
Al Rafidain University College
[email protected][email protected]
This paper is an investigation meant to construct a framework to empower Radio Frequency ID (RFID) labels to be associated with the Internet, taking into thought their specialized impediments. In addition, this framework permits the tag to be exceptionally distinguished and spoken to as a correspondence substance to be ready to speak with different members, which will ease and rearrange the usage of the idea of “Internet of Things” in not so distant future. To assemble a framework fit for associating RFID labels to the Internet. The approaches received by different analysts are researched and dissected, which empowered the comprehension of the troubles and deficiencies of the RFID labels with connection the associating them to the Internet. The examination and examination has brought about building another framework that makes utilization of TCP/IP. The framework, worked in this paper , depends on the possibility of using the RFID labels as procedures (TCP forms) inside a host. Consequently, every procedure has a procedure ID or port number, which permits the different members to distinguish and speak with the tag through that process ID. This is accomplished through a worked in interpretation component, which interprets the genuine personality (ID) of the RFID tag to the new ID that can be recognized as TCP port number. In this paper, the test results demonstrate that the framework worked productively for the composed reason. The outcomes demonstrate that the actualized framework empowers RFID labels to be associated with the Internet and remarkably distinguished. Besides, it enables the labels to send and get information and directions outside the limit of the RFID framework, over the Internet, to also, from different members. The achievement of the framework will give chances to numerous specialists to actualize the idea of “Internet of Things”.

The wheel of innovation headway is in consistent movement. Consistently in
the 21st century, we witness the introduction of another development, plan or idea. These new creations will be meant new gadgets that we use in our day by day lives, for example, advanced cells, table PCs, music players. Likewise, the Internet speaks to the live nerve of the advanced innovation. Through the Internet we play out our every day individual organizations, for example, shopping, informing, paying bills, sponsorship and surfing sites. Subsequently the Internet is engaged with most detail of our life and we turn out to be more tried and true on it. The blend between Internet administrations and gadgets open the skyline for all the more new innovations and ideas. These ideas are dependable to frame highlights of our not so distant future. One of these critical concocted ideas is “the Internet of Things” idea. This idea centers around interfacing each protest on the planet to the Internet. At the point when, a protest can be associated with the Internet, it has the capacity to speak with different items. These articles could be anything, running from principle outline PCs to a little question with an incorporated circuit. This idea depended on the possibility that the Internet go about as the primary digital medium that takes into account the association of every one of these items. Notwithstanding, the scientist may confront numerous troubles in the usage of this idea. The confusion does not emerge from the Internet itself. Or maybe the troubles emerge from the articles that are to be associated with the Internet. A portion of these objects don’t be able to be associated with the Internet, because of the need of interior gadgets that consider association with the Internet. A gadget, for example, RFID label does not have the capacity to be associated with the Internet. This is on the grounds that the RFID labels need refinement in their outline. Or maybe the current outlines are shabby and little. Subsequently, if any specialist needs to actualize the “Internet of Things” idea, the most vital gadget to focus on it is the RFID labels. There are numerous advantages that can be picked up from interfacing RFID labels to the Internet. Typically RFID labels are utilized to recognize the articles connected to it. Be that as it may, when these labels can be associated with the Internet, it will be used to distinguish and track the items that are appended to it. These qualities can be utilized in numerous fields, it could be utilized in item fabricating, to track and distinguish the item status and the finish level of the fabricated item. Likewise, it could be utilized to track the shipments of the items and products between the fabricate and the providers. Besides, it could be utilized in transport fields, which can be used to, improve and increment the proficiency of open transport armada, checking the movement stream on the streets and track stolen autos. The utilizations of RFID labels are such a significant number of and it’s dispersed in a wide range of fields. The primary point of this exploration is to investigation every one of the obstructions that forestall RFID labels from being associated with the Internet. The past techniques utilized by different analysts who endeavored to associate the RFID labels to the Internet are explored. At last, the analyst endeavors to figure out how to empower the RFID labels to be associated with the Internet.

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Numerous sorts and kinds of RFID frameworks comprise of three fundamental parts that are appeared in (figure 1)1. The main segments, is the RFID label which is connected to a thing, and it is given an exceptional identifier (number) that called electronic item code (EPC) and data pertinent to the thing. Once in a while it might incorporate sensors. The second segments, is the RFID investigative specialist that is additionally called readers. The RFID investigative specialist has one particular occupation, which is to give and screen interchanges with the RFID labels. The last part is the backend framework. The backend framework interfaces the RFID examiners to the outside frameworks or applications, for example, brought together database or the Internet. The incorporated database contains extra data, for example, cost, for each RFID labeled thing.

Figure 1: RFID System Diagram
There are 4 general classes of the RFID labels.
A. passive.
B. Active.
C. Semi passive.
D. Semi active.

in passive labels do exclude an installed control source. It just comprises
of microchip and a reception apparatus as appeared in (figure 2) 2 Latent label draws control from another source, specifically the RFID readers 3. They get the required vitality for the activity from the RFID investigator cross examination flag (Radio flag produced by the reader ).

Figure 2: Passive RFID
At the point when the tag is inside scope of the radio recurrence field, the readers conveys electromagnetic waves which give capacity to the microchip
on the tag. At the point when the power level in the microchip achieves the base voltage necessity that enables it to work, the tag will send data back to the readers on similar waves 4. Figure 3demonstrates the working standards of latent RFID framework. The correspondence scope of latent RFID is confined in two different ways. Initially, is the requirement for extremely solid signs from the readers to be gotten by the tag to control the label microchip. Besides, is the remaining measure of intensity accessible for a tag to react to the readers. These confinements normally restrain Passive RFID activity to 3 meters or less, contingent upon the recurrence of task. Now and again the range might be as short as a couple of centimeters 5.

Figure 3: Working standards of Passive RFID framework
In Active RFID labels are the second biggest gathering of labels (after latent
labels) that are being used today. Dynamic labels have better microchips and
reception apparatus than the inactive labels. Likewise, they contain one of a kind identifiers together with different gadgets, for example, sensors. Dynamic labels have their own control source, which is a battery that used to control the chips inside the labels, likewise empowers the labels to react to a weaker flag from the readers 6 Dynamic labels are appeared in (figure 4) 7.

Figure 4: Active RFID
In Semi passive RFID Tags Semi-passive labels are normal detached labels, aside from that they have inner battery (figure 5) 8. Semi uninvolved labels utilize a locally available power source to control the controller or Integrated circuit. Likewise, they may contain extra gadgets, for example, sensors.

Figure 5: Semi-Passive
Semi active RFID Tags The semi-active labels have little batteries simply like the dynamic labels. The batteries keep the microchips ready influencing the labels to react 13 times quicker 91011. Semi dynamic RFID labels have a functioning transmitter, controlled by an inside power source. The inward power source empowers their transmission to be identified at a more noteworthy separation, or through more impedance than a semi inactive or aloof RFID tag. Semi dynamic RFID labels are valuable for following things in to a great degree boisterous situations that anticipate aloof or semi inactive labels from speaking with the readers1213. The nano Tag and burst switch is one case of a semi dynamic RFID tag, created by the University of Pittsburgh RFID Center of Excellence 14. These sorts of labels are still a work in progress.

The proposed framework has an indistinguishable fundamental segments from the other RFID framework. Also, the framework is associated with the Internet to empower it to send and get information and data to alternate members. The primary parts of the proposed framework as follow:
The RFID labels in the proposed framework are spoken to as procedures inside the host. Each tag has its own particular identifier which is composed in the EPC code detailing. This ID enables the tag and the readers to perceive and speak with each other. This is the standard working situation of the RFID framework. At the point when the information or data of the labels is sent over the Internet, the labels are never again spoken to as labels. Rather these labels are presently spoken to as procedures inside the host. Alternate members know the tag as a procedure of that specific host. Hence, it is associated with that procedure by utilizing the port number of that specific process. At last, every tag is known by its EPC number by the readers and it is known by the procedure number by alternate members over the Internet.
The readers in the proposed framework assumes a focal part in transmitting information starting with one source then onto the next. It does the common work of any RFID readers which is to perceive and to speak with the labels. On the other hand, the readers can associate with the Internet with the IP address. Along these lines, the readers will distinguish every one of the procedures inside it utilizing this IP address. In any case, with the blend of the IP address of the have and the procedure number of the tag, it enables any member to send what’s more, get information and data to the particular tag. At the end of the day, it enables the labels to be distinguished over the Internet. At long last, every one of the activities in address interpretation between EPC of the labels to the procedure number and versa bad habit is performed in the readers.
The middleware framework stores related information and data of the things that are connected to the labels. The information could be put away inside the tag, given the tag has the ability to store it. At times, the middleware framework plays out the obligations of the readers, which is to keep up correspondence with the outside world and to play out the interpretation instrument of the labels’ ID. This can happen when compact readers are utilized in the frameworks or when the readers does not have adequate memory to play out every one of the tasks by itself. RFID labels (forms)
The RFID labels in the proposed framework are spoken to as procedures inside the host. Each tag has its own particular identifier which is composed in the EPC code plan. This ID enables the tag and the readers to perceive and speak with each other. This is the standard working situation of the RFID framework. At the point when the information or data of the labels is sent over the Internet, the labels are never again spoken to as labels. Rather these labels are currently spoken to as procedures inside the host. Alternate members know the tag as a procedure of that specific host. In this manner, it is associated with that procedure by utilizing the port number of that specific process. At long last, every tag is known by its EPC number by the readers and it is known by the procedure number by alternate members over the Internet.
The execution of the idea “Internet of Things” depends on the wonder that any articles can be associated with the Internet. Not just can these items be associated with the Internet, yet they can likewise speak with different questions over the Internet. This idea is actualized in the proposed framework whereby alternate members can be any question as long as they can be associated with the Internet and they can speak with different questions over the Internet. The items incorporate PC, host, sensor or even a RFID tag). There are two principle qualities of alternate members. To begin with, it ought to be able to play out the interpretation instrument. Second, it ought to be able to actualize the correspondence convention. With these qualities, any protest can be associated and can trade information and data effectively with the proposed framework over the Internet.

The rule of the proposed working framework is partitioned into two fundamental stages. It is basic to comprehend working standards. The primary stage portrays the activities performed in the other member and how the information is sent to the have. The second stage clarifies the activities and the means on how the information is prepared in the host (readers) and is detest to the objective procedure (tag). The main stage starts when the outside PC (other member) attempts to send information to the objective tag. The outside PC needs to play out a few tasks before it can send the information to its goal. The first task begin is to interpret the EPC code of the tag to another 16 Bits address called the procedure number by utilizing the interpretation component. The process number is utilized to guide the information to the objective procedure (tag) in the goal have. The second activity is the TCP layer header which contains the procedure number in the field of the port number, is epitomized with information that is should have been conveyed. The exemplified frame called portions. In the third activity, these sections are embodied with the header of the Internet layer which it contains the IP address of the goal have. The information is presently exemplified with the headers of system layer and is called information parcels. At long last, these bundles are and dined to the Internet. Figure 6 show arrange one of proposed working guideline.
Figure 6: part one of proposed working principle
The second stage begins when the data packet reaches the destination host.

During this stage, the data packet can be treated in two different ways. The first method is based on separation of the data packet depending on the size of the packet itself. The size of the data packet of the active tags is much bigger than the size of the data packet of the passive tags.
The difference in size is because the passive tags do not have a large amount of data to send and receive. The types of data the passive tags controls are only instructions such as read, write and kill. On the contrary, the types of data the active tags controls include instructions and/or information. Such data which can be information about a product needs to be stored inside the tag memory.

Hence, these tags are bigger in size. After the data packets are separated into the respective categories, the next decision is the choice of the operations. Different operations are performed on different data packets depending on the tag types (passive or active).

After identifying the data packet depending on the size of the packet, the data packet with the smaller size (passive data packet) is processed inside the reader itself. The process begins when the host (reader) starts to open the encapsulation of the data packets until it reaches the TCP layer. At that level, it will extract the data and the address of the destination process (tag) which is the process number of this particular data. Next, the host performs the address translation mechanism on the process number whereby the 16 Bits address is transformed to its original form of 64Bits – 256 Bits. Finally, the host executes the instructions such as read, write or kill of that particular process. Refer to (figure 7) for the main operation of passive data packets. In the case where the data or information about the tag, is requested to be sent back to the other participant, the host will perform all the previous operations but in a backwards sequence. However, in some cases it may need additional data about the product that is attached to the tag.
This additional data may be stored outside the host (reader) in another middleware system. The host will request for the required data from the middleware system before it begins the operation sequence.

Figure 7: The operation of passive data packets
The operation performed on the active RFID data packets is different from the operation that is performed on the data packets of passive tags. After the host (reader) has checked the size of the packet and separated the active packets from the passive packets, the active data packets are sent or directed to the tag itself. The operations of opening the encapsulation, translating address and execution of the instruction are performed in the tag itself. The active data packets are sent to the tag for processing, because the active tags have sufficient memory and processing power to execute these operations. Moreover, the active RFID tags have the capacity to implement the smaller version of the communication protocol, such as UTP protocol to perform the needed operations to receive and assemble the data packets. In this case, the host plays the role of a router to route the data packet to its destinations. Refer to (figure 8) for the main operation of active data packets16.

Figure 8: The operation of active data packets
However, one disadvantage of this method is the reader has to send these packets using the broadcasting method. This means, every active tag will open the encapsulation of the packet. Only when the correct/target tag reaches the packet, it will send acknowledgement to the reader. Otherwise, the reader will send a message to inform about error to the source. The second method is based on the ID of the tag itself. In this method, the reader performs all the operations of opening the encapsulation and translating the address of all received data packets (passive and active).

After that, the reader will execute the instruction belonging to that particular tag. This method is similar to the method of operation of the passive data packets. In all the proposed methods, the source must receive an acknowledgment from the host informing that the data has reached its destination and the instructions have been executed correctly. Otherwise, the source will receive a message from the host about an error in the completion of the execution.

After the system operations and the main translation mechanism of the system have been established, it is time to test the ability of the system to connect the RFID tags to the Internet, by using six different RFID tags of two main categories (Passive and Active). The tags are listed in (table 1), which shows the tag types and the EPC number of each tag used in the test.

Table 1: Testing RFID tags and its EPC code
The testing of the system is divided into two main stages. Each stage discusses and explains the modifications that occur to the form of the tag identifier or the EPC code. Also, each stage provides the description of the type of instructions that will be sent and received by both the source and destination host.

A Stage one
In stage one, the data is sent to the host from an external host. The data is in request form, which requests the host to perform a particular operation on the processes inside it, and to give a response to the external host. The process starts when an external host sends a request to the host about a particular process inside it, in the form of instructions with the process ID to the host. But before, the external host can make a request; it needs to change the form of the EPC code of the tag so that the request can be sent over the Internet. This step is performed by using the translation mechanism mentioned earlier. This mechanism will convert the identity of the tag from its original (96 Bits) in hexadecimal to the new identity in decimal in three phases. In the first phase, it will convert the EPC code from the form of hexadecimal numbers to binary numbers. The second phase, requires begin translation mechanism to choose 16 Bits of the generated binary numbers by using the schema (0, 0, 5, and 11).

The numbers in the schema refer to 0 Bit from the header field, 0 Bits from EPC manager field, 5 Bits from object class field, and 11 Bits from serial number field. In this way, a 16 Bits binary number is formed, which is ready to be used. In the third phase, the 16 Bits binary number is transformed to decimal number so that it can be injected in to the destination port field of the TCP header of the communication protocol (the third phase is used for demonstrative purposes only in the simulation system)15. Finally, the data which represent the request instructions will be encapsulated with the new ID of the tag (process) and sent to the host. All the operations results are summarized in (table 2).

Table 2: RFID tag types, IDs and the requested instructions

Table 2 also shows the results of the test of the proposed system. At the top of the table the destination IP address is shown. There is only one IP address because in the test of this study all the tags (processes) are connected to one reader (host). As such, all the processes work in one host under the same IP address. The columns in the table indicate the respective fields. The first column represents the number of scenarios that is tested in the proposed system. The second column shows the type of the tag (passive or active) used to test the system. The third column shows the original identity of the tag, which is in 96 Bits in hexadecimal numbers. The fourth column shows the ID of the tag in binary number of 16 Bits. The fifth column shows the new ID of the tag in decimal. The new ID will be used by the external host to make its request to the destination host regarding specified process. Also, it will be used by the host to
recognize and identify the process inside it.In In addition, the new ID allows the execution of requested instruction from the external host that is related to the specified process and the sending of the response to the source. Finally, the last column contains the specific requests that are required to perform on that specific tag (process). When the external host launches the data packet to the Internet in order that the data reaches its destination (Host), the second stage takes place.

BStage two
Stage Two begins when the data packets which are sent by the external host reaches its destination or the (Host). When this packet reaches its destination, the host will perform the operations of opening the encapsulation of the packet. Unfortunately, the host received the ID of the target process in the form of decimal number. Meanwhile, the host (reader) already has a list of ID’s of the tags from the translation mechanism that performs translation on the ID’s of the tags (processes) that are within its range.
The ID’s of the tags are stored in an internal table inside the reader memory. Therefore, when the ID of the target process is received by the host, it will perform a simple process of comparing the received ID with the ID in its internal table. If the received ID matches the ID in the internal table, the host will proceed with the execution of the requested instruction. When the host completes the execution of the requested instruction, it will send a response to the source (external host).

This response could be an acknowledgement, data or information related to the tag (process) that the source has enquired about. On the contrary, if the target ID is not found in the internal table, the host sends a message to the source (external host) to inform about an error response. Table 3 shows the available tags in this host with the tag type, the tag ID in hexadecimal and the tag ID in decimal.

Table 3: Available tags in the range of the host (reader).

From the analysis of the results, it can be seen that the system worked according to instructions in the correct manner. Despite the response type, the system always returned a response to the external host and executed the requested instructions of the external host. Therefore, it can be conclude that
the system performed the internal operations and the designed mechanisms with reliability and integrity.

The proposed system has successfully created a communication channel between the RFID tags and the external host (user). This system has
achieved the main goal of its design and implementation which is connecting the RFID tags to the Internet under the concept of “Internet of Thing”.

The concept “Internet of Things” is a revolutionary concept. This concept may open doors to change our habits and the present way we do the things. This concept focuses on connecting every object in the world to the Internet.

Therefore, the RFID tags must be connected to the Internet for they are small in size, cost effective and environmental friendly. However, there are some specifications in the RFID tags that do not meet the minimum requirement in the connection to the Internet. For that reason, the researcher proposed a new system design, to enable the RFID tags to be connected to the Internet. Also, the system enables the remote user to communicate with these tags as independent objects. The processes of the proposed system have undergone many phases before the processes were able to fulfill the requirements of connecting the RFID tags to the Internet. These phases took off with the proposal of a new idea, which is completely different from any other ideas used by other researchers for connecting the tags. Later, an analysis of the problem led to the designing of a new system that is based on the results of the analysis. Finally, the implementation of the system includes testing it with several scenarios with different types of tags.

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