INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 4

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 4.0
The era we are living in is commonly known as industry 4.0. It is also referred as the fourth industrial revolution. It has made living smarter. So we can call it as ‘smart factory’. It gives an image of digitalization of economic flow of future industrial state. This revolution allows the bots to interact with production flows as intellectually as humans do. In this perspective machines or bots are provided with a privilege to interact with each other also. The tech race is becoming faster as we’re heading towards future. Systems will be safer and fool proof in future than present. As everything is based on some conceptions or bases, there are nine pillars of this fourth Industrial Revolution. They are:
Autonomous robots
Simulation
Horizontal and vertical system integration
The Industrial Internet of Things
Cybersecurity
The cloud
Additive Manufacturing
Augmented reality
Big data and analytics
The picture given below will show the link of these nine parts with order.

Image from: https://www.engineering.com/AdvancedManufacturing/ArticleID/13683/Marriage-of-Industry-40-and-PLM-Could-Produce-Ugly-Children.aspxReference for above pillars: https://blog.lectra.com/article/inside-lectra/697-nine-pillars-industry-40The point we want to discuss is the role of future operator regarding this revolution. Where will humans stand after this revolution in future? What would be the criteria for humans to stand and compete the economic race in future according to this revolution? What skills would be common among people in this coming era of industry 4.0?
Let’s consider an example of fourth Industrial Revolution in parts manufacturing industry. We are going to discuss the role of Operator 4.0 in parts manufacturing industry. Let us consider the nine parts and discuss them in a queue.

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Autonomous robots
Autonomous robots are referred to as the independence working of robots. In future robots will need no more human actions all the time for their working instead they are designed in such a way that they will work independently and intellectually like humans. There are a lot of such things robots can easily do what humans can’t. No doubt they are designed by humans but they are designed to reduce the human work, stress and tension. They are more cooperative to things and can easily interact with themselves and operators to perform tasks. They are designed in such a way that they are given human qualities and they learn every time from humans. They are made to do the repetitive task without any stress unlike humans. In the coming future the labor is going to be replaced by bots so that the results would be fast and efficient.
Let us consider the autonomy of robots in automobile parts manufacturing company.

The robots that operate in automobile part manufacturing industry are made in a sense that they are smart enough to interact with each other by performing specific actions to work on different parts. In 2013 Ford Escape, an automobile company introduced the new concept of “eyes” in robots arm. The laser and camera was placed on robot wrist, in this manner they were awarded with the ability to see like humans and were able to install the required part on the specific part of car body.

Here the autonomy of robots were not dependent on humans then. They were to make the perfect choice of installation of part on specific point on body. This effort reduced the human work to a limited version. They were not supposed to stand before robots all the time. This feature helped robots to place the doors and fenders on exactly right places. The big innovation of this technology is that the industrial robots are now quite sensible to install automobile parts. This feature also helped to reduce the noise caused by wind by installing parts closer to each other and by removing gaps between them.

REFRENCE OF FORD ESCAPE COMPANY: https://blog.robotiq.com/bid/69722/Top-5-Robotic-Applications-in-the-Automotive-IndustryA time will come that robots will be known as working humans. In that perspective the role of humans would be more interesting. The question is where will human stand in that phase where robots will be more intellectual and productive even without collaboration of humans? This point is important because human has designed robot and how will a man make machine compete man? None the less, with the time when robots will be smart, to stand by them and to prove humans superior to robots, humans need to be smarter then. If they will not, they will consider to be like a spare and idle as bulb lightening in sunshine, which never gets importance until sunsets.

Reference of 1: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf;h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gAnd
https://blog.lectra.com/article/inside-lectra/697-nine-pillars-industry-402. Simulation
Whenever product is manufactured, it is made to produce more productivity and it is made more efficient to meet future changes. Discrete Event Simulation optimizes product by modeling every single step of manufacturing. Currently simulation is used in materials and product process in the engineering phase but in the upcoming future, the use of simulation will be extensive. More instantly it will be used in plant operations too. The real time software will be used which will transform physical appearance of things like machines, products and humans into virtual reality. Before the revolution in physical world, the machines will be optimized in such a way that operators will queue the upcoming product in virtual reality. This will boost the quality of products and the setup of machines will decrease in this manner.

When failure of products happens on a large scale due to breakdown of equipment or natural calamities, Discrete Event Simulation provides the documentary on how loss happened and what was its impact on production. Then it helps in generating a feasible solution.

The main benefit of Discrete Event Simulation in Industry 4.0 is that it maintains production costs and quality under any circumstances.

Reference of Discrete Event Simulation: https://www.simio.com/blog/tag/industry-4-0-simulationLet us take an example of virtual machine in windows 10. Using virtual machine, the physical memory used by Ubuntu does not exactly exists but it uses the device storage virtually to undergo operations. This has reduced the memory distribution in a wave manner. This also enhanced efficiency by creating two software to work virtually at a time but physically there exists only one.

Also Siemens and a German machine-tool vendor developed a virtual machine that can simulate the machining of parts using data from the physical machine. This lowers the setup time for the actual machining process by as much as 80 percent.

REFRENCE OF 2: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf;h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gAnd
https://blog.lectra.com/article/inside-lectra/697-nine-pillars-industry-403. Horizontal and Vertical System Integration
The era we are now living in, is not so much integrated. The production companies are not attached with their customers and suppliers all the time. They are linked with each other scarcely. The companies are not closely linked with the shops to whom they supply their products. Even in engineering complete integration lacks. This is major drawback of present industrial situation.
But in future, the companies with Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0 will not suffer from these drawbacks. Also not only companies and their departments, but functions, suppliers and customers will be fully integrated with each other. Cross companies and universal data integration networks will exhibit strong chains of automation. This will help in enabling the real time response and the value of analytics and decision making will be decentralized. None the less products will be connected through standard protocols.

Moving on to the example of SALINE LECTRONICS. To avail the reference designator, they provided the facility of full transparency for the implementation of COGISCAN’s “Track, Trace, and Control” system throughout the production facility. The benefit of this system is that it provides clear understanding of materials and real time data of work in progress. It also provided its customers with better quality of deliverables. The enhancement in this efficiency was due to COGISCAN.

Reference of SALINE LECTRONICS:
https://www.lectronics.net/horizontal-integration-industry-4-0/Let us consider another example of DASSAULT SYSTEMS and BOOST AEROSPACE introduced a joint platform for the defense and aerospace industries of Europe. This platform of Air design provides service on a private cloud and also provided platform of workspace for design and manufacturing collaboration. It handles and reduce the complexity of exchanging product and production data among multiple partners.

Reference of Image:
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Vertical-and-horizontal-integration-under-Industry-40-graphic-by-VDI-Wissensforum_fig2_279201790Reference of 3 and DASSAULT SYSTEMS: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf&h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gAnd
https://blog.lectra.com/article/inside-lectra/697-nine-pillars-industry-404. The Industrial Internet of Things
In present, the machines and sensors we are using are interconnected and they take benefits from embedded computer system. Basically they are developed in automation of vertical pyramid where sensors are made to feed into a comprehensive manufacturing process systems with limited intelligence and automation controls.

But in future in Industry 4.0 the Internet of Things, the devices with unfinished products too will be connected across each other using standard technologies. Also they will be provided the full access of embedded computing. This will allow the field devices to link with each other with full ease and with more authority of controls as mandatory part. Like Simulations, the real time responses will be enabled here and also it will decentralize analytics and decision making.

Here consider an example of dive and control system vendor BOSCH REXROTH. With the help of semi-automated and decentralized production process, for valves, he equipped the production facility. Radio frequency identification codes will be used for the identification of products and workstations were smart enough to distinguish whether which manufacturing steps must be to needed perform for each product.

Reference of 4 and BOSCH REXROTH : https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf&h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gAnd
https://blog.lectra.com/article/inside-lectra/697-nine-pillars-industry-405. CYBER SECUIRITY
Now a days the systems we use are closed and not connected operational management systems. Currently we lack in communication and connectivity, but if we talk about Industry, the reliable and rapid increase in connectivity will provide security against the increasing threats of cybercrime. The cybercrime is becoming a great issue for systems security. As a result, secure and reliable modes of communication provided by sophisticated means of identity and access machines proves to be essential in this case.

In this perspective if we flash back to last year, the cyber security companies were crowded with the vendors of several manufacturing execution systems.

Reference of 5: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf&h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gAnd
https://blog.lectra.com/article/inside-lectra/697-nine-pillars-industry-406. The Cloud
The clouds are also used in present but they are not much efficient and faster as they should be. As clouds software is our need to share data for some enterprise and analytics forums. But if we consider Industry 4.0 in this case, the sharing of data across different sites and companies will increase in turn according to need in future.

As far as efficiency of clouds software is concerned, with the passage of time we are noticing a great increase in speed. So in the coming future the speed and efficiency of clouds will improve and reaction time will decrease to milliseconds. The Manufacturing Execution Systems which are based on cloud stored data, will undergo increase in their development in a great number. In this way clouds will undergo increase in their size and efficiency. Manufacturing Execution Systems is one the highlighted companies which have initiated to offer cloud based solutions.

Reference of 6: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf&h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gAnd
https://blog.lectra.com/article/inside-lectra/697-nine-pillars-industry-407. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
The companies in present, produce components which additive manufacturing like involve 3D painting and unit production. But if we move to Industry 4.0 the scope of these additive methods will enhance in a wide manner. These methods will be adopted for the production of small batches of customized products like complex and light weight designs. The main advantage of additive manufacturing is that it will reduce the use of transport and inventory management cost.

The usage of additive manufacturing in practical is quite very efficient. The aerospace companies use this technique to decrease the weight of aircraft and their expenses of raw materials as use of raw materials like titanium metal increases the cost to high amount.

Reference of 7: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf&h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gAnd
https://blog.lectra.com/article/inside-lectra/697-nine-pillars-industry-408. Augmented Reality
Augmented reality based systems are made to provide facility to operators. They support a wide range of services like selecting parts in a warehouse and sending repair instructions over mobile devices. In this present era, these augmented reality based systems are at their early stages. But as we are heading to Industry 4.0 we will notice an increase in the use of these systems. Their use will provide benefit in decision making and working processes by providing their workers with real time information.

For instance, for the replacement of particular part, workers will receive repair instructions. This information will be directly displayed in worker’s sight using augmented reality glasses.

Reference of 8: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf;h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gAnd
https://blog.lectra.com/article/inside-lectra/697-nine-pillars-industry-409. BIG DATA AND ANALYTICS
In the present industrial era, there is huge amount of untapped data. It works to optimize production quality, energy saving and the improvement in the equipment used during services. But if we talk about Industry 4.0, the basic goal to achieve is to allow the use of real time decision making. All the data collection and comprehensive use of sources will support real time decision making in this perspective.

Take a practical example of INFENION TECHNOLOGIES, the manufacturers of semiconductors, diagnosed their product failure by testing single chip data where wafer status phase was captured earlier in data process. So by using this technique they made their production quality better by identifying patterns that were discharging the chips early in the production process.

Reference of 9: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf;h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gAnd
https://blog.lectra.com/article/inside-lectra/697-nine-pillars-industry-40Statistics of Impact of Industry 4.0
The stuff mentioned above represents the nine layers of Industry 4.0. Now we move towards the impact of Industry 4.0 in different areas of world. Moving on the point of German Manufacturing Industry, the Industry 4.0 is providing clear benefits. We will list four of them.

Productivity
Revenue Growth
Employment
Investment
Productivity
In the upcoming five to ten years of Industry 4.0, the German Manufacturing Sector will witness a boost increase in production from €90 billion to €150 billion. Excluding the cost of the material, the productivity improves on conversion costs in the range of 15 to 25 percent. After that when we include the material costs the productivity outcome of 5 to 8 percent will be achieved. These improvements varies from industry to industry. The achievement of Industrial component manufacturers undergo the improvements in productivity by 20 to 30 percent. In this perspective consider an example of automotive companies, which noticed an increase from 10 to 20 percent. This fact could be easy to understand by the graph given below.

Reference of image: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf;h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gRevenue growth
Industry 4.0 will bring a change in the requirements of manufacturers and consumers. Manufacturers will demand for new optimized applications and the consumers more customized products. It will enhance the growth revenue up to €30 billion a year, which equals 1 percent of German’s GDP.
Reference of 2: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf&h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gEmployment
Industry 4.0 marked an increase of 6 percent in employment of German’s manufacturing Industries in the upcoming ten years. In mechanical engineering sector the increase in employments is ten percent during same time. As with time, the equipment are getting smarter, the demand of skilled employs will also increase. The labors with low skills will be ruled out due to hard and fast competition. The experts in software and IT technologies will be preferred. The graph given below will clear the understanding regarding the impact of Industry 4.0 on the employment of German Manufacturing Companies.

Reference of above image and 3: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf;h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gInvestment
As the Industry 4.0 is increasing with hard and fast rate, the investors will increase their investment by € 250 billion in the upcoming next ten years. As we have discussed earlier the revenue growth, the figures mentioned above in investment equals 1 to 1.5 percent of revenue growth of German Manufacturers.

Reference of 4: https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inovasyon.org%2Fpdf%2Fbcg.perspectives_Industry.4.0_2015.pdf;h=ATNndOZHpxNmTWHppqQve2WAOfCHN4P8lVjLOMO7SG7s4HSGdm56YhY3X6yosVDKJTWurr7PFvH9_eEtTMPSHypQvU8Eii455APFRqjdI7n2oVPZP1gThe Impact of Industry 4.0 on WORLD
The stats we discussed above were based on the remark of Industry 4.0 on Germany but we talk about on a general note, then we will see that in Industry 4.0, the Artificial Intelligence will play a vital role to affect the statistics of world before and after Industry 4.0. It is generating new sets of production that will provide a great relief to our lives.

This fact cannot be denied that Industry 4.0 will leave a clear impact on jobs because artificial intelligence is making our lives so easy to handle. It will do the same thing as we witnessed 20 years ago when Internet was introduced in the world. The artificial intelligence will alter the way of employment by transforming old fashioned jobs into the new ones. This will help in driving the economic growth in better way. The operators will be then provided with a platform of more creativity and collaboration to solve the complex problems which may not be suitable for machines to do so.

Featuring all these new inventions, the fourth Industrial Revolution will not support the operators which are less literate and are not capable of being so smart to handle the new inventions of Industry 4.0. it is crystal clear that only skilled people will be the main focus of most business men and owners of production companies who want to explore their business with the upcoming world. This create a mark of race in the life that everyone will go for the talented skills to remain in the race as the new inventions come further.

Reference of impact of Industry 4.0 on World: https://trailhead.salesforce.com/en/modules/impacts-of-the-fourth-industrial-revolution/units/understand-the-impact-of-the-fourth-industrial-revolution-on-society-and-individualsDecreasing number of Humans from Industry, A layer of fear for humanity
Out of all the researches we have made so far about Industry 4.0, we have seen that robots are so much in the Industry that they have become the part of living. In Europe, robots are replacing humans and the humans who were living on their labor are no more necessary for the companies because robots are restless and they can work with more accuracy as compare to human beings. The robots are increasing so rapidly in number that there is fear that humans will be wiped out of the Industry in the few upcoming years. This will provide a huge benefit to owners but the employs who were earning their living will suffer a lot. No doubt robots were invented by human beings for dividing the their effort but the fact we want to consider that human beings should not be ruled out due to increasing numbers of robots in Industry. Out of all we should keep such changes in skills of human beings that robots and human beings could work all together for the betterment of Industry. The decreasing number of human beings in Industry will leave a bad impact on the morality of human beings and the basic concept of this world, “support humanity” will find no space be there for humans. So in order to respect humanity and not to destroy their living, steps should be taken to make the involvement of human beings in Industry irrespective of increasing number of robots. Robots may be more powerful than human beings but this fact cannot be denied that robots cannot feel or sense the way human beings do. This is the best and most reasonable difference between human beings and robots. Regarding these differences human beings should work with robots by applying appropriate skills.

Revolution in ALI BABA after arrival of Industry4.0
Here I would like to quote the example of Ali Baba after the arrival of Industry 4.0. The owner of Ali Baba JACK MA has threatened the human beings after the arrival of Industry 4.0. He said that Artificial Intelligence will become a big threat for the existence of human beings in the Industry.

During World Economic Forum (WEF) summit at Davos, the owner of Ali Baba, Jack MA said that robots are going to kill a lot of jobs because the work humans used to do, will be covered by robots now. Machines will do the same stuff which humans were meant to do. The exact words of JACK MA on this perspective were,
“The AI, Big Data is a threat to human beings. The AI and robots are going to kill a lot of jobs, because in the future, these will be done by machines”.

After this, he released a statement in the favor of human beings. This time he said that no doubt the new technologies are coming but it does not mean that humans should be ignored totally. The technology was invented by human beings so technology should support human beings rather to make them jobless. In this regard his exact words were,
“I think AI should support human beings. Technology should always do something that enables people, not disable people”.

Further he talked about the responsibilities of huge technological robots, he then appreciated the work of GOOGLE, FACEBOOK, AMAZON and none the less his own company ALI BABA. He further talked about his responsibilities and contributed that whatever they are doing is doing for the best and secure future. In this regard his words are,
“But we have the responsibility to have a good heart, and do something good. Make sure that everything you do is for the future,”
No doubt that Ali Baba is in the list of one of largest Internet companies of world. It is on number six in this regard. Jack Ma then raised the voice for the decreasing human beings in the industry. He wished to empower and enable people more likely than previous eras. Because technology should support people and make them enable to live a happy and stress less life. His exact words are,
“People like us have the money and resources and we should spend money on technology that enables people, empowers people and makes life better”
In the end he put light on the major issues caused by technology in past. Whenever new technology was introduced, it rose like a crisis socially. He put down his quotation for that crisis as,
“The first technology revolution caused the World War I and the second technology revolution caused the World War II and now we have the third revolution. If there is a World War III, I think that should be against disease, pollution and poverty, not against ourselves,”
At the last he declared women as an essential wing of any industry and he also figured out that 37 percent of women are working in ALI BABA.

Reference of ALI BABA:
https://www.thenewsminute.com/article/artificial-intelligence-big-threat-humans-alibaba-founder-jack-ma-75308This is on the serious note that if technology like artificial intelligence will rule the industries, the humans will be of no value. To remove this factors what steps should be taken to ensure the presence of human beings in the industry along with machines. Why both human beings and machines could not work together for the betterment of economy? To every problem there is always some solution. The solution is for this problem I suggest is the installation of those skills in human beings which may help them to stand powerful against machines and help them to operate machines as they are the one who invented them.

In this perspective, I have made a best mixture of human beings and robots which may be a part of Industry 4.0 at the same time in the coming future.

HUBOTS:
What is meant by the word HUBOTS? It sounds quite good to hear but when we move towards the meanings of this words, we will come to know about an interesting fact that that robots and human beings combine to make HUBOTS. It the mixture of human beings and robots to work in collaboration for the industry. In this way the human side will not get ignorance any more as they were expecting after the arrival of Industry 4.0. The perfect definition of HUBOTS is as under,
“The unique combination of humans and robots in such a smart way that both will be able to optimize the manufacturing processes and their operations more efficiently, accurately and effectively than the service they provide after working on processes individually and separately.”
More precisely we can define HUBOTS in simple and easy language. Here we want to make humans capable of handling robots so precisely that they could not be ignored. HUBOTS are basically humans with such gadgets and devices which may be help them to stand on a higher note than robots. Some of the features that will make humans a HUBOT will be represented below but before that we want to clear our view for HUBOTS in other words as,
“That operators who will operate the new robotic inventions of Industry 4.0 will transform from human to HUBOTS.”
We can also call the HUBOTS as future operators of Industry 4.0. How will these HUBOTS work? What are their skills? Everything will be mentioned below in different types of HUBOTS as:
Smart Operator
Collaborative Operator
Augmented Reality Operator
Virtual Reality Operator
Super Robot
Protective Operator
Friendly Operator
Simple Robot
Smart Operator
The smart operator will really act like smarter one. He is the one who will handle smart devices like I pad, tablets, smart phones and other smart devices. He will definitely examine the orders and deliverables according to his job. His basic job is to receive orders and transfer them forward to other related operators.

Reference of image:
https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=smart+operator+industry+4.0;rlz=1C1CHZL_enPK786PK786;source=lnms;tbm=isch;sa=X;ved=0ahUKEwi4r-vhh6TbAhXTe30KHTGjAXEQ_AUICigB;biw=1600;bih=745#imgrc=FSC5kc0C7wqPuM:
Collaborative operator
The collaborative operator will work with the collaboration of robot as clear from the name. Such operator will manage the robot with controls and check the product lines. There will be a control box in the operators hand and robot will work automatically according to the requirements of HUBOT or collaborative operator. This feature will help in examining the product lines for any kind of ambiguities in the finished product.

Augmented Reality Operator
This operator may have some different appearance from the other ones. In this case, operator will wear the augmented glasses to undergo some tasks. Some of the manufacturing tasks involve such things which cannot be easy to understand without augmented glasses. Augmented glasses used for the support of shop floor operators in the manufacturing industry.

Reference of Image:
https://www.google.com.pk/search?rlz=1C1CHZL_enPK786PK786;biw=1600;bih=745;tbm=isch;sa=1;ei=waYJW_mkCYbfU9jboLgE;q=augmented+glasses;oq=augmented+glasses;gs_l=img.3..0j0i8i30k1l9.15247.18111.0.18485.11.11.0.0.0.0.527.1672.2-5j5-1.6.0….0…1c.1.64.img..5.6.1668…0i67k1.0.Oey8LRVp7Ik#imgrc=xCFd75uJS2JIJM:
Virtual Reality Operator
Here the operator may look like the one who wears augmented glasses. The Virtual Reality (VR) Operator will wear VR glasses.

Reference of Image: https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=virtual+reality+operator;rlz=1C1CHZL_enPK786PK786;source=lnms;tbm=isch;sa=X;ved=0ahUKEwjJup-X_qPbAhXECuwKHSf_CCwQ_AUICygC;biw=1600;bih=794#imgrc=M4W08czYggDIrMLike you see in the image, the operator is playing some game while wearing VR glasses. VR glasses provide reality touch for the person who wears it.

Super Robot
Super robot may define the meanings of HUBOTS as super robot is the combination of human and powerful robot made of iron. We can call it as iron man. It will help in completing those tasks which require hard and bulk transfer of things from one place to another. The best example for Super Robot is CRANE. The operator operates that iron robot to shift heavy things from one place to another.

Reference of image: https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=super+robot+in+industry4.0;rlz=1C1CHZL_enPK786PK786;source=lnms;tbm=isch;sa=X;ved=0ahUKEwjfrcqQh6TbAhUbfSsKHXIyBXcQ_AUICigB;biw=1600;bih=745#imgrc=OPt0JsrVDZCKmM:
Protective Operator
The Protective Operator is the one who interacts with the smart watch. Here the operator operates all the manufacturing processes with his smart watch. Here the difference between smart operator and protective operator is the difference of gadget. In this case smart watch replaces tablets or I pads.

Reference of image: https://www.google.com.pk/search?rlz=1C1CHZL_enPK786PK786;biw=1600;bih=745;tbm=isch;sa=1;ei=wbQJW5TDLpbc9QON4ayYDA;q=a+man+operating+with+smart+watch+in+industry;oq=a+man+operating+with+smart+watch+in+industry;gs_l=img.3…15310.18854.0.19792.12.12.0.0.0.0.345.1842.0j6j2j1.9.0….0…1c.1.64.img..3.0.0….0.NQEEuTMMcjM#imgrc=j3mdsJtiz_BHWM:
Friendly Operator
This operator is the one who wears a combination of head phones and glasses on a same time. This may help to examine the manufacturing parts that includes audible and visual analysis. His basic task is to examine the validity of order received. To check if there is any ambiguity or errors are expected or not. Consider the following image,

Reference of image:
https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=operator+that+wears+glasses+and+headphones++in+industry+4.0;rlz=1C1CHZL_enPK786PK786;source=lnms;tbm=isch;sa=X;ved=0ahUKEwj81ua_kaTbAhVCbFAKHcc7AJYQ_AUICigB;biw=1600;bih=745#imgrc=Q2fqIxYgyc13qM:
Simple Robot
Here the last type of operators in Industry 4.0 is simple robot. The specification of this operator is that it can perform different tasks of different type like the simple and robots of daily use do. In manufacturing Industries there are a lot of such tasks to do which require simple robots.

By making a flow of all these operators discussed and their tasks, let us discuss their operational flow in a line. In the manufacturing industry, whatever the order comes is moved towards the smart operator. He then takes the order and transfers it forward. Whatever the video he receives on his smart device, is forwarded to friendly operator who sits there wearing the 3d glasses and headphones. When he receives the orderly video from smart operator, he then checks whether there is any ambiguity in the process of order. If there would any, he optimizes to remove errors and optimums and after examining the correctness in the process he then moves it forward to the manufacturing area where they are to perform practical on order to get that order completed. Now when order process is transferred forward by friendly operator, it rolls on manufacturing floor and there comes the responsibility of different robots who merge in a number to complete the order. There we need some powerful robots and the real use of iron robots we mentioned earlier. In this way the army of robots merge together to complete the order received. After completion, the product is tested for any errors and ambiguities in it. Now the augmented reality and virtual reality operators take the benefit of their gadgets and when after all, the product stays fine and good to deliver, steps for delivery come in way for the completion of order received.

Smart Factory
The real time manufacturing systems that provides the facility of full integration and collaboration between operators and machines to meet the changing demands and conditions of products in supplier’s network according to the needs and demands of the customer. The factory where all these procedures are done is known as smart factory.

Reference of definition of smart factory: https://www.manufacturingtomorrow.com/article/2017/02/what-is-smart-manufacturing–the-smart-factory/9166The smart factory is considered to be the upcoming future industry after the revolution of Industry 4.0. In smart factory, the real achievement is the combination of operators and machines which work together to put forth the manufacturing process towards the conclusion. The importance of smart factory will increase as the time approaching future. The Industry 4.0 is getting viral and the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is increasing day by day. Smart factory provides real time software with more accuracy and efficiency. It provides facility to its customers the way much better than the Industries of previous eras. It provides low cost products in less time with good quality. This feature of smart factory attracts customers. There are five basic key characteristics of smart factory. These five basic characteristics are compulsory for every smart factory:
Connected
Optimized
Proactive
Transparent
Agile
Now we are going to discuss the details of these five characteristics of smart factory one by one:
Connected
This feature of smart factory connects it with its customers and suppliers. It provides a real time collaboration of data between its suppliers and customers. Whenever product is supplied to customers through suppliers, then factory remains connected to customer for the feedback of the product they have provided them. The best use of smart sensors help a lot to keep the data update and useable for current circumstances in a continuous manner. The supply chain of data rotates from workers to suppliers and then from suppliers to customers which enhances efficiency and on the note, it also makes the networking chain stronger and stronger each time the process is repeated.

Optimized
In this case the optimization is applied to all processes. From reliability to storage capacity, everything gets optimized when we talk about the optimization of the smart factory. The products are highly efficient and their validity lasts for a long time. Mostly machines handle tasks and human involvement is minimized to an extent. The production quality is raised up to the higher level and the cost they demand against that quality is quite reasonable and lesser than the other factories which do not fall in the category of smart industry. Also the decreasing amount of waste, increases the efficiency of the smart factory to a higher level. In this way, by decreasing waste material, the yield increases which in turn increases the manufacturing production of smart factory. Hence in other words, in smart factory efficiency is optimized as much as they can. This factor increases the importance of smart factory to an extent as compared to the importance of many other simple factories.

Proactive
It enhances the smart factory efficiency by the factor that it readily predicts the challenges which might occur in future and in turn if we do not handle those challenges bravely, then it may destroy the product. This factor allows the system and the employs to stay conscious before any challenge arises. It prevents them from failure which they might suffer after the destruction of product. It helps in providing the best plans for the preservation of products in an automated way. Based on the history of products, it predicts the coming versions of product and it leads towards the improvement and efficiency of yield. It also has the ability to predict the quality issues of suppliers. The last factor of proactive characteristics of smart factory that distinguishes smart factory from other factories is the feature of monitoring the safety using real time process.

Transparent
The transparency helps in such a way that whenever order is placed by the customers, some smart tools and instruments are used to make a quick plan for the solution of the problem given by customer. These smart tools can be role based views or real time alerts or notifications. The other tool which is used for this purpose are tracking and monitoring. In the industrial revolution 4.0, these tools increase the enhancement of smart factory. In meantime, the decision is made for the completion of task. In this way the time of customer is saved. Real time process is used to stay connected to the supplier’s demand. It also keeps the tracking of customer’s order transparently. Real time tracking and monitoring is also handled in this case of transparency.

Agile
In the manufacturing Industries, the agile manifestos of smart industry introduces a new feature of flexibility in the orders and scheduling. The changes in product is shown, in order to see its impact on production in real time process. It also provides the facility of configuring the layouts and equipment which are managed within real time processes.

Reference of above five characteristics of smart industry: https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/industry-4-0/smart-factory-connected-manufacturing.htmlNow let us have a quick look on the few benefits of smart factory and then we will move forward towards the practical implementation of Industry 4.0 technologies and operators in smart factory.

These benefits are:
Smart factory is quite efficient because of its less production of waste material during the manufacturing process and best quality is obtained within low prices.

Smart factory guarantees best quality of product for their customers within reasonable time.

Smart factory provides good quality products within low costs which attracts customers.

The strongest factor is the safety that smart factory ensures every time to its customers and suppliers.

The other factor which enhances the versatility of smart factory is remote maintenance.
Chain of digital networks is created in smart factory. This factor lacks in other manufacturing Industries.

Smart factory provides a decentralized control of production, this factor in Industry 4.0 is an achievement.

The planning for the products is done virtually using virtual reality and augmented reality.

Reference of benefits:
https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-benefits-of-a-smart-factoryAND
https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/industry-4-0/smart-factory-connected-manufacturing.htmlNow after discussing the brief introduction of smart factory, its characteristics and benefits, we are now moving on towards the practical model of smart factory. This step will provide information about how a real smart factory works. As in smart factory we will cover that how manufacturing industries of future will work and shape their tasks. This will provide help in understanding the vision of future advanced factory or smart factory.

Vision of smart factory
First of all whenever order is given by the customer, the team of negotiators from the smart factory, then communicate and negotiate with the customers for the exact requirements of products. When customers provide full information about the product, then it is moved forward towards the smart operator who holds smart devices for the processing of orders, the factory is receiving in a row. A fully designed central data hub for complete integrated production workflow is present to check the validity of the order. The production orders are placed in a queue which are visible on the fine display of smart device, which is handling the orders.

The production orders are lined in a queue in the form of bars on smart device. These devices are handled by smart operator.
Whenever a new order comes, the new notification receives and the newly received order or job comes in the top of orderly list. This helps the operators to see the details of the newly received order. The image below will give the clear view of the above discussion:

Reference of image (screen shot of video on 00:18 sec):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QC6w4s-kqQQIn the above image, the green highlighted area is showing the notification of ‘NEW JOB’ and also there is a green highlighted bar with the details of the new production order received by smart factory. Whenever new job comes, it automatically gives notification and the order details automatically move on the top of the order queue. The details of the order are transferred by the negotiable team which gathers the complete information about the product from their customers.

By the time, the orders in the order queue are then moved forward for processing. Like the order queue, there is a processing queue which shows those processes, which are in process. So every time the new order received, every time it is forwarded to the processing queue. The new order in process queue holds a specific position in processing queue. The orders are then sorted according to their size, the manufacturing time and if there are some urgent orders, they are given preference on the top of processing list to undergo the complete manufacturing process on them.

This point of view about the processing queue which shows the in process orders will be easy to understand by the image given below. The image about this above discussion is:

Reference of image (screen shot of video on 00:23 sec):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QC6w4s-kqQQMeanwhile the list of processing orders is displayed on the screen, on the back end, in the smart factory there is vast manufacturing area where all the machines or robots are ready to process on the product to complete the order received by the customer. The machines are in such a large number that they are lined in an order. Some of them are capable of moving from one place to another in order to move the product from one machine to another. All of these machines or robots are working under the instructions of operators of smart factory. All these machines or robots are designed by human beings for their ease. The working capability of machines is based on the human model. They work same as human beings work. Although there is not any person in sight when we look into the image but these machines are controlled by human beings as discussed above. There are some related operators for related tasks who are managing the working of machines or robots for the completion of the order received by the customer.

Now the under consideration fact is that, how machines communicate with each other. There is not a single machine which is managing the product and the product not only needs any single operation to get completed. As we have seen above that smart factory is smart in real sense because it provides the gateway of communication between different machines in the manufacturing area. All the machines and data systems that are working in the manufacturing area seamlessly share information with one another with the help and involvement of human beings or operators. The image below will help us in understanding their communication.

Reference of image (screen shot of video on 00:32 sec):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QC6w4s-kqQQThe above image clearly shows the versatility of smart factory as all the machines are interlinked with each other without moving from their positions. Light provides the facility of communication between these machines which can be seen in the image above. Basically this light is working on the principle of augmented reality. The augmented reality operator operates here to collaborate and communicate the machines. With the help of this communication, all the information about product is shared. Keep in mind, the whole industry is not indulged in the production of only one product. These machines are so smart that they handle more than one product at a time. This is why the Industrial revolution is making life so smart and easy in real sense.

Now moving on the point that how production of any product get started. As we have discussed earlier that smart factory manages more than one order in the manufacturing process. The role of friendly operator here is very essential. Wearing the headphones and 3D glasses, he checks the validity and requirements of the order forwarded by smart operator. If there comes any ambiguity regarding order, friendly operator removes errors and information is then forwarded to the manufacturing area for further processing.

The smart device which is attached with manufacturing machine shows the notification of ‘START BUILDING PROCESS’, which means that now the machines have started to work properly on the order received. Now there are many machines standing on their position. Every machine is made to its related task. Now there are some moving simple robots and super robots which are used for the transporting product from one machine to the other according to the requirements of product. This simulation in robots helps in working on the requirements of product. In this way quick safe and fully automated material supply is made possible. Here the role of collaborative operator matters. The moving robots are controlled through a device which is managed by collaborative operator.

As we are talking about the manufacturing process of product, the next process by which under developed product passes is unpacking. In this case additive manufacturing metal is added in the under developed product. Again the use of simple robots is essential here. Then they transfer the product to cleaning machine. Now the product moves from the process of automated powder removal and part cleaning. The added metal in the product is customized exactly according to the customer demand by cleaning and coloring. All of these tasks are handled by collaborative operator. He holds a controlling device that is controlling the robots in transferring product from one to another.

The machine which is used for heating, drilling and cutting process is then accessed. Again simple robots transfer under developed product from cleaning machine to heating machine. Then the process of heating is applied on the under developed product. All the required process of drilling, milling and cutting is applied on the product. The flame treatment burner installed inside the machine is used for the above processes. Annealing at 820 degree Celsius and RAC Aging at more than 570 degree Celsius is applied on product. The seamless flow of data and parts continues here.
The process of additive manufacturing in smart factory holds a quite better importance. The 3D designing and painting is then applied on the product for better customization. This process provides a relief to customers by designing light weight designs in the products which are low in cost but their quality stands high. In this way the production of product in the manufacturing area continues all the time. 24/7 working is made possible to design the products as early they can.

Though production is continued all the time in the manufacturing area of smart factory, all the things are managed by the operators. When operators are not at the place to handle robots or machines, smart factory provides a feature of mobile connection. Safety and monitoring is made possible and it provides a pathway for the operators to stay in touch with machines using secure mobile access to react quickly.

Now after passing through many production processes, product then prospers towards the final stages of completion. After complete process of milling, a process of drilling is applied. After the completion of drilling, laser is used to print textures on the metal body of product. After the completion of texture details, all the processes through which product has passed are then cross checked. After the confirmation, the manufacturing process of product comes to an end.

It is an obligatory step to check the quality of product after the complete process of manufacturing. So when the message of “COMPLETION” is received, the product is then checked for any quality issues. This step is considered to be the final step before the delivery of product. Now the use of virtual reality operator comes here. Using the virtual reality glasses, the validity of product is then checked. Contiguous data record and analysis throughout the whole manufacturing process allow the immediate quality check of the product. Augmented reality operator wears his augmented glasses to briefly examine the product for any ambiguity or errors.

After the brief and proper quality check, the product is made ready to deliver. The message of “Product Completion” is then displayed on the smart screen. The following image will show the list of completed products which are completed after passing through the whole and complete manufacturing process in the smart industry 4.0.

Reference of image (screen shot of video on 2 minutes 20 seconds):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QC6w4s-kqQQ After all these processes, the product is then delivered to the customer. The factory then stays in touch with their customers for the feedback about the product they have provided them. In this way the smart factory 4.0 distinguishes itself from other factories because of such advanced working processes due to the arrival of Industrial Revolution 4.0.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the end, I the author of this document, would like to pay thanks to my parents for giving encouragement, enthusiasm and invaluable assistance to me. They are the one who provided me the best of knowledge and made me able to stand for the race of knowledge.
Secondly, I would like to pay the special thanks to MR. _______ and MR. _________ for giving me the opportunity to write on such an interesting topic. Without their guidance it could be a tough job for me to handle.

A thanks to my team who worked with me in collecting information for this document. Their hard work and determination cannot be denied in this regard. I would like to pay thanks to my supervisor for all those informative lectures which helped me a lot to go through such a difficult topic like this and also I would like to pay a special thankful note to all those who believed in me and trusted me for the best collection of knowledge against this topic.

In the last, I would like to apologize from all those whose names are not mentioned and who have helped me a lot in this document in many ways for the collection of best literature.