1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Imagery frequently predict behaviour. Imaging disaster or success at work, in relationships, or in sports often leads to that outcome. Taking control of our imaginations is vital if we are to manage our behaviour effectively, particularly in sports. Athletes, coaches, and most important, the experts who guide sports performers use an effective application of techniques like imagery to enhance their athletes performance.
The purpose of this study is to run a survey of mental imagery for football players during taking a penalty kick. There are many example of imagery intervention use to enhance athlete’s performance such as in taking basketball free-throw (Post, Wrisberg, ; Mullins, 2010) and others. The conclusion generally has been reached is that given sufficient training, imagery can enhance motor skill performance and learning.
One of factors that might be affecting athlete’s performance such as anxiety. Anxiety can be a negative elements that can dropped out athlete’s performance. So that the use of imagery skill and techniques can help an athletes to overcome this kind of problems when athletes face it during competition. It also has been stated by (Gregg ; Hrycaiko, 2004) said that mental imagery can be used as a mental strategies as one of treatment methods of intervention to improve sports performance.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
According to (Jordet ; Hartman 2008) there is considerable evidence that a soccer player’s ability to convert a penalty is negatively affected by stressful situations, regardless of individual skill level. Player’s report anxiety to be the most common emotion during a penalty kick, and a considerable number of players report not having sufficient control of the outcome during a penalty kick (Jordet ; Elferink-Gemser, 2012). Research in this field has focused on identifying player characteristics that are associated with an increased likelihood of successfully converting a penalty kick.
However, few researcher efforts have been undertaken to investigate whether and how a player’s penalty taking ability under stressful conditions could be improved. One way to potentially improve a soccer player’s ability to cope with stressful conditions and a chance of successfully converting a penalty kick is imagery. Athletes who use imagery can gain a clear advantage in sports performance in comparison with competitors who are not visualizing.
There are direct and indirect influencing factors as well as factors that increase or decrease the effectiveness (Mayer ; Hermann, 2009). Basically, imagery is depending on imaginations, consequent imagery ability is very important for the efficacy of mental training. This training is being discussed either it will help or not in improving the chances of taking a penalty kick. Another often discussed factor influencing the efficacy of mental training is the level of activation. Depending on the content of the mental training the level of activation can have positive or negative influences on the efficacy of the mental training (Immenroth, 2008). Several studies indicate a higher efficacy of imagery through a short phase of relaxation directly before the actual mental training (Eberspacher, 2001).
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to run a survey of mental imagery for football players during taking a penalty kick.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4.1 To identify how mental imagery will effect to the player’s performance during
taking a penalty kick.
1.4.2 To identify either the use of mental imagery can lead to a good result when taking
taking a penalty kick.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.5.1 How does mental imagery effect sports performance in taking a penalty kick?
1.5.2 Are the use of mental imagery can lead to a good result when taking a penalty
In this study, it has been predicted that effects of mental imagery
1.6.1 NULL HYPOTHESIS
1. There are no significant effects in mental imagery in penalty kick of
2. There are no significant reason that use of mental imagery can lead to a good
result when taking a penalty kick.
1.6.2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. There are significant effects of mental imagery in penalty kick of
2. There are a significant reason that use of mental imagery can lead to a good
result when taking a penalty kick.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.7.1 Mental Imagery
Mental imagery sometimes colloquially called visualization, or “seeing in the mind’s eye” is an experience that resembles perceptual experience, but which occurs in the absence of the appropriate stimuli for the relevant perception.
1.7.2 Sport Performance
Sports performance is the manner in which sports participation is measured. Sports performance is also known as a complex mixture of biomechanical function, emotion factors, and training techniques.
1.7.3 Penalty Kick
In soccer, penalty kick known as a free kick that awarded to the attacking team after their opponent doing a foul within the penalty area. Only goalkeeper is allowed to defend during penalty kick.
This study is delimited to the following:
1) No and kinds of research participant
The number of subject involve are 150 of football players in KARISMA range between 18-23 years old will be recruited in this study.
2) No of kinds of variables
150 football players will be separated into 5 group.
3) Test, measures, and instruments utilized in the study
Inform Consent and Sports Imagery Questionnaire will be provided in this study. Descriptive statistic will be analysing by using Statistical Package of Social Science (SSPS) through one way ANOVA Test.
4) Time and duration of the study (date, no, weeks)
This study will be run in August 2018.
1) The research approach, design, methods, and techniques.
This study involves a qualitative research by using descriptive design to run a survey of mental imagery for football players during taking a penalty kick. The football players will be given Sports Imagery Questionnaire.
2) Sampling problems.
The problems that might be occurs in this study is the subject might be not honest during answering the questionnaire and the subject might not understand the question. Besides the language that will be used also can be one of the problems to the subjects to understand it.
3) Uncontrolled variables.
The data of questionnaire might be an error because some of the players might not honest when answering the questionnaire or because they cannot understand the questionnaire.
4) Reliability and validity of research instruments.
5) Faulty administration of test/training program.
1. Psychological Skills Training
To be a good athletes, it not necessarily athletes should train harder. Athletes supposed to use all the component that can help them to build themselves to be a successful athletes. One of the criteria that they should concern is preparing their mental as well as physical preparation. Before they participate in any competition besides conditioning program to get themselves ready with the competition, they must prepare their mental skill. This methods will help them to be prepared when they participate in the competition. So that will be well prepared for both physical and mental. Furthermore, they can developed the strategy that they can used as their advantage in the competition.
Mental imagery is the mental skill training that a part of sports psychology focus on assisting athletes to meet all demand of mental barriers or what a mental need that might interfere during competition. Mental skill training in sport is reviewed in relation to general cognitive-somatic techniques and these include mental rehearsal, mental imagery, and visualization, visuomotor behaviour rehearsal, and biofeedback (Behncke, 2004). As Vealey (2007) said that main goal of psychological skill training is to assist sports participant in development of performance success. As we know, every single decision that we made is processed and determined by our brain. To have a better outcome of what we do, so that we must know how to control our mind and we can decide a better decision and we can have do improvement through mental skills training.
2. Effects of Mental Imagery in Sports Performance and Mental Skills
Imagery can be defined as using all sense (or at least all sense that is appropriate) to create or re-create an experience in the mind. According to (Wraga & Kosslyn, 2002) imagery can be refers to “an internal representation that gives rise to the experience of perception in the absence of the appropriate sensory input”. Researcher has investigate that mental aspects of performance looked at mental practice effects. However, a mental practice can be different from imagery in that practice usually focuses on thinking about upcoming performance while imagery focuses on picturing or seeing yourself perform a skills.
Others researchers has said that mental imagery enclose imagery but it involves other types of mental imagery preparation. Hall, 2001 argues that imagery must be considered as one of major component of mental practice. Many researcher said that imagery is just a prior to performance that might help an athlete’s improve in actual performance. This methods is actually has been used by many athletes before they compete in the real competition. Athletes belief that when do a mental imagery practice so that they can develop the strategy that they imagine before. The idea that a brief imagery session can improve immediate performance (especially strength performance) was demonstrated again using a grip strength task (Perkins, Wilson, & Kerr, 2001).
Besides that, when athletes use an imagery, the coach also felt that is one important tool to enhance athlete’s performance. The coach could use imagery as part of their practice regimen. The use of imagery in sport, imagery can be seen as a form of deliberate practice (Cumming & Hall, 2002). Most people think of deliberate practice as being physical in nature, but part of deliberate practice certainly could be mental.
3. Mental Imagery as Mental Practice
Mental imagery is one of the common mental skills training that has been used by athletes since long time ago. Mental imagery can be one of useful tools in order to help athletes in their performance. Mental imagery also is a combination of sense like hear, feel and see that athletes will rehearse every techniques or skills in their mind. Gentili, Papaxanthis and & Pozzo, 2006 has described that mental imagery is visualized and created mentally.
Many studies has been conducted and it framework us on how imagery work, what images are used, where and why imagery, and as well as when imagery is used in sport (Hall, 2001; Munroe, Giacobbi, Hall, & Weinberg, 2000). For example, imagery can help in gymnastics routines (Smith, 2007; Study 2), field hockey penalty flicks (Smith, Wright, Allsopp, Westhead, 2007) and bunker shots in golf (Smith, Wright, Cantwell, 2008).
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
The purpose of this study is to run a survey of mental imagery for football players during taking a penalty kick. The variables that will be considered is skill and techniques. Besides, knowledge and experience in football will be compiled. The research design, participant or sampling, instrumentation, data collection procedure, treatment or intervention program and data analysis are discussed in this chapter.
1. RESEARCH DESIGN
This study involves a qualitative research by using a descriptive design to run a survey of mental imagery for football players during taking a penalty kick. The football players will answer a Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) that developed by Rainier Martens that consist 16 questions divided into 4 sections which for first section subject will imagine that they were practicing alone, second section subject will imagine that they were practicing with their teammates, third section subject will imagine that they watching their teammates and the last section is they will imagine that they in real competition.
A football team of UiTM Perlis, range age between 18-23 years old will be recruited for this study. All participants had previously performed the penalty kick. There is no health issue problems were recorded for the participants. Purposive sampling/non-probability sampling techniques are used in this study.
In this study, the instrumentation that will be used is Sports Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) that has been developed by Rainier Martens. In this study there have two variables that will be measured which mental imagery and sports performance which is penalty kick. The value of validity and reliability of Sports Imagery Questionnaire is using a Likert-scale. Response is made to the item on the 5-point Likert scale which is from 1=no image present, 2=not clear or vivid, but a recognizable image, 3=moderately clear and vivid, 4=clear and vivid, 5=extremely clear and vivid. The number of questionnaire is consist of 16 which is divided into four section which is for the first section subject are asked to imagine that they are practicing alone, second section is subject were asked to imagine that they are practicing with their teammates, third section subject were asked to imagine that they are watching their teammates playing the games and the last section they are imagine that they were in real competition.
This assess total mental imagery with16 questions divide into four section which is for first section subject will imagine that they were practicing alone, second section subject will imagine that they were practicing with their teammates, third section subject will imagine that they watching their teammates and the last section is they will imagine that they in real competition. .
4. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE
For the data collection, the flows as stated below:
I. Inform consent will be given to the football players.
II. Then, Sports Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) will be distributed to the football players.
III. Data will be collected after they finished answer the questionnaire in completion time 10-15 minutes.
IV. Then, data will be interpreted after collection of data were done.
5. DATA ANALYSIS
In this research, the data will be analysed using the IBM SPSS Statistic version 25.0. The descriptive statistics are used to calculate all the measurements in this research. This research using one way ANOVA test conduct the total of mental imagery of football players that were recruited for this study.