Introduction 1

Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
Today all society particularly for young generation, social media has become a part of everyday life activity. People have admittance to all information what they want from corner to corner the world in the hands using materials that make easy use of social media, such as facebook, imo, skype, messenger, whatsapp messenger, viber, youtube, etc has use technology world to a completely new level.
Social media is not desktop or laptop computers is rather than accessed as a mobile applications and smart phones, which were available easily to people wherever they can go online either home, school, work or even cafes. people are now logging on to social media on mobile devices everywhere at any time making it a common everyday activity and this can be confirmed which estimates that about 1.925 billion users of smart phones make use of their devices for social media in the world (star, 2011).
The speedy expansion of social media has accelerated the tendency of globalization in up to date years. The remarkable evolution of technology, especially new social media, has greatly influenced every facet of human society; including the way people use space, the perception of media, and the ability to control the media (Chen, 2012). Thus more and scholars have started recently to examine the effect of social media on human life (Pertoric, 2013)), the rapid emergence of the internet as a communication venue for adolescents has been accompanied by diametrically opposed view about its social consequences.
The social media tools usage especially whatsapp ,facebook, and Viber, have become leading factor from numerous social media in today’s digital world for an individual users affecting how social, psychological, communication and academically aspects positivity as well as negatively (Yeboan and Ewur, 2014).
In Ethiopian context, the number of face book users has been increasing in faster rate from time to time (social bakers, 2014). Recently internet world statistic (2014) reported that there are more than 1.3 million face book users in Ethiopia. Thus, from the total face book users, the age group (14-24) has been increased from 38% in 2010 to 51.6% in 2011 (internet of some developmental aspect among adolescents. For example (Gedion, 2011) conducted the role of face book in building the social capital building when to compare non-users face book. Gebremedhin (2014) studied the inter relationship of social networking to adolescent student’s psychological adjustment in Addis Ababa. The result revealed that student’s with higher face book usage show lower psychological adjustment.
Social media usage is affected by the demographic variable of sex which exhibits some difference between men and women. Women are more preferred than men to have a personal profile of Facebook, but men are more preferred than women to carry on a profile on LinkedIn (Lenhart et al., 2010).
According to the theory of social roles, sex variations can be realized by engaging of the social duties of males and females. More specifically, as a result of theory of social roles, males and females acquire different possession of abilities and view points, based on what they act socially, which males are likely to be genetic (i.e. autonomous, intellectual, and competitive), women are likely to be communal (i.e. obedient t, reliant, and calm). The duties of the males and females thus grace the involvement in the social interaction activities. So, the theory of social role allows a theoretical background as to why females highly preferred to social media compared to male’s t o strength interpersonal interactions (Misra et al., 2015).
The purpose of this study will to assess the effects of social media usage on preparatory students’ academic adjustment and psychosocial. In addition, the researcher will examined the relationship between social media usage and students’ academic adjustment and also identified the sex, age, and grade level in frequency of social media usage among students.

1.2 Statement of the problem
In modern society, the use of social media among individuals is taking a crucial part in students in everyday activity and there has been a wide spread abuse of its usage among students. Many students have become fully involved in social networking almost all the time, while paying less attention to their academic effort by spending much time on the platform, rather than studying or interacting with individuals one on one. Active as well as frequent partaking on social media may affect their studies, and may hinder their journey into the world of work. The situation is alarming because, parents are many times troubled about their constituency’s habitual use of social media sites, they become lying face down to spending time socializing which provide them the freedom to do whatever they wish and to upload what they want, and talk to whom they want. Today students give more attention to social media rather than for their academic purpose due to that they easily fail to pass their examination as the many study revealed. It has been observed that students devote more attention and time to social media than they do for their studies and they cannot pass their examinations well if they do not learn (Osharive, 2015).
Also, the study conducted by Maya (2015), revealed that media use contribute to lower academic performance, low self perceptions and less interest in college oriented carriers. Academic excellence plays an important role in an individual’s life; be it in the family, at social gatherings, at workplace, in an institution or even among peers. Much emphasis is placed on academic excellence because of the role it plays in an individual’s life as far as a successful life and respect is concerned in every part of the world.
Today in whole region many preparatory and secondary school students waste and spend much time on social networking chatting with friends while less time is spend on studying, which leads to distraction and lower performance in terms of academic adjustment. Generally, students are sent to school to learn, but are exposed and prone to numerous practices which impact on their behavior as well as academic performance. Among the aims of education is to effect a change in academic preparation and behavior in a desirable direction so that one behaves according to the accepted values and norms of the society. Thus, learning is a behavioral change which reflects in cognitive reasoning, physical development, manipulative skills, and growth in values and interest. All these changes depend on individual difference, the home background and school setting. Oluwatoyin (2011) stated that educators tend to look at social media as encouraging negative conventional literacy abilities (writing, grammar, vocabulary) and will be largely disruptive to learner’s reading skills needed within the school environment.
Also the study of (Morrison and Gore, 2010), revealed that people who use social media excessively (identified as internet addicts) showed significantly develop more symptoms of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem and loneliness than those who did not user. Similarly (Andreassen, 2015) investigated that being an individual concerned about social media, strongly motivated to use social media and devote such amount of time to use social media that it negatively affect psychological well-being, health well-being, social and academic activities.
Social media in appropriate use lead to addiction which means where user pendants too much time on different social media that it negatively affects. Other aspects affect his or her daily life like academic activities, work performance and relationship with others (Walker, 2011). Addiction as described by the American psychological Association refers to a compulsive behavior that leads to negative effects. Today social media usage is becoming a critical issue especially effect on psychological adjustment of adolescents. According to Kross et al. (2013) stated that more social media particularly face book. Whatsapp, you tube, imo and viber user adolescents are to be exposed most of the time to a decline in life satisfaction, low self esteem, increasing social anxiety, depression, low social relationship, paradoxically can increase , and a decline day to day activities in their life.
The researcher motivated to conduct this study on the effects of social media usage on the psychosocial and academic adjustment among adolescents in preparatory schools because now a day the access of social media growing is enhance day to day the same as the usage in everywhere either in school, work place and at the home . The researcher begging on that needed to assess the effect of social media usage, the relationship between them and the level of exposure of the students to it. Consequently the stage of preparatory is main stage to students because it is the time to prepared him/her self to higher education, make a good achievement and the preparatory achievement is just as the decision tools what the students want to study after joining the higher education.
The main aim of this study will develop on previous research; explore the effects of social media usage on students’ academic lives. In addition, to see in Ethiopia context that social media usage will related with students’ academic achievement or to find out the effect of social media usage and to fill gap of research work relating social media usage with preparatory students’ academic adjustment.
Consequently this study will design to examine the effect of social media on psychosocial and academic adjustment of preparatory school students. Specifically aimed:- (a) to assess the effect of social media use on psychosocial Behavior of preparatory school students and (b) to assess the effect of social media use on academic performance of preparatory school students.
1.2.1 Objectives of the study
1.2.2 General Objective
The general objective of the study will to assess the effects of social media on psychological and academic adjustment of preparatory school students in Addis Ababa city.
1.2.3 Specific objectives
The study will focus on the following objectives specifical:-
1. To examining whether there is statistically significant relationship between social media (face book, whatsapp and viber) usage and adolescent’s psychological (self-esteem, social anxiety, depression, academic performance and social connectedness) adjustment.
2. To identify the major type of social media that determines the psychological adjustment of adolescents.
3. To examining if there statistically significant difference between the three type of social media and psychological adjustment among adolescents.
4. To identify if there is gender, age and grade level difference of not regarding psychological adjustment among adolescents.
1.3 Significance of the study
After the completion, this study will help to assess the effect of social media on psychosocial and academic adjustment on adolescents. As the result this study result will afford information for different beneficiaries such as parents, students itself, media organization, for researchers who wants to conduct study on this issues, stakeholders, policy makers and program implementers and the community at large.
Generally, this study will contributes to the creation of a conscious information society and to minimize the risks related to social media usage by adolescents. Moreover, it will serve as a source of data for schools, media organizations, institutions and for future researchers.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter will include:- description of study, research design, source of data, sample size from population, sample technique ,population, data collection instrument and data analysis.
3.1 Research design
.For this study, the cross-sectional research designed will be used. The researcher will employ a quantitative research approach for testing the research questions. A quantitative research approach will involves the gathering of numerical data, such as average scores from different respondents on some type of behavior or activity, or the calculation of percentages of people who display a given behavior or perform a certain task. Cross sectional survey, using questionnaire to collect the required data about a topic and it usually used to identify the relationship between variable Kalaian (2008). At same time, the researcher will be asked the students to complete a questionnaire regarding their views and concerns in using social media and psychological adjustment. In this study researcher will to compare, various variables at the same time such as sex, age and grade level.
3.2 Target Population
The population of the study will consist of some selected preparatory schools students, (enrolled in 2018/2019 academic year) in Addis Ababa city administration.
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
In this study, the researcher will select two schools from the among available schools in Addis Ababa Gullela sub city by using simple random sampling method, a form of lottery method. Moreover, from each selected schools from each grade level, participants will be select by utilized stratified random sampling technique in selecting the participants proportionally (from each stratum sex and grade). Stratified sampling if a population from which a sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogeneous group, stratified sampling technique is generally applied in order to obtain a representative sample (Kalaian,2007). Under stratified sampling, the population is divided into several sub-populations that the individuals and then we select items from each stratum to represent a sample.
3.4. Instrument for Data collection
The researcher will be used the questionnaire as the main tools to collect data from respondents. The questionnaire will include three parts: demographic questions, level of social media usage measure and psychosocial adjustment measures. The demographic questions will focus on background information of the respondents, level of social media usage; investigate the level of face book, whatsapp and viber usage and the psychosocial adjustment.

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