1.1 Introduction and Background
Africa has a youthful population made up of enthusiastic and energetic young people who are sufficient and supportive (ILO, 2012). There are policies and programmes in place that could drive the social and economic prosperity of the continent. Regardless of many decades and long efforts that have been put in place, employment is still an issue and a challenge in Africa. Many researchers have proven that productive employment and decent work for young people cannot be achieved through fragmented and isolated interventions hence; there must be sustained, determined, and concerted action by a wide range of actors (Yemane, 2012). He further alludes that, the consensus is that youth productivity is a cross-cutting and high priority issue that needs to be addressed within the framework of an interdisciplinary, multi-sectoral; and multi-stakeholder approach. The Zimbabwean youths constitute a large percentage of the population and they are the most marginalized group of people when it comes to resource allocation (UNESCO, 2004). The wellbeing of the youths has been affected by lack of resources, capabilities, and assets to improve their livelihoods. Nevertheless, the government of Zimbabwe has made numerous efforts to improve the livelihoods of the youths. Hence, the Zimbabwean government made an effort creating the Ministry of Youth, Indigenization and Economic Empowerment. Hereafter, MYIEE has the mandate of empowering youth economically, socially and politically. To address the challenges faced by youths, the indigenization policy was formulated to reduce unemployment; to promote a culture of entrepreneurship; improve resource allocation and improve the livelihoods of young people (Ncube, 2011).
Therefore, the mandate of the Ministry of Youth, Indigenization and Economic Empowerment is to implement and review policies relating to youths empowerment in agreement with the national indigenization and economic empowerment. Alongside the soot, NGOs have taken the mandate to capacitate the youths with skills and knowledge to help the Ministry to empower the youths. Given this background, the study seeks to address NGOs capacity building in youths in Matobo district as means to empower themselves economically, socially and politically.
The study focuses on the importance of NGO’s capacity building as an empowerment strategy for youths in Matobo District a case of Gulathi, ward 15. UNDP’s Youth Strategy (2014-2017) recognizes the involvement of young men and women in participatory decision making and development processes as vital to achieving sustainable human development. The involvement of young people goes hand in a glove with the capacity development of young people. The youth-led organizations and the development of youth assembles in government, parliament and other bodies as well as promoting inclusive youth participation in effective, and democratic governance; economic empowerment of youth; strengthened youth engagement in building resilience in their communities; inclusion of youth in the future development agenda, including through consultations and discussions (Yemane,2012). Capacity building has typically been defined as the process of developing and strengthening the skills, instinct, abilities, process and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt and thrive in the fast-changing world.
UNESCO (2004) adopts the definition of “youth” in the African Youth Charter where “youth” s anyone between the ages of 15 and 35 years”. Nowadays, young people are change-makers, there are building new realities for themselves and their communities. All over the world, youths are driving social change and innovation, claiming respect for their fundamental human rights and freedoms, and seeking new opportunities to learn and work together for a better future. Therefore, Ullerberg (2009) posits that NGOs have traditionally taken on the role of gap filling that is, taking on activities of the capacity building providing where the government lacks the capacity to do so or does not consider it a priority.
More so, NGOs work to build up local organizations so that they can do more to support local people themselves. For instance, it might include helping small community groups who come together and provide support to their members or helping national NGOs or government institutions work better and grow. When it works well, capacity building can help local organizations to deliver pertinent services on a sustainable basis to local people including lobbying and supporting empowerment. Despite all these NGO activities, capacity building brings its own challenges. In particular, it is hard for outsiders to understand local organizations’ operating context both internal and external. It is also hard to be sure who is driving the ‘capacity building’ process for the NGO providing the assistance, or the organization receiving it. When the NGO that is providing assistance is driving the process or capacity building support not relevant, then any organization which is built up may not keep going on its own.
The act of developing community capacity and getting the most out of the limited resources that are put in place in rural areas are important. Youth development and community development are interdependent. Building capacity for youth development programs in rural areas can provide a way for youth to engage in larger community development processes, thus growing and developing while benefiting the community as a whole. Youth in rural areas have fewer opportunities for development. For example, rural students are reportedly less aisled with their communities than urban students. Rural youth may also be more susceptible to boredom, which could lead to increased risk of delinquent behaviors (Ullerberg, 2009). In addition, rural youth face more stereotypes than urban youth and may have lower aspirations for education and careers. Unfortunately, many rural youth leave their home areas and do not return a factor that is worrying for the continuity in community development. Youths in rural areas face challenges in terms of access to youth development programs, variety of programs to choose from, and access to transportation than the urban youth. Youth in rural areas often have less access to technological assets than urban youth. This lack can affect occupational opportunities, educational growth, and skill development of rural young people. To overcome some of these disparities, investing in capacity building in these communities is necessary. Therefore, the study is going to be conducted at Gulathi, Matobo District in ward 15 in Matabeleland South Province.
1.2 Problem statement
Youths in Zimbabwe suffer a high rate of unemployment as a result of lack of opportunities which physically and psychologically challenges them resulting from poverty. Some youths respond to these challenges by engaging in criminal or violent behavior while others suffer from despair or depression. The high rate of unemployment in Zimbabwe among the people creates a wide range of social ills and young people are particularly vulnerable to its damaging effects such as; lack of skills, low self-esteem, marginalization, impoverishment, and wasting of enormous human resources. Unemployment has made many youths idle and so succumbing to drug abuse, promiscuity and crime. The study believes that mainstreaming NGO capacity development will lead to youth entrepreneurship and skills development as the keys to the problem of unemployment. This can be achieved by consciously directing resources to uplift the youths. ACET, therefore, provides youth trainings programs on social entrepreneurship and skills development training’s on home décor as well as catering. NGO’s have thus put forward programs that are made to prepare the young people into employment where at the end they will be able to create their jobs and employ others. Youth face many hurdles in trying to earn a livelihood and often lack access to credit, and many other productive resources necessary for agriculture. More so, they face challenges in terms of access to equal opportunities to jobs and having a voice in decisions which affect their lives. The youth’s strategy identifies developmental challenges and issues facing youth today. These problems associated with unemployment can be solved by empowering the youths through capacity development programmes. Hence, the study intends to assess how NGOs capacity building for youths may be seen as a means that can help to reduce the issues of poverty and unemployment in Matobo District.
1.3 Research objectives
The research study has the following objectives:
1) To identify factors that affect youths’ empowerment.
2) To identify the capacity development strategies adopted by NGOs in empowering youths.
3) To assess the effectiveness of NGOs capacity building as an empowerment strategy for youths.
1.4 Research questions
1) Which are the factors that affect youths’ empowerment?
2) Which are the capacity building methods adopted by NGO’s in empowering the youths?
3) How effectiveness are NGOs’ capacity building as an empowerment strategy for youths?
1.5 Significance of the study
The study will be useful practically especially to government institutions such as MYIEE and agencies as well as Non Governmental Organizations such as AIDS Care Education and Trust. It will also guide individuals in their choosing careers and assurance in their labor market field of various career endeavors after their academic and skill acquisition programmes. The study is going to be significant to ACET and youths because it will try to cover all the gaps that are left to empower youths. More so, the study is important as capacity building implies activities which strengthen the knowledge, abilities, skills, and behavior of individuals and improve institutional structures and processes such that the organization can efficiently meet its mission and goals in a sustainable way. Youth empowerment is a multi-level construct that requires an understanding of individual adaptation, organizational development, and community life evolution representing the individual, organizational, and community levels of empowerment. Youth empowerment can also be both process and outcomes-oriented, empowering youth with skill development, and opportunities, and creating empowered youth who have greater control in organizational and community decision-making. The research will also help to determine the efficient utilization and allocation of human resources among competing demands in NGO Capacity building among youths. Ledford etal (2014) argue that NGO’s capacity building is intended to encompass a variety of strategies that have to do with increasing the efficiency, effectiveness of government performance. He further suggested that capacity is seen as a variation of a strategy which includes inside dimensions of building capacity inter alia human resources development, organizational strengthening dimension and institutional reform dimension. Therefore, the study will help NGOs and youths to identify factors that affect youths empowerment strategies as well as strategies adopted by NGOs in empowering the youths.
1.6 Delimitations of the study
The research study was only limited to youths from the age of 15 to 35 years under AIDS Care Education Trust in ward 15 at Gulathi who were undertaking capacity development activities in form of home décor and catering. This study is also applied to Ministry of Youths Indigenization and Economic Empowerment located in ward 15 at Gulathi in Matobo District at Matabeleland South Province
1.7 Chapter Summary
Chapter 1 gives an introductory guide based on the research. Chapter 2 considers a theoretical framework of the study as well as the literature review. Whereas chapter 3 considers research methodology that was undertaken during the study. Chapter 4 and 5 consider the main findings of the research as well as the analysis of data collection and recommendations.
Youth unemployment is an economic issue for Africans; it goes hand in a glove with the lack of decent livelihood opportunities as one of the driving forces behind violence or organized crime. Sub-Saharan Africa is going through fast social, political, and economic transformations that have a deep impact on youth. Supporting youth employment is one of the challenges of the sub-continent. The Ministry of Youths Indigenization and Economic Empowerment aims to teach practical knowledge such as skills, provide employment opportunities and promote gender equality. Through youth empowerment, they encourage economic development, reduce population displacement, and enhance community cohesiveness and local security and order to give young people the necessary tools to build a sustainable, bright future.
2.1 Walters Capacity Building Concept approach: Theoretical framework of the study
The study is going to be carried by Walter’s Capacity Development Concept also known as the Capacity Development Results Framework (CDRF). Capacity Development as a concept and field of intervention has seen quite some developments within the last decade. The issue that Capacity Development is firmly anchored in development paradigms has not changed, and it is linked to the development process of individuals, organizations, institutions and societies at large? Long back capacity development was mainly seen as an intervention linked to teaching and training directed at individuals working in organizations. This was referred to capacity building meaning that capacities did not yet exist, but they needed to be built up from scratch.
Otoo etal, (2009) states that the Capacity Development Results Framework is a new approach to the design, implementation, monitoring, management, and evaluation of development programs. It addresses well documented problems in the narrow field of capacity development, the Framework can be profitably applied to assess the feasibility and coherence of proposed development projects, to monitor projects during implementation in order to correct mistakes, or to assess the results, or even the design, of completed projects. This framework can also be used as a step by step guide to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of projects and programs designed to build capacity for development at a national or sub national level. The CDRF ties together various strands of change theory, capacity economics, pedagogical science, project management, and monitoring and evaluation practice to provide a rigorous yet practical instrument. This framework its focus is on capacity factors that impede the achievement of development goals, and on how learning interventions can be designed to improve the development friendliness of capacity factors by supporting locally driven change. The framework addresses several long standing criticisms of capacity development work, including the lack of clear definitions, coherent conceptual frameworks, and effective monitoring of results. It also promotes a common, systematic approach to capacity development.
Walter’s Capacity Development Theory argues that the CDRF can help to clarify objectives, assess prevailing capacity factors, identify appropriate agents of change and change processes, and guide the design of effective learning activities. The Framework encourages articulation of a complete results chain that bridges the gap often found between broad overall objectives and specific learning activities. It requires stakeholders and practitioners to think through and trace out the relationship of a defined set of variables to any development goal in a given context, and to model explicitly the change process that is expected to be facilitated by learning.
2.2 Youth empowerment
Youths Empowerment is process where children and young people are encouraged to take charge of their lives (Katushambe, 2012). Empowerment simply means addressing their situation and then taking action in order to improve their way in acquiring income and alter their responsiveness through their beliefs, values, and attitudes. The empowerment of youths aims to improve quality of life, and this can be achieved through participation in youth empowerment programs. However, Stocklin and Bonvin (2014) argue that child’s rights implementation should go beyond learning about formal rights and procedures to give birth to a concrete experience of rights. Empowerment programmes which focus on youths use various models which can help the youth to achieve empowerment. A variety of youth empowerment programs are in progress around the world. These programs can be carried out by NGO’s, government organizations, schools or private organizations.
More so, according to Montsho (2017) empowerment of youths is more different because development of youths is centered on developing individuals, while empowerment is focused on creating greater community. The transformation relies on the development of individual capacity. Empowerment programmes for youths originate, gain thrust, become viable, become institutionalized, and this is often addressed as an opportunity to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building. Activities that focus on youth led media, rights, councils, activism, and involvement in community decision-making and other methods are examples of youth’s empowerment programmes.
Campbell et al, (2012) allude that the empowerment theory which focuses on the processes that enable youths participation; enhance control through shared decision making; and create opportunities to learn, practice, and increase skills suggests that engaging youth in pro-social, meaningful, and community will enhance the activities that youth themselves will define and control, and it will help the youth to gain fundamental skills, responsibilities, and confidence which is necessary to become productive and healthy adults. He further asserts that youth empowerment examines six mutually supporting dimensions of types of empowerment which are psychological, community, organizational, economic, social and cultural. Lipmann (2013) states that psychological empowerment its aim is to create self confidence and giving youth the skills to acquire knowledge; community empowerment focuses on enhancing the community through leadership development, improving communication, and creating a network of support and mobilizing the community to address concerns; organizational empowerment aims to create a base of resources for a community, including voluntary organizations, unions and associations that aim to protect, promote and advocate for the powerless; economic empowerment teaches entrepreneurial skills, how to take ownership of their assets and how to have income security; social empowerment teaches youth about social inclusion and literacy (Kikanshemeza, 2015). Cultural empowerment aims to recreate cultural practices and redefine cultural rules and norms for youth. These dimensions of empowerment programs can work on empowering the youth in one or more aspects of their lives cited by (Royce, 2009).
Moreover, the empowerment programs have their own goal which aims at creating healthier and higher qualities of life for underprivileged or at risk youth (World Bank, 2009). There are five competencies of a healthy youth which are positive sense of self; self- control; decision making skills; a moral system of belief; and pro-social connectedness. The developmental interventions and programs have to be attached on these skills that define positive outcomes of healthy youth. These empowerment programs thrive in positive way in developmental settings. They promote youth competence, confidence and connections and its features of the positive developmental youth settings are supportive relationships and support for effectiveness and mattering. Support for effectiveness and mattering specifically focuses on youth being active, instrumental agents of change in their communities, collective decision making and adults listen to and respect their voice. The beneficial outcomes to youth empowerment programs are improved social skills, improved behavior, increased academic achievement, increased self-esteem and increased self-efficacy.
Moreover, some youth empowerment programs focus on poverty alleviation. These empowerment programmes are for those living in poverty and declining causing forms of deprivation as it share food, resources and education. These programmes their aim is to empower the poor youth, working towards their livelihoods protection or livelihoods promotion. Empowerment movements are used in social action model, at aiming for the disadvantaged people to become more empowered, organized, and educated so that they may create a change. The programs advocate for positive confrontation to enhance the social power of the people who are considered disadvantaged. The empowerment of youths has also been used as a framework to prevent and reduce youth violence. Ajani etal, (2015) posit that these youth empowerment programs can improve conflict prevention and resolution skills, increase group leadership skills, and civic efficacy and improve ethnic identity and reduce racial conflict.
Furthermore, Ledford etal, (2013) allude that in Namibia, one popular empowerment program is Pots of Hope. This programme is meant to reduce the vulnerability youth to HIV and Aids through education, ideas and responsiveness, as well as income security projects. It works through educating, and providing counseling to those in rural settings in remote areas who do not have access to the resources (Palumbo et al, 2017). Its focus is on organizational empowerment within the community. Hence, one may note that youth empowerment is often addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building.
The participation of the youths in recognized empowerment programs may result in a variety of benefits for example the practices of youth involvement and empowerment become rooted within the organizational culture and the community culture (Nwankoetal, 2015). Adults and organizations also benefit from these empowerment programs in the sense that they both become more communicable and responsive to youth in the community, which leads to program improvements as well as increased participation from the youth sector (Yourinfo, 2017).
2.3 Understanding Capacity building and empowerment
In the course of capacity building, capacity of young people to actively contribute to decision making processes, social development and livelihoods in their communities will be increased. This will result in improved self esteem and confidence by the young people, whose voices will be strengthened to influence social and economic decisions that affect their lives in their respective communities (Eade, 1997). Synchronization across community organizations can provide a more diverse variety of youth development programs in rural areas. Through partnerships, communities can identify and channel certain amount of resources to help inadequately accomplish capacity building program goals. Campbell and Edwards (2012) note that effective partnerships can help locate volunteers, train staff members, increase positive communication between programs and the community, provide specific resources such as access to technology and transportation, and fund programs increases to fund and maintain capacity growth are unlikely in rural communities. Therefore, other sources of funding, such as contributions from civic, religious, or business associations, should be explored.
More so, according to Campbell and Edwards (2012) for successful youth development efforts trusted local stakeholders must be involved. Rural areas, in particular, often face increasingly limited resources in program options, staff, and volunteers. Stakeholders like MYIEE can be crucial sources for capacity building through partnerships and the provision of volunteers and workers, and they can provide valuable sources of support to influence change in the community (ADF, 2016). Moreover, Campbell and Edwards (2012) states that workers and diverse, quality partnerships can contribute to successful capacity development. When approaching youth development capacity building in rural areas, all stakeholders, including the youth for whom programs are being created, should be involved. Youth hold untapped capacity for community development, but are often overlooked as stakeholders, which limits the growth of community development in rural areas. Using these young people’s abilities benefits the community and the youth themselves. Youth can provide resources such as time, enthusiasm, and active engagement. These resources help programs succeed. The benefits to involve the youth include increasing their knowledge, skills, and engagement; finding a place in the community; and learning how to contribute to a community as well as accelerating their participation within the community.
Moreover, Peak et al (2006) assert that rural community members of all ages should be part of creating and maintaining capacity building programs for youth development. In order to accomplish this agenda the community at large should have wide engagement within various organizations and should concentrate on members of the rural community making more of the programming decisions for themselves. According to Deleon (2008) this involvement accesses community understanding that is crucial to any effort by outsiders but easily overlooked by planners who have not had or do not seek the opportunity to ask. Community members can provide an understanding of community beliefs and developmental desires (Lewthwaite, 2007). The use of local knowledge helps an individual to develop a clear vision of the community, its resources, and its process to communicate and grow. Furthermore, Campbell and Edwards (2012) posit that relying on solutions outside of the community can undercut community capacity building. Growth occurs when rural communities work out problems without heavily relying on outside sources, although some initial resources such as funding and training may be necessary. This independence creates community agency, or the capacity for a community to affect change. This Community agency can develop through accessing potential capacity and empowering residents to create an outcome that benefits the rural community. Empowerment enables residents to recognize challenges and develop solutions; this, in turn, assists the community in developing “a sense of self determination and capacity”.
Strengthening human capital and producing local knowledge for youth is thereby crucial for developing employment opportunities in rural areas and for rural development in general (Campbell and Edward, 2012) Education and vocational training are important components to improve rural livelihoods since a majority of the rural poor still derive their main livelihood from their labour in agriculture. Further, knowledge and information are powerful tools in the process of change, together with capability to get organized and access to productive assets, particularly land, financial services, appropriate technology and labour saving technology.
2.4 NGOs and Capacity building
NGOs that work to build up local organizations by supporting them are known as ‘capacity building’ (ILO, 2012).For example, this can include helping small community groups coming together and providing support to the members of the community or helping national NGOs or government institutions to work better and grow. Through capacity building from NGOs, local organizations can deliver relevant services on a sustainable basis to local people that include lobbying and assisting empowerment. However, like all NGO activity, capacity building brings its own challenges. In particular, it is hard for outsiders to understand local organizations’ operating context both internal and external and it is also often hard to be sure who is driving the ‘capacity building’ process whether the NGO providing the support, or the organization getting it. If the NGO providing assistance is driving the process, or if the capacity building support is not relevant, then any organization which is built up may not keep going on its own. An important component of the NGO capacity building program is the opportunity offered to NGOs to have the right of entry to free advice and support given by a team of knowledgeable mentors, who have volunteered for this program.
Ullerberg (2009) asserts that one of the important reasons for lower level of performance of the NGOs is because of low level of capacities of the NGOs. The NGOs have a plenty of people with volunteer spirit and willingness to work among the disadvantaged population in difficult situations. But a large numbers of NGOs do not have competencies and capacities to deliver program, undertake planning and management of the program, mobilization of local resources and their management etc. Because of lack of such competencies, most of the NGOs face questions about their sustainability and feasibility of their organizations. Different studies regarding capacities have stated that the NGOs need assistance to enhance capacity to implement development programs by establishing effective management and administrative system. The assistance should include means for developing appropriate mechanisms to plan and carryout tasks in collaboration with other organizations. The capacity building programs should include management training of key decision makers of NGOs who tend to be more activists than managers, building the capacity of management and other staff by assisting them to acquire organizational, management and behavioral skills so that they can produce an interesting combination of home grown activism and modern management technique that would help them to achieve better results.
Democracywatch (2011) posit that Capacity building programs need to focus on assisting individual staff members to understand the importance of performing and completing their tasks within the given time. It is necessary to assist them to learn taking initiatives to respond to the emerging needs of the communities they serve. In addition, the staffs need to understand their responsibilities better concerning their beneficiaries. Establishing these simple but core work principles can make NGOs more effective in implementing development programs. Development efforts can be more effective if they are run and managed by trained personnel who understand the process of planning, management including decision making, communication and human relation skills. The training and human resource development activities will enable the NGOs to achieve what they have set out to in the first place (Bulletin, 2001). The process would help them understand their strengths better and identify areas where they should concentrate most establishing priority. They should be able to be efficient, transparent, accountable and sustainable organizations. It is generally known fact that the NGOs can do some of the work that the larger membership organizations like youth organization and women’s organization cannot do. Despite of the NGO’s being stronger because of its supports by external agencies including the government their main agenda is more political than developmental. An effective capacity building process must encourage participation by all those involved. If stakeholders such as NGOs are involved and share ownership in the process of development they will feel more responsible for the outcome and sustainability of the development. Engaging NGOs who are directly affected by the situation allows for more effective decision making, it also makes development work more transparent.
2.4.1 NGOs and youths empowerment
Whitmore (2017) highlights that developing country with large youth populations could see their economics ascending if the right investments are made in education, health planning and protection of rights. A number of NGOs have been formed to empower youths. some other NGOs their mission is to educate, empower and engage disadvantaged youth to break the cycle of poverty and become agents of change in their homes, schools and communities and envision a society where youth are key actors in the positive development. Youth’s empowerment through capacity building is designed to fill the gaps left by the ministry of youths in order to strengthen skills. Some NGOs creates a space for youths by exploring and expressing the reality in which they live in and the issues they affect them such as health, quality of education, poverty, violence and unemployment. NGO empowerment provides means for youths to engage their peers to communicate their views on topics of interests and to sharpen up their writing and research skills.
2.5 Factors that affects youth’s empowerment and the strategies that has been adopted
2.5.1 Global or general factors that affect youths
Kimando (2012) alludes that there are a number of global factors that affect youths in generally. These factors include climate change; poverty, unemployment and globalization as well as lack of appropriate skills. There is a growing agreement that the failure to mainstream and coordinate youth policies and programmes and to monitor and evaluate their implementation both within countries and at the continental level has been a serious restriction to using the youth capacities to the full.
World Children’s Report (2011) states that climate change and increased frequency and severity of humanitarian crises have the potential to adversely impact not only young people’s health and nutrition, but also their education and development. For instance, families who lose their livelihood to drought may no longer be able to afford sending children to school or paying for health care. Therefore, leaving the young people at risk hence affecting them to be empowered.
Poverty, unemployment and globalization
According to World’s Children’s Report (2011) youths are often seen as the next generation of actors on the social and economic stage. While it is true that the future economic development of nations depends on harnessing their energy and developing their skills, this view does not take account of the social and economic contribution that many adolescents and young people make today. It also fails to acknowledge that many young people are struggling to find adequate employment that can provide them with a safe foothold above the poverty line and that their prospects of attaining such security have worsened amid the global economic depression that has taken hold over the last decade. Most young people in general are in a better position to take advantage of global development than any previous generation, due in part to improved levels of education and better health. However, many of them remain excluded from the opportunities afforded by globalization.
Lack of appropriate skills
Moreover, according to World’s Children’s Report (2011) notes that youthful stage is a time when poverty and inequity pass to the next generation. This is particularly true among youths with low levels of education. Almost half of the world’s youths of appropriate age do not attend secondary school. And when they do attend, many of them fail to complete their studies or finish with insufficient skills especially those high level competencies that are increasingly required by the modern globalized economy. This skills deficit is contributing to desolate youth economic employment trends.
2.5.2 Strategies adopted
African States have made significant progress in recognizing the dire challenges and great opportunities on youth present in Africa. A step forward, for national and regional youth networks have been established including the Pan African Youth Union (PYU) (ILO, 2012). These networks channel youth engagement and promote youth perspectives to be incorporated into national, regional, and continental policies, strategies, and programmes. African Union Heads of States at their July 2006 Summit, in Banjul, endorsed the African Youth Charter to strengthen, reinforce, and consolidate continental and regional partnerships and relations (Yamane, 2012). The Charter also aimed to prioritize youth development on the African Union’s development agenda. The African Youth Charter is the political and legal document that serves as the strategic framework to propel youth empowerment and development at continental, regional, and national levels. The Charter is a comprehensive framework addressing young people’s rights and obligations. It is also the social contract between the State and the Youth, in response to priority development and empowerment needs. The adoption and entry into force of the African Youth Charter is therefore a significant milestone for youth development in general, and youth employment in particular. This is because the African countries that ratified, adopted, and signed the Charter must develop and implement comprehensive, integrated, and cross-sectoral Youth Policies, with the active involvement of young people. To attain this end, such policy developments should strengthen and mainstream youth employment and hence development issues into broader development goals and priorities.
Moreover, the State of the World’s Children (2011) posits that in 1995, governments focused particularly on youth unemployment in the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the conclusion of the World Summit for Social Development. The UN Millennium Declaration in 2000 explicitly committed governments to pursue strategies aimed at providing young people with productive work opportunities. The Youth Employment Network (YEN) comprising the UN, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank was set up to help them fulfill that commitment. In 2001, a team of youth employment experts appointed by the then UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan, made recommendations in four key policy areas employability, entrepreneurship, equal opportunities for young men and women, and employment creation and the YEN is now working with many countries to devise or implement national action plans addressing them. Countries across the developing world have taken up the challenge of tackling youth unemployment, primarily by establishing initiatives to enhance skills. Using the YEN recommendations, Uganda’s Ministry of Education and Sports, the Kampala City Council and Germany’s international development agency developed a curriculum to complement formal schooling that teaches young people reading, writing and arithmetic skills while teaching them about their rights and giving them practical skills to improve their employment prospects.
Furthermore, the State of the World’s Children (2011) states that in developing countries, the social assistance aspect of social protection has a primary, broad role in reducing poverty and is a key component of development policy. In developing countries with the relevant experience, there is increasing evidence that social protection programmes can not only improve young people’s health, nutrition and educational achievement but also reduce the danger of abuse and exploitation. Social protection is vital if countries are to break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and offer the economic opportunities so badly needed by adolescents and young people entering the job market.
More so, National Youth Policy (NYP) intends to give to the development of its young men and women. It clearly defines the place and role of youth in society and the responsibility of society to youth and should be supported by the following three universal concepts: ‘Participation’, ‘Equity’ and ‘Cohesion’ (Youth in Global Economy, 2007). Youth policies help mainstream the concerns of girls and boys in various sector ministries and in overarching international, regional, national and local strategies. It is not only states that are called upon to take action here; the policies must be embedded in the institutions too. They should not be adopted as isolated policies, but should instead be integrated into more general national and international poverty reduction and development strategies.
2.6 Chapter summary
This chapter conceptualizes the literature review based on the findings done by some scholars concerning NGO capacity building as an empowerment strategy for youths. It is noted that NGOs among the world has played a pivotal role to empower youths social and economically by conducting activities that capacitate them so as to become entrepreneurs in order to curb the problem of unemployment that has made youths for today to suffer.
3.1 Research approach
The researcher in this study used quantitative methods approach throughout the research. Quantitative research on the other hand identifies problems based on testing a theory, measured in numbers and analyzed using statistical techniques. Quantitative studies emphasize the measurement and analysis of casual relationships between variables, not processes. Proponents of such studies claim that their work is done from within a value free framework. By definition, measurement must be objective, quantitative and statistically valid. Simply put it is about numbers and objective hard data. The goal of quantitative methods was to determine whether the predictive generalizations of a theory hold true. Quantitative researchers seek explanations and predictions that will generalize to other persons and places.
A case study was used in this research because of its advantages. Case studies focus on one instance or a few instances of a particular phenomenon with a view of providing an in-depth account of events, relationships or processes occurring in that particular instance. The idea of a case study is that attention is focused on individual instances rather than a wide spectrum. The case study approach thus is quite the opposite of any mass study. Martin (2006) posits that case studies can thus with the case as a whole, in its entirety and thus has a chance of being able to discover how many parts affect one another. In this case, case studies tend to be holistic rather than deal with isolated factors. The real value of a case study is that it offers the opportunity to explain why certain outcomes might happen more than just find out what those outcomes are. One of the strengths of the case study approach is that it allows the researcher to use a mixture of sources, a selection on the types of data and a diverse of methods as part of the study. Anything that is suitable can be used for inspecting the interaction and procedures that are of concern.
3.2 Population and Sample of the Study
Population can be defined as the whole faction of fundamentals to which one wishes to take a broad view on findings attained from a sample (White, 2013).The study targeted youths at Gulathi in Matobo district between the ages of 15 to 35 years who were undertaking capacity development activities sponsored by AIDS Care Education and Training under the ministry of youths. The research was carried out by the use of purposive sampling which is referred to as judgmental sampling. The sampling units were selected subjectively by the researcher who attempted to obtain a sample that appears to be the representative of the population. The chance that a particular sampling unit was selected for the sample depended upon the subjective judgment of the researcher. The study targeted youths that were 25-30 as the respondents, key informants such as NGO’s as well as the Ministry of Youths Indigenization and Economic Empowerment.
3.3 Data Collection Instruments
The researcher used open questionnaires for key informants (NGO personnel and stakeholders) and research respondents which were the youths because of its patterns, frequency, ease and success of use as well as user satisfaction with collections and services. The advantages of using questionnaires is that they are relatively easy to analyze, they are familiar to library staff and managers, a large sample of the given population can be contacted at relatively low cost; they are simple to administer; the format is familiar to most respondents; information is collected in a standardized way; they are usually straightforward to analyze; they can be used for sensitive topics which users may feel uncomfortable speaking to an interviewer about and also the respondents have time to think about their answers; they are not usually required to reply immediately. More so, online questionnaires can be used via emails data is already in electronic format making analysis easier. When using open questionnaires it makes the respondents express them freely; useful for exploratory evaluations; good for respondents who like to answer in their own words and it may result in unexpected and anecdotal information.
3.4 Data analysis procedures
Data was analyzed with statistics in order to provide suitable and clear reflections of the study basing on statistics. Penwarden (2014) analyses that data with the use of statistics enables one to explore and describe the population of the study graphs were presented in order to explore different trends within the youth’s sector in demographic form.
3.5 Ethical Considerations
These are code of conducts in which the researcher will have to abide when carrying out a research and these includes rules and responsibilities; standards and behavior that have to be followed. Behavior has far greater significance as we are dealing with people and what we do or not do may have detrimental effects on others. The researcher maintained the leadership structure in conducting the research due to customs and norms that were put in place in order to complete the whole research and also the guidelines to be followed in order to conduct a research within NGO’s.
3.6 Chapter summary
This chapter considers a research methodology that was used by the researcher in the study.The researcher used a quantitative research approach during the study with the use of case studies. The sample that was used in this study was a purposive type of sampling. Data collection was conducted by an instrument such as questionnaires which were open ended. The researcher followed and abides the norms and rules regarding on ethical considerations.
PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
This chapter presents presentation and data analysis on findings that were captured from the field after conducting the research with the youth from ACET under Capacity development in ward 15 at Gulathi. Presentation and data analysis in this chapter were guided by answering the three (3) research objectives. Presentation and data analysis were analyzed in a form of quantitative research such as bar graphs and tables with the use of a questionnaire.
4.1 Demographics on data analysis on the findings
The youths that were part of the research were found in different age groups as the study was looking at youths between the ages of 15 to 35 years. Their age groups will be presented below in a form of a bar graph. The figure 4.1 shows that the youths between the age group of 26 to30 years which is 29.4% are the ones who are more involved in capacity developments projects whereas between the ages of 31 to 35 there are 20.6% who are involved in capacity development projects.
Figure 4.1 Age groups
Source: Field research
Figure 4.2 shows some youths that were part of the activities under capacity building in Gulathi ward 15. It is noted that females’ are 53.6% and males are 46.4% hence indicating that females are more than their male counterparts. Figure 4.2 presents youths that were part of the research in terms of their gender. The study notes that females are 53.6 % more than males since there are based in home décor and dressing making more than carpentry and building and also the researcher notes that females are more than males because it is easy to mobile females more than males. Hence the figure indicates more females than males.
Source: Field research
4.1.3) Marital status
The figure 4.3represents the youths that were involved in capacity development activities. It was noted that 75% of the youth were single whilst the 21% were married and only 4% were separated. Hence, the researcher notes that only 25% of the youths have been involved in marriages including the 4% that had been separated. Therefore, one may point out that the 75% of the youths that are not married are driven by their desire to gain skills and knowledge despite of this training obtained they can be assumption that 50% of the youths would have been married.
Figure 4.3 Marital status
Source: Field research
4.1.4) Educational level
The figure 4.4 represents the youths from Gulathi ward 15. It summarizes that89.3% of the youths went to Secondary level whereas a 10.7% of the youths went to tertiary level. Hence, this shows that mostly youths fail to continue with their studies due to lack of resources as some families are poverty stricken and facing challenges to send their children at school. More so, some youths are responsible in taking care of their siblings hence leading them to drop out of secondary school in order to pave way for the young ones.
Figure 4.4Educational level
Source: Field research
4.1.5) Number of dependants
Figure 4.5 below represents demographic youths who have people who are depending on them. The researcher notes that youths that have dependants are 71.4%more than the youths that are not having any dependants which are 28.6% less. This shows that these youths were involved in these capacity development projects in order to gain more skills and become entrepreneurs as a means to earn a living and provide for these dependants. More so, the researcher notes that some dependents which are shown in this graph belong to these youths therefore, noting that these youths are the ones who should provide for their children and family.
Figure 4.5 Number of dependants
Source: Field research
4.2 Factors that affect the empowerment of youths
The table below in figure 2.2.1 represents factors affecting the empowerment of youths. These issues were said by the respondents. Only 28 youths were selected in answering the questionnaires and the following conclusions as well as statistics were drawn out from the research.
Source: Field research
According to Kasichi (2011) lack of skills and opportunities is the cause of poverty for many Zimbabwean youths and other citizens. According to the field research the researcher notes that without employable skills 17.9% of the youths are left without employment, they cannot earn an income to support themselves and families that they need to support. As a result of lacking self-sustainability training skills, these youths remain unproductive and therefore hit hard by poverty. More so, the researcher noted that the youths lack skills to be empowered due to various challenges they face such as lack of resources and the NGOs make them pay registration fee of $5 in order to acquire the skills which makes them difficult to be empowered as youths.
Educational opportunities for the youths are limited by external and internal factors, such as poverty, gender inequality lack of confidence, drug abuse as well as migration which makes it difficult for young people to complete or continue their education. The study indicates that 21.4% of the youths are affected in terms of educational opportunities hence becoming a burden for them to be empowered. In some countries like South Africa they have free and compulsory basic education, necessarily for equipping youths with basic skills (Kimando, 2012). However, in Zimbabwe the majority of the parents or guardians have to pay not only school fees but also other expenses in order to keep their children in school. Through education opportunities may rise which can equip them for positive social behavior and coping with negative peer pressures.
More so, according to the researcher there is lack of faith in the capacity of young people to contribute positively to development, including participating in decision making. Lack of empowerment and participation is a cause of concern initiatives for young people which remain a major concern. Due to limited focus on vulnerable and unattached young people leaves them beyond the reach of organized programmes. (Kasichi, 2011).This calls for a rights based development approach to dealing with youth issues. There is a need for more community based projects and programmes led by youth and targeting youth, and more multi-sectorial planning as well as implementation on youth issues. There is lack of youth participation in the different levels of society and widely acknowledged across the region as an area that undermines youth development in skills training programmes. Several reasons that exist for the low levels of youth participation in society include lack of trust in youth by the older generation, youth not having confidence or being deemed incompetent to participate, young people are not being aware of their rights, and the level and extent of issues that young people are faced with. The fact that it is culturally inappropriate for young people to actively participate in decision making has been used to keep young people from speaking up on youth issues and how they think the issues should be addressed. It was noted that mostly youths face challenges in terms of access to participation and representation within the youth sector in different types of sectors due to lack of confidence as well as lack of knowledge to be involved in leadership structures. Hence, one may note that lack of participation and unfaithful representation is a major challenge which affects the youth in order to become empowered.
According to Kimando (2012) gender inequality is common in the youth sector. Youth skills training programmes and other human development initiatives need to pay attention to the needs of the young women. The needs of young women are not the same as those of young men or older women. This inequality has serious allegations for young women as they tend to be less involved in education, employment and generally at the community, national and regional levels. The issue of gender inequality has led a number of youths which are girls dropping out of school in order to take care of their siblings. More so, the researcher noted that53.6 % of the youths which are girls face challenges in the sense that as a girl child they take a burden of their parents in terms of caring the sick and some cultures have that belief that educating a girl child is a waste of money and time which makes young women to be in a danger and become underpowered. Moreover, the issue of gender inequality has led to early marriages as well as forced marriages in young girls and women due to the problems they face in terms of education so that they can acquire more skills and become empowered. Therefore, the researcher notes that the issue of gender inequality in young women is a factor that affects the empowerment of youth’s especially young women.
NGOs are expressing difficulty in finding sufficient, appropriate and continuous funding for their work. They find accessing donors as challenging as dealing with their funding conditions. More so, they perceive there to be certain cartels of individuals and NGOs that control access to donor funds (Kimando, 2012).NGOs have limited resource mobilization skills and are often not looking for funds that are available locally, preferring to wait for international donors to approach them. There is a high dependency of NGO’s and a tendency to shift interventions to match donor priorities and a lack of financial, project and organizational sustainability. According to the youths NGOs lack funds to teach them to gain skills hence at the end these NGOs make them pay in order to access education and gain knowledge and this makes the youths face challenges as some face crisis in terms of monetary thereby leaving them without adequate knowledge. Moreover, these NGOs according to youths they lack appropriate skills due to lack of funding within the sector which may result as a burden to empower the youths.
Moreover, Kasichi (2011) posits that poor networking which is a result of being uncorporative was identified as a major challenge that affect the empowerment of the youths. It is the cause of duplication of efforts, conflicting strategies at community level, a lack of learning from experience and an inability of NGOs to address local structural causes of poverty, deprivation and under development. Negative competition for resources also undermines the reputation of the sector and the effect
NGOs recognize that many of them have limited technical and organizational capacity. Few NGOs are able or willing to pay for such capacity building. Weak capacity was identified in fundraising, governance, technical areas of development, and leadership and management (Dibaba, 2017).Some NGOs felt that the existence of quality standards would assist them to develop the required capacities. The speed of technology changes is also a challenge particularly in areas of Information and Technology capacity. As a result there is a great deal of suspicion among NGOs, secrecy and lack of transparency. Many NGOs, large and small, intervene at community level without any community mapping and implement projects without due regard on ongoing community initiatives. NGOs in politics are fighting another, one with resources but no community presence, another with community presence but no resources.
Political interference is a cause of concern and it is a major challenge or factor affecting mostly NGOs in Africa. NGO leaders identified the interference of local politicians and civic leaders as a major hindrance to their work. Where NGOs are involved in sensitive issues, such as land disputes, local leaders can threaten NGOs with de-registration (Dibaba, 2017). NGOs are not aware that the board and potentially the Council are there to protect them from such intimidation. The researcher noted that in rural areas there is more political interference on NGOs programs. Hence, this had affected the flow of empowerment as most people believe that most NGOs come up with their political agendas in implementing their programs hence this has affected the empowerment of the youths due to political interference.
4.3 Capacity building methods adopted by NGOs in empowering the youths
Capacity building methods adopted by NGOs in empowering the youths are development oriented projects. Most of these capacity developmental programmes were adopted to curb the issue of unemployment among the youths. These developmental projects include home décor which involve dress making, building as well as carpentry. NGOs privilege the individual level through a sustained focus on training activities within non formal as well as formal education. NGOs are widely engaged in training principals, strengthening the capacities of school inspectors, and strengthening parent-teacher associations and school management committees (Ulleberg, 2009). The researcher notes that in order for NGOs to run effective projects, NGO’s must help in building the infrastructure and capacity of governments, institutions and communities to support these projects. Capacity building can be done in many forms; including institutional, physical or intellectual depending on the needs of the community. Sometimes this means increasing physical infrastructure building roads, buildings, telecommunication, that will ease the implementation of projects. Other projects focus can be on building intellectual capacity; passing on new knowledge, technology and skills to community members. Still others focus on building the institutional capacity of governments, institutions and other civil society groups to take on and administer the services NGOs are providing. Successful NGOs focus on building capacity in order to implement programs efficiently, and enhance communities’ ability to provide services by themselves in the future.
Toly (2010) posits that NGOs have traditionally taken on the role of gap ?lling, that is, taking on activities of basic education provision where the government lacks the capacity to do so or does not consider it a priority. The researcher notes that the provision of education in Zimbabwe is primarily the task of the Ministry of Education and Sports. However, its lack of capacity and the weak nature of the state in general have opened up the education sector for NGO involvement. NGOs provide a large part of educational services and help reinforce government efforts in achieving universal primary education.
The researcher also notes that NGO action is often described as small scale, ?exible and dynamic, adaptive, local, efficient and innovative. These are abilities that make them complementary to state action. The government cannot compete with their ability and desire to innovate, since “the government’s capacity and structure does not allow the legibility required to experiment with new education approaches” as being more legible and dynamic than donor agencies and international organizations, while adapting easily to the speci?c political, economic and social context in a given country. As a result, it may be easier for NGOs to promote a needs-based, demand led approach rather than a donor driven one. For example in some countries such as Malawi (Toly, 2010), NGOs use needs assessment and prioritization as an entry point into the community.
The youths through NGOs have adopted various strategies to be empowered such as team work in order to work together and also being able to generate income through their life skills. More so, they have managed to corporate despite the rise of misunderstanding through the constitution which binds them. The youths have also engaged local government authorities in order to discuss youth’s issues that may affect them. Moreover, youths are now involved in community leadership as well as engaging in different projects as well as writing proposals for certain projects.
4.4 Effectiveness of NGOs capacity building as an empowerment strategy for youths
NGOs play an important role in delivering local services and serving as advocates for community interests. They are seen by communities as more impartial than government organizations and company representatives. While NGOs tend to be better managed and better resourced than community based organizations, some also struggle with capacity issues related to effective management systems, funding, skills, and transparency (Dhaka, 2002). NGO interests may not necessarily be aligned with the communities they are intended to serve or with the company’s objectives. Companies that invest in capacity building of NGOs usually do this in order to serve specific needs and objectives related to their project. It is worth remembering, however, that many NGOs will be around long after projects are completed; so connecting the capacities they are gaining in the short term to a longer term perspective is important. If capacity building is effective, NGOs should be able to apply their acquired experience and skills to manage future projects in other areas and with other companies or organizations.
According to youth officers they faced challenges in terms of lack of adequate facilities to conduct trainings to youths and also transport to cover all the villages within a ward in order to mobilize the youths. More so, youths are not active to work in groups. However, the problem was solved through seeking funds from various NGOs; operating two villages within a week in order to reduce the distance; and making a follow upon the youths.
The researcher notes that NGOs have acted in improving the quality of life of disadvantaged people and also how they have became powerful players in international development. NGOs are seen to have an important role to play in service delivery, advocacy, and capacity building of individuals and communities and are held up as being well positioned to offer innovative and flexible services which are grassroots and respond to local need. Moreover, as part of civil society, NGOs are thought to have an important part to play in ensuring that the voices of the ‘poor’ youths and ‘disadvantaged’ are heard at policy level and that governments are held to account for their policies and the provision of ‘pro-poor’ services.
However, there are numerous difficulties that arise around the role of NGOs in international development. One source of conflict concerns funding and how donor requirements may undermine the ethos and mission of NGOs as well as lead to a reduction in innovation and diversity across the NGO landscape. Furthermore, a lack of funding can result in the work of NGOs becoming ‘funding led’ with the value base of the donor organization often dominating the relationship (Dakhal, 2002).
The researcher alludes that NGOs perceive themselves as a catalyst for change and as an actor affected by external changes, such as the capacity development ‘turn’ in the development discourse. In other words, capacity development reorients NGO action, in terms of types of activities and concerning the recipients of NGO efforts. Whereas the recipient or object of capacity development efforts by NGOs traditionally has been civil society itself through a focus on the community, the state is increasingly becoming the focus for capacity development efforts by most relevant actors in development. NGOs can reorient and expand their action by using their knowledge through activities such as training, information sharing, consultancy and advice in order to “promote changes in other institutions whose mandate include the provisions of such support services”, that is, government (Tschentscher, 2016).Parallel to this change of actor on the receiving end, the tools for capacity development increasingly change from ‘hard’ to ‘soft’: from a focus on technical cooperation, equipment provision and constructing facilities such as schools, the focus is increasingly turning towards less tangible, but perhaps more important, tools. Such tools include improving management knowledge and skills, communication and social capital, and correspond to basic de?nitions of capacity development. The use of ‘soft’ tools for capacity development is shared by NGOs and donor agencies and re?ects “a growing awareness that facilities, resources and inputs alone will not lead to lasting improvements in an organization’s performance.
NGOs understand capacity development in education as parallel and complementary to community empowerment” (Morgan, 2016). Community empowerment in relation to education might imply involving the community in school governance and encouraging it to take part in educational planning and management at the school level. This focus is still leading, although NGOs are in the process of taking on new roles as agents in community-based governance. “The communities emerged as the most frequently cited civil society constituency in the promotion of youth’s empowerment”. This implies an “expansion from playing the role of resource mobilization and local education management to participation in de?ning education and assessing quality and processes” and “the development from loosely structured to institutionalized and systematic involvement in local education governance .
According to ACET capacity development projects that are being implemented are sustainable and effective in empowering the youths. Youths are offered a place to acquire their skills after completion they graduate. It was noted that they go for an internship after their graduation. Most of them have secured jobs in various places, some youths are also taken permanent during the course of their internship while some are now self employed and there are now able to earn a living. More, so according to the youths NGOs are effective and sustainable through provision of various skills which makes them generate their own income in order to earn a living in terms of their livelihood.
4.5 Chapter Summary
This chapter considers presentation data analyses that were captured from the field in Gulathi ward 15 in ACET with youths that were involved in capacity development projects. The analysis was based on three research questions from the study. Data was presented in demographics forms that were presented in the figures above. More so, data was analyzed and presented in a quantitative method.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary of findings; conclusion and recommendations that were drawn from the field after conducting a research in Gulathi ward 15 with the youths on capacity development projects from ACET. The recommendations that were drawn from this chapter were meant to help the NGOs on what they should focus on in order to improve the capacity development projects in empowering youths in rural areas.
The purpose of this study was to assess, investigate and trace the NGO’s capacity building as an empowerment strategy for youths. The research was guided by three objectives which were: (1) The factors affecting the empowerment of youths; (2) The strategies adopted by NGOs in empowering the youths; (3) Effectiveness of NGOs capacity building as an empowerment strategy for youths. This study was carried out in order to solve the problem of high unemployment in Matobo district among the youths. The following were drawn out from the field during the research.
The concern of this study rose from the fact that a number of youths in Zimbabwe are unemployed. This high rate of unemployment of the youths has led a number of youths as drug abusers as well as practicing theft in daylight robberies due to lack of skills acquired. Therefore, the researcher felt that it was important for MYIEE to mobilize NGO’s from various places within Zimbabwe in order to provide youths with various skills and give them knowledge in order to earn living thorough becoming future entrepreneurs.
Regarding the presentation and data analysis that were drawn from the field after conducting the study the researcher made the following conclusions basing on three research objectives which are laid below.
Objective 1: Factors that affect the empowerment of youths.
The researcher found that in generally the factors that affect the empowerment of youths are lack of skills, lack of participation, unemployment, limited capacity, lack of funds , lack of education, political interference, poor networking, gender inequality, poor decision making, drug abuse, migration, peer pressure as well abuse in alcoholism these are factors that affect the empowerment of youths. Youths are affected to be empowered due to lack of funds from various donors which make the donors to expect a registration fee from the students in order to be provided with various skills. Hence as a result it makes them feel unwelcome.
More so, the researcher found out that the youth face challenges in terms of accessing adequate facilities a number of youths were reported that they cannot afford to pay the rent where they conduct their skills. This has also resulted a major challenging in empowering the youths as some of the youths after they have received money from their belongings instead of budgeting they tend to abuse the money through use of alcohol. The researcher also noted that youths are not corporative which becomes difficult to work with each other as some are indiscipline and especially boys they refrain from being empowerment which becomes burden to the youths officers to mobilize them.
Moreover, youths faces challenges in terms of lack of participation as well as unfaithful representation. In number of sectors it is noted that youths are not involved such as leadership structures as well as participation in communities. Youths are seen as people who are not mature and lacking discipline hence there are left in many places where they can learn some strategies to become empowered. More so, political interference has become a major challenge in terms of empowerment of youths. In rural communities more people are too much into politics hence they cause a number of problems in several NGO’s which are trying to implement development projects in the community. Therefore the researcher notes that the issue of political interference has become a burden in the empowerment of youths.
Furthermore, challenges that have affected the issue of youth’s empowerment include lack of knowledge. Youths lack knowledge on how to the importance to be empowered thorough provisions of skills. They think that by engaging in education sectors to different types of schools they are being used yet they are being taught skills that could benefit the in future in order to gain a living since a number of the youths are unemployed and there are failing to earn a living.
Objective 2: Strategies that are adopted by NGOs in order to empower youths.
NGOs have adopted some measures such as building school and communities in order to provide skills to the youths as a means to empower them with skills so that they can become future entrepreneurs’ in order to earn a living. More so, some other strategies adopted by NGOs to empower youths include home décor which involves cutting and design as well as dress making; building as well as carpentry. These strategies adopted by NGOs to youths after the Ministry of Youths Indigenization and Economic Empowerment has mobilized the NGO’s to equip the youths with various skills.
Objective 3: Effectiveness of NGOs capacity building as an empowerment strategy for youths.
The researcher notes that NGO’s capacity building is effective and sustainable as an empowerment strategy for youths. The youths after being taught these various skills there are able to teach others as well as work on their own in terms of income generations which can help them to earn a living and become entrepreneurs. This has led a number of youths assisting their parents in their family in providing for the family.
According to ACET capacity development projects that are being implemented are sustainable and effective in empowering the youths. Youths are offered a place to acquire their skills after completion they graduate. It was noted that they go for an internship after their graduation. Most of them have secured jobs in various places, some youths are also taken permanent during the course of their internship while some are now self-employed and there are now able to earn a living. More, so according to the youths NGOs are effective and sustainable through provision of skills which makes them generate their own income.
The Ministry of Youth Indigenization and Economic Empowerment, NGOs as well as the youth sector have faced various challenges in the empowerment of youths to curb the issue of unemployment. The challenges that have led to the empowerment of youths affected have been identified and there are some strategies that have been adopted by NGOs, Ministry of Youth Indigenization and Economic Empowerment as well as the youth sector in order to solve these challenges. Hence the researcher has come out with the recommendations in order to help these stakeholders and the respondents mentioned above. These recommendations may become a success in accelerating the empowerment of youths.
The study recommends that:
5.3.1 Local Resource Mobilization
Communities should provide their youth’s sector with local resources such as facilities in order to accelerate the quality of the youth skills. More so, NGOs should raise funds from various local businesses, individuals, government in order to locally generate income. To do these NGOs must have strong governance and accountability mechanisms, clear strategies and local credibility as well as having income generating projects that can help them with funds whenever the donor delay or withdraws along the way.
5.3.2 Local Networking
The NGOs before and after implementing their programmes they should consult the youths in order to identify and provides opportunities for joint learning, identifying suitable development initiatives, generating learning resources, improving management and cooperation with local government, coordinating approaches to development, and pursuing effective local advocacy.
5.3.4 NGOs partnerships
NGOs which want to be progressive look for partners with local institutions and have the ability to provide financial, technical and institution building support. Some also support thematic and issue based advocacy initiatives that enhance local networking and address the structural causes of poverty, imbalance and unfairness.
More so, the researcher recommends that the youths in order to be empowered they should follow their constitution which binds them this can help them from problems such as indiscipline, team work as well as use of alcohol. A constitution as to be written by youths and signed by each and every individual it should have policies and laws which guide the youths. The youth who breaks the law should be disciplined according to the constitution.
5.3.6 Government taxes
The government should budget for Ministry of Youth Indigenization and Economic Empowerment in order to support the training and education of youth and also to help the youth acquire various skills rather than waiting for NGOs to pop up with their skills. This has led a dependency syndrome on government which has resulted many youths to suffer and left without knowledge and skills.
5.3.7 Training centre
The government through the Ministry of Youth Indigenization and Economic Empowerment with the help of various NGOs should come up with a Youth Skills Training Centre within the district in Matobo in order to provide all skills to the youths and monitor the progress of the training accordingly. This may curb challenges of youths as all youths will volunteer in their own to go and acquire these skills.
The researcher recommends that NGOs should be apolitical and become neutral from politics in order to drive their mandate.
5.4 Chapter Summary
This chapter considers summary, conclusion and recommendations that were drawn from the field of study after conducting the research. The summary of the research was based on the effectiveness and the sustainability of NGO’s in empowering the youths and conclusions were drawn from answering the research questions. More so, recommendations were made in line NGO’s capacity building in empowering youths in conjunction with the ministry of Youths.