This chapter contains the back ground of the study, statement of the problem, main and specific objectives of the study, research question, and significance of the study area and conceptual definition of important variables, limitation and organization of the thesis.
1.1 Back Ground of the study
The expansion of urban centers was inevitably results in shortage of the supply of land and leads to a number of problems including sub standardized residential housing conditions, overcrowding of households, inadequate and unreliable infrastructure and services provisioning (Jibajjuka, 2009).Land is a crucial element in property development process and its acquisition is vital to achieve efficient and sustainable residential housing development in urban centers. Access to land and property rights is a major key element in economic growth and development. It is pertinent to note that providing the populace with access to land and empowering them to make effective use of it is central to poverty alleviation (Omirin, 2002). However, in recent times the urbanization process is derived by rural to urban migration and high birth rate.These trend of urbanization induces accelerated resource scarcity in urban areas especially urban land resource. Therefore, urbanization requires to be controlled or managed, the technical aspects of growth management needs to adhere to legal, administrative and social frameworks (Kalnay and Cali, 2003). Due to what reasons the problem of spontaneous urban land development, homeless, insecurity of land, inadequate services and facilities are common in cities of developing countries. (UN, 1996)
Like others part of Ethiopian urban centers, Robe town also have large land related problems such as: squatter settlements on the peripheries of the town especially around Baha Beftu kebeles and Oda Robe kebeles, Illegal subdivision and transfer for land and lack of satisfaction among customers for land delivery system to name a few (Annual report of Robe town Land Development and Management, 2013). In addition, the problem of residential houses is one of the most alarming concerns of the Robe town attributed to the rapid increase in population which eventually leads to increased demand of land. Hence this study is concerned with an attempt to understand the urban land delivery system for residential housing development in selected kebeles of Robe town
1.2 Statement of the problem
The majority of urban residents are forced to live in slums and squatter settlements characterized by the lack of secured tenure, basic services and general poor housing conditions, which are inimical to human wellbeing, physical and economic development (Oruwari, 2006, Hall 2007).It is widely believed that there is imbalance between land demand and supply for residential in urban areas of Oromia Regional state.This factor have been aggravate residential housing shortage in the region from time to time. Moreover, the situations are favoring an open door to informal way of land acquisitions, rent seeking behavior against developmental plan in the country. Reports show demographic pressures, shortage of qualified man power and basic maps, inconsistent regulations and cumbersome bureaucratic tapes were the major factors constraining supply of land for various uses in the Region (GTZ 2006).
According to (Bekele, 2014) land delivery system for residential housing and impacts of unofficial land acquisition for residential housing and other land related bottleneck emerged from rapid rate of urbanization especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Robe town is one of the fastest growing towns in Oromia Regional state. The town is characterized by many land related problems like widespread of and Spreading out of slums and other illegal land development. The towns have been facing with problem of adequate land delivery for residential housing provision like other urban center of the country. Preference of Robe town for construction of residential houses and immigration of peoples to Robe town results difficulty to access land for residential housing provision. For residential housing provision in Robe town is claimed to be inadequate and inefficient. (Robe town land development and Management office, 2017).
The municipality has no proper land development, delivery and management system; lack of skilled human power, management emphasis, and legal framework and shortage of land supply are the major problems in Robe town.Bureaucratic tendencies, inadequate amount of serviced land, shortage of work force, inadequate and distorted urban land information system are factors affecting land delivery system for residential housing development. The land delivery system for inhabited housing development the above problems are expected to be happening in Robe town and other problems like informal settlements and the technical capacities and extensive unlawful practices. To these end, the problem statement of the present research is on enquire of land delivery system for residential housing development to assess the efficient and identify major challenges associated with land delivery system in Robe town.
1.4 Objective of the Study
1.4.1 General Objective
The general objective of the study is to assess the existing land delivery system for residential housing development in Robe town.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
1. To describe the existing land delivery system for residential housing development in Robe town.
2.To identify challenges of land delivery system for residential housing development in Robe town.
3. To determine the impacts of land delivery system on residential housing development in Robe town.
1.5 Research Question
The research is expected to answer the following research questions in order to meet the study objective.
1. What is the process of residential land delivery system in Robe town?
2. What are challenges of land delivery system for residential housing development?
3. What are the impacts of land delivery systems on the residential housing development?
1.6 Significance of the study
The study have policy related, economic and academic significance. The study was identified the land delivery process, factors related to poor land delivery, the impacts and challenges of land delivery system for residential housing development and planning process and autonomy of decision making of the urban land administration process that influences highly the town in land delivery system for residential housing development.Economically, this can enable the urban dwellers to have tenure security and shelter as per minimum standard; attract investment activities to the town and enhances Land Development and Management Office’s revenue to provide basic services to residents of the towns and other service require. The researcher significance of the study can be described as an input to professional and other individuals who in the future may venture to deeply conduct further researches related to the issue, in addition to partial fulfillment of masters in urban management.
1.7 Scope of the study
The scope of this study is geographically limited to Robe town Bale Zone and the study was conceptually focusing on assessing of the land delivery system for residential housing developments. Geographically the study is limited in Robe town Oda Robe and Baha Beftu kebele areas and households.
1.8 Description of the Study Area
Robe town was established in 1923 by the Geda of Abba Bokku Kimo Damboba. In the time there was a serious drought and the ‘Kalus’ (spiritual fathers) pray to God, and then the rain was raining. So that, they said ‘Robe Roba Torbani’ which means ‘raining for the seven days. And later the name ‘Robe’ was given to the town. The town was get its legality as municipal town in 1955 and considered as reform town in 1996. Now the rank of the town is Secondary ‘A’. The town is characterized by informal settlements especially on the periphery until the new development plane was prepared in 2012. Today, Robe town has the area of 8024 hectares. And the town is the capital City of Bale Zone of Oromia since 1985 E.C. (Robe town profile, 2013)
Figure 1.1 Location Map of the study area
Source: Robe Town Administration, (2017)
1.8.1 Topographic, Climatic Conditions and Location of the Study Area
Topographically Robe town has an average altitude of 2560 meters above sea level and is characterized by flat topography which is covered with black and grey soil and potential for mixed land use activities such as settlement and urban agriculture. The land feature of the town is completely different from the mountainous nature of Bale zone administration by its flat plateau topography (Robe town administration, 2017).
The town fails under Weyna-Dega (sub-tropical) agro-ecological zone. The mean annual temperature of the town is 14.9oc, the absolute maximum temperature occurs from January to March and the absolute minimum temperature occurs from October to December. The town is characterized by 2 (two) rainy seasons: June to September summer rainy season and March to May and the annual rain fall of the town ranges between 800mm to 900mm. (NMA, 2013, Robe office).
Astronomically Robe town lies between 703’30” N to 70 10’45” N and 39057’38” E to 400 2’38″E. The town is located within the administrative Zone of Bale in the Oromia regional state, and 430 kilo meters distant from Addis Ababa to South East direction through Shashamane-Goba/Asela-Goba asphalt road. Geographically, the town is bordered by Shaya kebele in the North, Goba town in the South, Nano Robe kebele in the East and Hora Boqa in the Western direction.The 2007 national census reported a total population for Robe town was 72,269 of which 36,746 were male and 35,523 were female (Ethiopian census authority, 2007).
1.8.2 The Socio Economic, Cultural and Demographic Situations of the Town
The town under study is known by its agricultural product market and agro-industry products. Most of the residents are engaged in trade and services (67%) a lot of people are also engaged in mixed agricultural activities (Robe town’s administration, 2017). The town has a government university, two technical and vocational training colleges, and two teachers training colleges, two preparatory and secondary high schools, seven elementary and second cycle schools and eight KGs. There is also a hospital, two health centers, six private clinics and nine pharmacies of which two are private health centers. The town has two large and known weekly open markets called Donsa and Kibtate which help the exchange of huge agricultural products, industrial products and other commodities between the residents of Bale zone themselves and other citizens from different parts of the country’s that, the town is the known center of agro-industry products in the region.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Housing: Housing is much more than mere shelter, it embraces the quality. comfort, social, and community amenities providing all the social services and utilities that go to make a community and neighborhood a live able environment(Ethiopia National Housing Policy,1991).Housing is bound up with concepts such as shelter itself, privacy, location ,environmental amenity and investment (Aribigbola, 2000).
Urban Land Administration: is a basic tool that supports land management and operates within the framework established by land policy and the legal, social, and environmental background of a particular jurisdiction. Tony Burns (2007)
Urban Land Delivery System: Any approach or systems or mechanisms where official or informal that enable people to obtain land for urban housing uses (World Bank, 1991).
Urban Administration: Organ to which urban administration authority and duties have been to exercise such power and duties (Proclamation No.455/2005 of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia).
Urban Land: is a land which is to be found within urban boundaries (proclamation No.272/2002).
Urban Land Development: to shifting the land flee in any number of ways such as changing land forms from a natural or same- natural state for a purpose of housing, sub- dividing real estate in to lots, typically for the purpose of buildings homes(MWUD,2006).
1.10 Organization of the Thesis
The thesis has five chapters. The first chapter was deal with introduce on background of the study, problem of the statement, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, the scope of the study, and description of the study area. Chapter two deals with the review of related literature.The third Chapter describes the research methodology. The fourth chapter focuses as finding study. Finally, in the fifth chapter conclusions and recommendation of the research report was presented.
In conducting this research the following were some of the limitations that affect the relevance and quality of the research. The first limitations were lack of recent and up to-date data regarding the total population of the town. Absent of organized data from the Land Development and Management Office. The respondents who engaged to the questionnaires were inflexibility of collaboration during data gathering.
This chapter explores some available literatures related to land delivery system for residential housing development. Both theoretical and empirical literatures were reviewed. Within the chapter, different perspectives of what constitutes land delivery system for housing development is reviewed in general are also discussed.
2.1 Conceptual of Urban Land Delivery System
Land with all its potential must be provided in the right quantity for the right use at the right place and at the right price. Service providers in land service delivery may be categorized broadly under key thematic areas as they affect the entire spectrum of the land development process. These are legal services, adjudication services, land surveying services, valuation services, estate management services, real estate financial services, planning services, construction services etc. These services are provided by the private sector and others by the public sectors some of which are provided by individuals and others by institutions.
2.2 Theoretical Views of Urban Land Delivery System
The increasing demand for land comes up against limited supply in the formal private land delivery channels or through public land delivery channels. As a matter of fact, access to land for housing is still marked by a range of tenure arrangements and a tendency to use the less expensive customary land delivery channel and informal markets. Between 60 percent and 80 percent of the urban population in Sub-Saharan African cities is estimated to live in informal settlements (UN-Habitat 2010).As a result, most cities are characterized by the coexistence of various land delivery channels with different levels of formality, legality, and legitimacy. A series of obstacles hinders most efforts to reform land administration institutions. Conventional policy options, tools, and procedures tentatively implemented during the past few decades to streamline and unify land markets and improve land administration have achieved limited results (Rochegude and Plançon 2010).
2.3 Empirical Review of Urban Land Delivery System
In many cities of the world, unclear land rights, non-market based processes of land allocation, and a dysfunctional land administration go hand in hand with unplanned and uncontrolled city expansion, resulting in land use patterns that are both very inefficient and very inequitable. From the perspective of populations, costly and unfair access to land and housing has often become a key concern. It is a source of social unrest and political instability. The case of West African countries is particularly informative. Many countries in the region share similarities regarding the legal and institutional framework that governs land and land tenure systems. They also face comparable challenges, especially rapid urban expansion, with the population in sub-Saharan African cities expected to increase by 220 million between 2010 and 2025 (UN-Habitat, 2010).
2.4 International Experience of Land Delivery System (Developed Country)
Sydney, Australia’s largest and oldest city is one of the most beautiful and livable cities in the world, with total population of approximately 40,000 in 1991 and grown to almost 150,000 people at in June 2004.Currently, the population size of the city is approximately Four million and one quarter of Australia’s population lives there. Although a relatively small city by international population standards, Sydney is actively involved in the global economy. Even though Land Delivery process in Sidney involves resolving complicated planning and environmental issues, undertaking at times difficult and costly engineering works and preparing complicated legal documents, the procedures are not as such complex.
With demand falling, as reflected in the recent downturn in the property cycle, the level of vacant lots has increased over the past three years. The Greenfield land supply process typically takes between seven to ten years. Increasing land supply since 2000, just over 20 percent of new homes have been supplied in new release areas. Over next 25 years, up to 40 percent of dwellings will be constructed in Greenfield areas, assisting in housing affordability and choice. To service this forecast, and to meet a likely market upturn, the amount of potential land zoned and serviced for housing will be more than double amounting to 60,000 by July 2008.Furthernmore,the government has zoned more than 17,000 new lots for residential development in Sydney year.
2.4.1 The practice of Urban Land Delivery System in Tanzania (Developing Country)
Dar es Salaam is the largest city in Tanzania with a population estimated around 2,500,000.It is also the country’s richest city and a regionally important economic center. As per Kombi, Jackson W.M. (1994), until 1974, the city’s land could be obtained formally from the government either by direct allocation or by way of premium tendering. Figures quoted by Kombi, Jocks W.M. (1994) indicate that between1978-79 and 1991-92 Dar es Salaam city Council received 261,668 applications for plots but was able to provide and allocate only17, 751.In other words, only 6.8 percent of the applicants got an allocation, the rest had to look elsewhere for their land needs. Furthermore, it is now generally accepted that over 70 percent of Dar es Salaam’s population live in unplanned areas where, invariable, land is obtained through informal means.
126.96.36.199 Urban Land Delivery System in Kenya and Namibia
In Kenya and Namibia, case studies confirm that land delivery system are responding increasingly to the demand from middle and lower middle income groups, which have no access to public land and housing development projects. They are less and less effective in reaching poor people in urban areas, especially in contexts where practices are recognized (Ghana and Uganda) tolerated and Streamlined by inclusive administrative practices (Benin) or not recognized (Cameroon, Senegal).Alternatively, the poor will settle in claimed land in areas unsuitable for urbanization near cities, or in neo-customary development located in the outer periphery of cities, thus accelerating urban sprawling (Kalabamu and Moro long, 2004).
2.4.2 Challenges of Urban Land Delivery System
According to David E.Do wall and Giles Clarke 1996, and their review of 21 case studies a cross
Africa and the Arab States, the main conclusions of a recent inter-regional seminar noted a surprisingly high degree of similarity in common obstacles to access to land: A multiplicity of land delivery mechanisms in urban areas, which has not been acknowledged by government. This has led to the emergence of large irregular settlements which are not or are undersupplied with basic municipal services.Land information systems that are not uniform and are generally inadequate. Access to land for women and the poor is impeded by legal, economic and cultural obstacles. Direct central government interventions in the land market have generally been found to be ineffective and wasteful, while the positive potential for local government has not generally been utilized. In consequence, the public land delivery system has generally not been Responsive to people’s needs.
2.4.3 The Effects of Urban Land Delivery System
The deficient land delivery processes in Bamako have costly social, economic and environmental
Implications over the long term.The most visible impact is that they encourage land development in a way that seldom takes place within a planned spatial development framework and contributes to the development of informal settlements which are lacking basic services (water and electricity).Because of the high costs to access land, households may have to reduce their consumption of non-land and housing goods or may locate in places that are disconnected from jobs. This can contribute to urban sprawl, generate negative environmental impacts from long commutes, and have a detrimental impact on their labor-market outcomes (spatial mismatch).In per urban areas and the rural hinterland, the sale of agricultural land for cheap to developers or Investors (given information and bargaining power asymmetries) may result in a loss of income-
Generating activities, fuel the ranks of informal workers in search of a job in the city center, and
Contribute to the destruction of village social and economic structures.
2.5 Measures of Urban Land Delivery System in Nigeria
To contribute to deepening understanding and documenting the complexity of the customary land delivery system, which is a key part of the informal systems that deliver land and services to the majority of inhabitants of African cities. In the light of limited public sector capacity to supply land for housing and enforce regulations governing new development, an approach different from the conventional one enshrined in government procedures is needed. The absence of any substantial volume of serviced plots made available by public sector agencies, most of the land for urban residential development in Enugu is delivered by indigenous landowning communities and families through more or less formal processes of subdivision and sale. Most of those seeking undeveloped land can only obtain it through the market in subdivided customary land, since little undeveloped land is publicly owned. Even though these communities have not been able to service land and Planning within a Context of Informality: Issues and Trends in Land Delivery, Enugu, and Nigeria Page 18 of 22
2.6 Aspects of Urban Land Delivery System
2.6.1 Customary Land Delivery System (Mainly Informal)
In practice, there are three main ways peri-urban customary land is transferred to buyers: the Subdivision and transfer of individual plots for residential purposes, which is not considered a Legal practice; the sale of large tracts of customary land to investors, developers and speculators, which occurs in the rural hinterland up to about 50 km from the city center; and land subdivisions initiated by Prefects (representatives of the central State), officially to relocate displaced urban households.
2.6.2 Public and Para-Public Land Delivery System
Public land delivery system covers both administrative allocation and market-based forms of land delivery. They include the administrative allocation of residential plots, the auction of serviced land (by definition according to market prices, at least in principle), and the provision of “social housing” (in fact, “social housing” corresponds to programs for access to homeownership).
2.6.3 Formal Private Land Delivery System
They involve either real estate developers or cooperatives. Only about 15 real estate developers are effectively operating in the Bamako urban area as, for decades, the land management and administration framework was not conducive to the development of a formal private land and housing development sector. But cooperative housing, which was originally set up by trade- unions and by professional associations has been flourishing since the early 2000s, with some private developers operating under the status of « housing cooperatives ». It is very successful amongst expatriated Malian communities.
2.7 Urban Land Delivery System in Ethiopia
Land delivery systems in Ethiopia have undergone different land tenure systems. This has largely been a reflection of the prevailing land policy and land holding tenure systems of the country under different governance regimes. Besides, these there are also customary and informal land holding systems, which are commonly known in Ethiopia and other developing countries. The Monarchical feudal regime of Ethiopia had a monopoly of political and economic power for centuries, including the monopoly of ownership of urban land and other property. It was after the emergency of the capitalist economy at beginning of 20th century that, saw the middle classes of starting to own land parcels by way of concession from the government or contracting from the property owners. At that time extensive areas of urban land and numerous houses were vested in the hands of 16 individual lords, aristocrats, loyal families and high government officials. However, some intellectuals and few emerging owners of capital managed to buy some plots of urban lands. All unused land was presumed to be the property of the state. The monarch and feudal nobilities had the right to allocate or reside wherever they liked in any city. On the other hand, the urban poor or low-income groups were compelled to acquire land for their proprietors as a gift, tenancy, in heritance of family, and informal settlement by group. The bulk of the most productive land assets remained in the hands of a few. The emergency and proliferation of early slum areas and the unprecedented rise in urban poverty can be traced back to the feudal ownership of land (Abay T, 2005). It is now mostly acknowledged that the urban poor in developing countries (Ethiopia inclusive) have resorted to informal means of accessing urban land (Marulanda L. and Stein berg, 1991).
2. 8 Regulatory Frame Work of Urban Land Delivery System in Ethiopia
Available statistics for many towns and cities in Ethiopia are far from pleasing. In Masha town for example, the number of unregistered plots has remained high (over 98 %) and has been on the rise between 2004 and 2007 although 2008 statistics are encouraging. In other smaller towns such as Abbiy Addi and Nekemte statistics on UN registered parcels of land have however remained comparatively low. Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia is home to at least 30 % of illegal settlements and this trend has been worsening since1988. It is estimated that more than 70% of Addis Ababa’s population lives in slums and the houses are made predominantly from mud and straw (IHDP, 2008).
2.9 Conceptual Frame Work of Land Delivery System in Ethiopia
The Federal Democratic Republic Government of Ethiopia enacted the state ownership of land in the constitution. The state and regional constitutions as well as urban land proclamations, regulations and rules enacted so far to implement the constitution decrees declared that all land in the country is a state property. Therefore, the Federal Democratic Republic Government of Ethiopia has introduced in major cities lease holding land tenure system by Urban Land Lease Proclamation No.80/1993 then revised with improvement in 2002 and lastly revised in 2011 declares for all city in the town including Robe town. For the detail implementation, the oromia passed the Urban Land Lease Holding Rule No. 123/2015(revised). This new law acknowledges lease system as the only mean to allocate land for different purposes in urban areas.
2.10 Urban Land Market
Land market requires clear and Unambiguous legal frame works for right to hold and to transfer in various ways. Operations, procedures and legal formalities in the transfer of land are not simple and effective. Land price determination requires clear planning provisions and information about infrastructure. The lack of urban plans has made land markets to be informal. Insufficient production of legally developed land has promoted informal and quasi-legal transfer; urban areas are held to not for development but for speculation. Public ownership of land and the lease system of holding provide the bases for land markets. However, currently the land market is inefficient, highly non –transparent (knight Frank, 2009).
2.11 Urban Land Market in Africa
2.11.1 Land through Formal Market
Most analyses of land markets in Africa cities recognize the co-existence of formal and informal land markets. But defining formal and informal market is difficult. As they are often interrelated broadly speaking.Formal land markets are those whose transactions are legally recognized. Whereas informal land market trances ions are not recognized by law or are not officially registered in the governments system. Many African countries recognized dual legal systems of land ownership-common law or civil code law (inherited from colonial governments) and customary law. Common law tenure could include both free hold and lease hold tenure system. In both these systems land is alienable.Which means that land owners can transact sell and transfer the land. If these tenure systems are well managed and administered, and secure the rights of land owners and users, they provide the basis for a robust urban land market. However, in customary tenure options, land is not alienable. Instead, it is collectively owned by a community, clan or family and is not treated as a resource to be sold or transacted in the open market. Communal tenure practices thus typically discourage the existence of an active urban land market. Although they may help some people gain access to urban land (Rakodi and Leduka, 2003).
2.11.2 Land through unofficial Market
“… it is now accepted that, due to a variety of factors, informality is the predominant characteristic of urban growth and that a majority of urban residents, especially the poor, access property rights through transactions occurring outside state regulation and formal land markets”(Rakoddi and Leduka,2003).The informal land market has a large number of socially dominated land market transactions, where the supply and demand of land are mediated more by social relationship than by a financial logic. A study in a South Africa will be shown that although price or cost is still an issue, it is of secondary importance in the way people transact (Marx and Roysten, 2007).
2.12 Matters Detracting From Land Supply in Urban Area
2.12.1 Land for Housing; Provisions, Availability, and Affordability in Africa
Many countries in Africa still have operational systems of traditional land location, for example, stool and skin land in Ghana, alongside and even overlapping the systems based on individual titling derived from European law, public provision of serviced land and housing, especially to low-income households, is on the decline in many African countries for several reasons. These include a lack of resources inadequate administrative and technical capacities, widespread illegal practices and corruption, and lack of political wars, Furthermore development of urban land inherently involves significant risks, which the public sector is usually not well placed to assume responsibility for These risks are consequently borne in such a way that; land under public ownership and control is supplied where there is less demand for it; the housing that is built is not responsive to the demands for land use; and the process often inadvertently subsidizes middle and upper income households rather than the poor. All of these problems lead to higher land prices and, consequently, unaffordable house prices. Some countries have tried to overcome these problems by the creating parastatal bodies, with the responsibility of land development and provision, to; channel land and housing at affordable prices to law-and middle-income households ensure that the land value increases associated with infrastructure provision are no appropriated by private developers; and undertake important but risk project avoided the private sector (McAuslan, 1985).
2.12.3 Inadequate Priority Given to Land and Settlement Development
In many African countries there is no separate provision in the budget of the state for land and settlement development, Rather, funds for land development are provided haphazardly and the Housing and town and country planning subhead. The low priority given to the sector means that land and settlement development has to compete for resource allocation with more pressing political programmers of the government. This leads to long delays in getting funds for land and settlement development activities, and these delays translate into a growing land shortage in the urban area. Even when the funds are provided, it is usually inadequate and according to (McAslan, 1985 and Odunlami, 1989; 54), cannot even provide the services in the limited land that is developed.
2.13 Corruption in the Land Allocation Process
The high level of subsidy in land allocation coupled with the inefficiency in the bureaucracy has also encouraged corruption in the allocation process, reducing it to a form of patronage. An equity into the land development and allocation process in 1980 found it rife with numerous irregularities such as multiple assignment of the same plot, payment and bribes for land, confiscation of land without compensation, and allocation of land reserved for public uses (Friendman,1988;114).
2.14 Lack of Data for planning and land Management purposes
Comprehensive information about land, as earlier noted, is a principal requirement for the effective and efficient management of land, and for the implementation of land policy measures and the achievement of policy objectives. The lack of information leaves the land management system with no option but to rely on the use of ad hoc means of data collection for planning purposes. (Odunlami1989).
2.15 Inadequate and Inappropriate Frame work for Land Management
The existing legislative frame work for land management is a major contributor to both the in ability to ensure the adequate supply and equitable distribution of land in Kano and to the ineffectiveness of the land management system in the city. Neither the land use decree nor the town and country planning law have any provisions dealing specifically with the problems of low- income housing.
2.16 High Standards in Settlement and Shelter Development
The settlement and shelter development standards in Africa are excessively high and contribute to the exclusion of low-income groups from the formal process of land development. Two aspects of the land management system where the high standards are evident are in land subdivision in the control of development activities (Home, 1986).
2.17 Urban Land Policy and the Best Practice of Urban Land Delivery System
2.17.1 Urban Land Policies of China
China, as one country in Asia, has distinct land management practices. (Zhang 2012) notes that the country adopted land banking systems in which there are recognized, hence official agencies governing local land conservations, preparation, and transactions. This transformation in urban land policy has emanated from the local economic characteristics, pressure from peer cities, provincial government policy professionals, and policy making communities. Over the past years, china has been shifting from a centrally planned to a market oriented economy. Land management issues are critical in china’s transformation. Urban land development planning shapes the landscape and sustainability of rapidly growing cities (Zhang, 2012).
2.17.2 Urban Land Policies of Singapore
Singapore is one such country that is an exception in market and state failures in land management. One of the legislation in land policy was the land acquisition Ordinance of 1920, which was amended in 1946 and 1955 to give government more powers to acquire more private land for new town development. Due to the extreme scarcity of land in Singapore, the price of land rises very quickly. To allow the authorities to acquire land quickly and cheaply for public-housing programmers’ various laws were passed were passed regulating compulsory land acquisition. Compulsory land acquisition has been the most effective way of obtaining land for public development. The land acquisition act also establishes resettlement policies which enable large areas of squatter land to be cleared and for the squatters to be re-housed in low cost flats. This has given the squatter population a chance to enjoy better housing and living standards (Housing and Development Boards).
The success of Singapore’s management of urban land resources has been attributed to a number of reasons such as a strong political commitment to public housing; financial commitment which comes in the form of loans and subsidies; legislative support which allows the government to acquire land cheaply and quickly and to exercise legal authority on matters related to public housing development and administration. The success of Singapore’s land management practices has also been linked to the countries small size and population. Singapore has a comprehensive land information system which meets the needs of all government departments with particular interests in land as well as providing a ‘one stop shop’ for the public. A good land information system base in central to land management practice in obtaining a range of benefits including clear property title, efficient and transparent land transactions, better evaluation of government land policies(Jain,2008).
2.18 Land Management Practices in selected African cities
2.18.1 Johannesburg, South Africa
Land Management Practices in the post, apartheid era are directed towards ensuring that well located land is allocated specifically for affordable housing options (Plan act 2007).
2.18.2 Kigali, Rwanda
After the independence of Rwanda, the situation of land governance has not changed much.90% of the country’s arable land is still governed by customary law. The written land law still applies to a small number of persons and religious congregations. government applies more often in urban areas and businesses communities, During these periods, the government gave an important role to the “communes” in the administration of land through the”Loin communal’ of 23/1/63, the protection of rights relating to registered land under the customary law became the responsibility of the commune (see Niyonsenga, 2013; Rwand Governance Advisory council, 2011; Umoh, 2012).
The provisions of this law were virtually nullified by Degree No.09/76 concerning the purchase and sale of customary land rights or land use rights. While at the beginning of the 60’s the Government banked on abolishing the system of “Ibikingi” to put them under the authority of the “communes”. In 1976, degree No.09/76 of 04/03/76 concerning the purchase and sale of land customary rights, or the right of soil use, authorized individual to purchase and sell customary land after application to the competent authorities, and subject to retaining at least 2 hector of land.
The buyer was also to justify that he did not have land property equal to at least 2 hector. Ever since, the Government recognized only the right of ownership based on land registration and became, therefore, the eminent land owner. Rwanda appears to be on good way with regard to land management (seeNiyonsenga2013;Rwanda GovernanceAdvisorycouncil,2011;Umoh,2012).
Land registration and management policies have been elaborated and completed. Land tenure is legally ensured for every owner. Although efforts have been made in this regard, urbanization issues based on land issues are still alarming because of the rapid urbanization process (Manirakiza 2012).In Kigali, GIS has been incorporated in urban land management to increase land tax collection revenue (Osterberg et al.2006).Kigali City council (KCC) Cadastral Information System is linked to a land tax revenue billing system could pay back the development investments in a relatively short time. A new land policy draft was finished in January 2004, and the land for its application was published in September 2005.The Land policy calls for rational use and sound management of national land resources and is based on master plans. The policy also provides development of land use plans based on suitability of the areas/lands/swamps thus distinguishing the different categories of land and their purpose.
2.19 Urban Land Policy Measures
2.19.1 Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Urban Land policy measures
2.19.2 Availability of Information
The availability of adequate information determines the ability to control land owner ship, control and regulate the use of land, and the ability to develop an effective taxation system. It also affects the ability to acquire land for public uses. The lack of information on land ownership is one of the major problems hindering effective control over development, and the creation of an effective taxation system in most developing countries (McAuslan, 1985).
2.19.3 Allocation of Adequate Resources
The implementation of urban land policy programmer usually requires large financial resources, especially if the intention of the public sector is to intervene in the land market on a large scale. Financial resources are required to fund land-assembly programmers, provide services and infrastructure, implement land use plans, and ensure the availability of adequate institutional framework in terms of man power and adequate operating equipment (McAulan, 1985).
2.19.4 Administration System
The outcome in the implementation of land policy measures is also influenced by the level of harmony between the different levels of governments is the application of the policy measures, and by the political and administrative framework within which the measure operate. Conflicts between the different levels of governments may hamper the effective implementation of land policy measures (bid).
2.20 Urban Land Delivery in Robe Town
Land delivery system for residential in Robe town first starts from the steps of identifying the land use objectives and principles that pertaining to residential. Focusing on the nature and pattern of development within the existing city boundaries and looking at the area of land surrounding urban community that existing land uses and factors affecting the present and future land use. Integrating the preceding steps and then exploring and identifying different tools which use to implement the proposed plan.Some of these land use plan implementation tools are standards, norms, policies and urban land related regulations and different actors who will participate at different stages in the process of operational functions.
2.21 Literature Gap
Even though different scholars did researches and fill different gaps with their research on Land Delivery System for Housing Development, no one try to do researches in Robe town regarding Land Delivery System for Housing Development. So this research was fill gap of the process of land delivery system for residential and major challenges of land delivery system for residential.
The literature was constructed from current a document which was connecting to the topic of the study. The researcher was identify that the land delivery system in different context and its contribution to housing development in the past time and their role in economic growth of the countries.
This chapter gives an outline of what was done and how it was done to find answer to the predefined research questions. The research was conducted in Robe town to assess urban land delivery system for residential housing development .Descriptive research type was used to complete this study. Besides survey type of research strategy has also be used. Were both primary and secondary data collected by via questionnaire, interview, observation and document review. Facts, events and data obtained through various data collection methods explained. In addition, the researcher was carefully record data to be obtained, analyze data and present findings.
3.2 Research Approach
To answer the main research question, the researcher used both quantitative and qualitative research approaches. For quantitative type research sequential questions of both open and closed were designed on paper before the data collection and conducted via questionnaires on the random sample. Qualitative research was also used. In this case a structured and semi-structured question is used to capture unforeseen detain cause interview questions. It was used to find out in depth information that supports the study. Finally both approaches in combination used and supported one another in this study.
3.3 Research Design/Methods/
The descriptive study was employed in this study. Research design implies the way the study is planned and conducted. The main purpose of this study was to assess the urban land delivery system for residential housing development in case of Robe town. The research design was structurally arranged for data collection, measurement and analysis in a manner to achieve the relevance of the research. This was enabling the researcher to keep the boundaries of the study and to anticipate the potential problems occurred in the actual data collection and analysis of the study.
3.4 Sample Design
The sample design describes the proposed target population and the sampling frame of the study area. It also identifies the sampling size, unit and techniques to conduct the intended research. Therefore, the following components of this sample design are proposed by the researcher.
3.4.1 Population or Universe
The total populations of the Robe town 72,269 among these 36,746 male and 35,523 are female respectively. According to both kebele administrative informed that the population of two kebeles of Robe town administration (Baha beftu kebeles and Oda Robe kebeles) the total population of two kebeles was 17,040 and 14,985 respectively.
Robe town has three administration namely,Baha Beftu kebele ,Café Donsa kebeles and Oda Robe kebele respectively. The entire households who haven’t got land for residential housing purpose in Robe town, that applying to get land for residential housing from Baha Beftu and Oda Robe kebele are proposed population of the study from which the sample was drawn. The two kebeles selected purposively.According to data that obtained from the two kebele administrations the total numbers of households of two kebeles who have got land for residential housing 950 and the total numbers of two kebeles who have not got land for residential housing 893 respectively.
3.4.2 Sampling Frame
The sampling frame consists of a list or quasi of units composing a population from which the sample was selected. The sampling frame of this study was the list of 950 in habitant households who have got land for residential housing from two kebeles (Baha Beftu Robe and Oda Robe) and 893 inhabitants households who have not got land from two kebeles (Baha Beftu and Oda Robe) and Mayor of the town , Robe town land Development and Management heads and two Official experts and kebele level (One from Baha Beftu and One from Oda Robe) totally 6 were taken as target population of this study purposively.
3.4.3 Sampling Unit
The sample unit for the study was sampled households in the study area town administration, officials and experts, kebele (Baha Beftu and Oda Robe) in the town.
3.4.4 Sampling Technique
In the study both probability and non probability sampling techniques could be used. In probability sampling techniques the representative sample was randomly selected from each study kebeles. In non probability sampling techniques purposive sampling techniques was used to select a representative sample for interview from 6 people in the study area.
3.4.5 Sample size
The sample describes the proposed target population and the sampling of the study in the study area. It also identifies the sampling size, unit and technical aspects to conduct the intended research. The formula below was used to calculate the sample size as:
Kothari, 2004 n=z²xpqxN
e² (N-1) +Z²xpq
Where n: is the sample size for a finite population
N: size of population which is the number of households
P: population reliability (frequency estimated for a sample of size n),
Where P is 0.5 which is taken for all developing countries population and p+q=1
e : margin of error considered is 10% for this study.Za/2: normal reduced variable at 0.05 live of significance z is 1.96
According to the above formula,
The sample size for two kebeles of household who have land for housing (Baha Beftu and Oda Robe) is = z ²xpqxN
e² (N-1) +z²xpq
n= (1.96)²x0.5×0.5×950 = 902.5 ? 903 ? 83
(0.1)²x (950 -1) + (1.96)²x0.5×0.5 10.35 11
The sample size for two kebeles of households who have not land for residential housing (Oda Robe and Baha Beftu) is:
N= (1.96)²x0.5×0.5×893 = 848.35 = 848.35 ? 849 ? 84
(0.1)²x (893 -1) + (1.96)²x0.5×0.5 8.92+0.95 9.87 10
So the household sample that have land for housing 83 from both kebeles and households sample that have not land for residential housing purpose 84 total sample size (83+84=167) and 6 from official target sample.
The researcher could be sampled 167 households from the study area. In addition to that 6 individuals were selected for an interview that is, from town administration, official experts and from kebele administration, by using purposive sampling techniques.
3.5 Methods and Instruments of Data Collection
The stated or intended objectives were achieved and addressed by survey method research questionnaires. Data collection was conducted using several data collection instruments. These include common data collection tools like questionnaires, interview, observation and document review
The researcher prepared and designed questionnaires to gather reliable data and information from all groups of income level (who haven’t land, and the residents who have got land for housing purpose).The questionnaire was included both open ended and close-ended question.
The researcher was gathered reliable data and information from the Mayor of the town, manager of urban Land Development and Management Office, two experts from Land Development and Management Office and two kebele leaders through structured and unstructured interviews.
The researcher also employed field observation as tools of data collection. To catch up pertinent data structured observation was customized. Through this method handful and recent data were observed by the researcher about illegal construction in the town, the trends of the city, livelihood and socio-economic conditions of all groups of income levels, the residential housing conditions, Land speculation, and infrastructural provision in the field.
3.5.4 Document Review
Document review was undertaken with a particular emphasis on data relevance and resemble to the research topic. Document such as guide lines, proclamation, official reports, diaries and letters related to urban land were reviewed to get information related to program performance
3.6 Sources of Data
For this study both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from both primary and secondary data sources. The reason for using both quantitative and qualitative data types is to gather reliable data and to increase the validity of data and findings.
3.6.1 Primary Data Sources
Primary data was collected by the researcher, to obtain first hand information and reliable data to this study. These were collected directly from sample population, from selected officials and observation. The method use by the researcher includes questionnaire, observation and interview.
3.6.2 Secondary Data Sources
The researcher was used secondary data organized and published by different organizations. These include statistics and historical documents. The Land Development and Management Office documents, reports, statistics, charts, policy manuals, declarations and regulations was also be used in the study. The sources of unpublished data contain diaries, letters and reports. Different websites were also used. Finally both primary and secondary sources were integrated to produce a coherent research result.
3.7 Data Analysis and Interpretation
Both primary and secondary data was analyzed and presented by using statistical tools like computer, SPSS 21 version, Excel and were made in tally, tabulation and organized. Subsequently data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The qualitative data were analyzed and presented in text form, while the quantitative data were analyzed and presented using statistics such as frequencies, percentages and averages. After the data were analyzed, the study findings were presented using tables, graphs, pie charts and text forms.
3.8 Data Presentation
After data analysis the researcher was present new analysis results and findings by using tables, graphs, through photographs, maps, figure and pie charts.
The selected research methodology was not being fully applied during the data collection period; so the researcher was change the method accordingly and this may affect the expected result of the study.
This chapter of the study includes the research design. Population and sample of the study were identified using sample size determination formula. The two research techniques and several data collection instruments were customized. Data analysis process and presentation tools were identified.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
This chapter presents the results of findings of the study, the responses were made by questionnaire, the schedules was administered, the sampled groups were households who have and not have land for residential housing development specially residential housing in Robe town and the interviews were made and administered by interviewing officials of Robe town land development and management office. The overall objective of the study was to assess the urban land delivery system for residential housing development in Robe town. Data was analyzed from different responses from the sampled groups by using (Statistical package for social science) SPSS and Excel. Primary and secondary data was collected and analyzed thoroughly. The primary research question in the study was to the assess land delivery system for residential housing development in Robe town.
4.2 Response Rate
The research questionnaires and interview guided was prepared in English and translated in local language (Afan Oromo) to make easy and clear for the respondents in order to gain convenience and to accurate data. Totally 167(100%) questionnaires were duplication each research question and distributed to the selected samples. Out of these 162(97%) were returned. The respondent rate is 97% in field survey and the research technique is random sampling method based on probability sampling. Among Robe Mayor of the town, Managers and two expertise of Land Development and Management office, two local kebele leaders totally 6 official was responded to interview.
4.3 Socio-Demographic Profile of Respondents
In this study sex, age, marital status, family size, educational level, occupation and duration of respondents in the town have been taken as indicators of the general profile of respondents for the field survey conducted through questionnaire. So all of the profiles of the respondents the researcher described at the following one by one to how can explain the socio economic of the study area or back ground of respondents.
4.3.1 Sex and Age of Respondents.
As indicated in Figure 4.1 the highest numbers of household heads are male that accounting 93(57.4%), while the female headed the respondents are little that accounting 69(42.6%). Regarding to sex the female headed households not equal to male headed household on the way of acquiring and owning land for housing development because majority of the economy on the hands of male. In other way male respondents easy accessible than female respondents during distribution of survey questionnaires, also the female makes their husband to fill the questionnaires rather than filling them self. In addition to this the way of living, the poverty, cultural views of the society influences the female rather than male respondents since more of females are engaged in homemaker activities. This tells that the share of female in accessing land for housing development is very small when contrast with male and suffering more females comparatively males. Also this shows that females are less exploit from land delivery which takes place in Robe town when compared with male respondents.
Figure 4.1 Sexes of the Respondents
4.3.2 Age of the Respondents
According to the respondents 18-30 years accounting 80(49.4%) 31-40 years accounting66 (40.7%) 41-50 years accounting 9(5.6%) above 50 years 7(4.3) accounting respectively. The data of respondents show majority of respondents were at the age of 18-30 years 80(49.4%).This range of age 18-30 years 80 (49.4%) was a productive age and a demand of high cumulative of wealth. The age of respondents have a connotation on the demand of land in the town. Because of these respondents have more capable to work and earn more income which enables them to fit their high potential demand of residential housing development in the town.
Figure 4.2 Ages of the Respondents
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3.2 Marital Status and Family Size of Respondents
The marital status and family data of the respondents assembled from the field are presented in following table 4.1
Table 4.1 Marital Status and Family Size of the Respondents
Categories Levels Frequency Percent Accumulative percent
Marital status Single 25 15.4 15.4
Married 115 71.0 86.4
Divorced 16 9.9 96.3
Widowed 6 3.7 100
Total 162 100
Family Size 1-3 95 58.6 58.6
4-6 50 30.9 89.5
7-9 14 8.6 98.1
10 & above 3 1.9 100
Total 162 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
As showed in table 4.1 above, accounting 115 (71.0%) respondents were married 25(15.4%) were single and 16(9.9%) respondents are divorced and 6(3.7%) respondents are widowed respectively. Consequently, the natural increase of the population remained high in the town. The demand of land for residential housing is reasons have become urgent issues for the urban administration at least for the pending one and two decades for the accumulation of existed poor land delivery system to demand existed in the town.
Generally, 95(58.6%) of the respondents have had 1-3 50(30.9%) have 4-6 14(8.6%) have 7-9 and 3(1.9%) have 10 and above family size. This table might increase rapidly in the town because 121(74.7%) of the respondents were married. As well, the age group that the majority of the respondents laid has also added to the addition of household family size. This again aggravates household family size. This again aggravate household ratio to family size.
4.3.3 Educational level, Occupation and Duration of Respondents
Data gathered from the field survey on educational level, occupational and time duration of respondents in the town are presented as follows in the table 4.2
Table 4. 2 Educational level, Occupation and Duration of the Respondents
Categories Status Frequency Percent Cumulative percent
Educational level Cannot write and read 22 13.6 13.6
Primary education (1-8) 29 17.9 31.5
Secondary education (9-12) 40 24.7 56.2
Certificate 12 7.4 63.6
Diploma 34 21.0 84.6
First Degree and above 25 15.4 100
Total 162 100
Status of Employments Employed at private sector 26 16.0 16.0
Employed at public sector 49 30.2 46.3
Dependent 35 21.6 67.9
Others 52 32.1 100
Total 162 100.0
Duration of the respondents in the town 21 years 37 22.8 100
Total 162 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
As shown in the table 4.2 the educational category of respondents is extremely different. Much of the respondents accounting up 111(68.5%) has above secondary educational 29(17.9%) respondents has Primary education 22(13.6%) respondents has the ability of read and write and 75 (46.3%) governmental and private sector employee. This helps the researcher to get acknowledgeable information without difficulty. Education is one of the pivotal points in measuring the potential power of individuals. It is an indicator of the respondents reply as well as reasoning power. The educational level helps to judge power of thinking and reflecting unbiased facts of the respondents in this study. Occupation wise the respondents engaged in government body accounts nearly half percent of the respondents 49( 30.2%) and the respondents that employed in different private sector is 26 (16%) also dependent that helped by their relative, friend and other person is 35(21.6%)and others accounting 52(32.1%) respondents respectively. This indicated that many of respondents either governmental employers or private employers that their income is limited. Based on duration in the town years less than 5 years accounting 29(17.9%) 5-10 years 57(35.2%) 11-20 years 39 (24.1%) greater than 21 years 37(22.8%) respondents accounting respectively.According to the data of the respondent’s shows the majority of the respondents have been lived in Robe town for less than 10 years. This indicated that Robe is more urbanized faster and high migration towards to town and high fertilities. This is the result of recent urbanization process that persists in Robe town. This might be related to the legal status of the town people joined the town from the surrounding areas. So it results the high demand of land for housing purpose and sharing the limited land that supplied for the residential.
4.3.4 Income Level of the Respondent
As data analyzed 500ETB 45(27.8%) 501-1000 ETB 30(18.5%) 1001-2000 ETB 44(27.2%) and 2001 ETB and above 43(26.5%) income per month respectively.From this we have observed that low and medium income earners 89(54.9%) are greater than the size of high income earners. This shows that majority of the population class survive with poverty and below poverty line. So, it is very important to have separate rules and regulation that enhance the capacity of the poor in order to part-take in formal land delivery process of Robe town since land for housing is a basic human right and affording land to the poor society play their role in community developments.
Table 4.3 Income Level of the Respondents
Income level of the Respondents Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
500 ETB 45 27.8 27.8
501-1000 ETB 30 18.5 46.3
1001-2000 ETB 44 27.2 73.5
2001 ETB and above 43 26.5 100
Total 162 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.4 The Process of Respondents to get Land for Residential Housing Purpose
4.4.1 Access to get Land Plot for Housing Development
The Existing land supply system in the Robe town made the people to look for land through informal way. As indicated in table 4.4, the respondents have got land for various purpose using different methods in the town. To mention the land acquisition methods prevailed in the town were the land allocation by government, land purchased from individuals, inheritance and others ways. As observed from this data respondents who got land informally were greater the allocated by RTLDM Office. This indicated the how much the informal land acquisition becomes dominant in the town. As average 37(46.25%) of the respondents purchased land from individuals informally the contrary of land policy and developmental plan of the town.
Table 4.4 The access of respondents to get Land for Residential Purpose
Ways of Land Acquisition Frequency Percent
Allocated by Government 15 18.75
Bought a housing and its foundation 37 46.25
Inherited from family 23 28.75
Through lease system 5 6.25
Total 80 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
As described in the table 4.4, 15(18.75%) households who have land for housing land by the allocated by the government. In different regime and 37(46.25%) of land owned got land by buying land with its foundation. The remaining 23(28.75%) has accessed land by inherited from their family or relative and the rest 5(6.25%) has accessed land before the lease proclamation come in to force.
4.4.2 The Steps and Procedures of Land Deliver for Residential Housing Purpose in Robe Town
As survey indicated in table 4.5 the questionnaires conducted with 82 applicant households who have not land for residential purpose and the applied to get land for residential housing developments, 16(19.5%) have the awareness of the steps that necessity for land acquisitions. But 66(80%) or greater than half of the respondents does not have the awareness of land delivery process and steps in which applicants should be pass in order to got land for shelter.
Table 4.5 The Steps and Procedure of Land Delivery System of Respondents.
Do you know the steps in which the applicants should pass through to get land from the urban land development and management office for residential housing development? Options Frequency Percent
Yes 16 19.5
No 66 80
Total 82 100
Source: Field Survey 2018
4.4.3 Preconditions and Steps that Applicants Pass Through to acquire Land for Residential Housing Development in Robe Town.
The responses with regards to preconditions to get land for residential housing purpose in Robe town are presented in table 4.6 The Supply side indicated that deposing part or all of the construction cost in blocked or other account and signing an agreement concerning lease pay-outs for land and construction are precondition to get land for residential housing purpose in the town.
Table 4.6 Preconditions that Applicants Pass Through to Acquire Land for Residential Housing
Question Option frequency Percent
What is obligatory steps in which the applicants should pass through in order to get plot of land for residential housing purpose? Deposing part of the construction cost in blocked account 18 22.5
Sign or agreement concerning housing standard time of construction and other issues 16 20
Support letters from different government agencies 19 23.75
To have ID cards of residence from a given kebele 27 33.75
Combination of all 80 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
Indicted in table 4.6 above 27 (33.75%) said that having the kebele ID card is the primary precondition to get land and to form housing cooperatives and to considered letters from kebele or from the sector that applicant abode is the criteria to get land for residential housing development. In general, as the respondent was responded that having ID card of residence from a given kebele 27(33.75%), Deposing part of the construction cost in blocked account 18(22.5%).Support letters from different government agencies 19(23.75%).Sign an agreement concerning residential housing standards, time of construction and other issues 16(20%) the criteria the prioritized by applicants in order to get pilot of land for residential housing.
4.4.4 Duration to Acquire and Own Land for Residential Purpose in Robe Town
As indicated in Table 4.7, tidy, irrelevant and long process land acquisition by residents of Robe Town is one of factor that affects the efficiency of land delivery. To acquire and own land for residential housing in Robe town does not accessed easily. 1-3 years 18(21.9 %) 3-4years 8(9.7%) greater than 4 years 6(7.3%) and I don’t know the time to get land for residential purpose 36(43.9%) of respondents that need land and got land responded. As majority of the respondents, observations and interview them described to get land and owned it takes one to two years this is a long time for that does not have housing and burned in rent house, so this results for informal land transaction.
Table 4.7The Length of the Time to Get Land and Own for Residential Housing in Robe Town
Years Frequency Percent
1-2 years 18 21.9
2-3 years 8 9.7
3-4 years 14 17
greater than 4 6 7.3
I don’t know 36 43.9
Total 82 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.4.5 Transparency of Land Delivery System for Residential Housing in RTLDMO
Transparency is one a core element of good governance is any governmental and non-governmental organization, to answer the need and wants to satisfy the customer on the service that Robe town Land Development and Management Office official respondents expressed their feelings as there is no sufficient transparency of land delivery process of procedures during they perform land related issue for residential housing purpose.
As described in Figure 4.3 majority accounting 104 (64.2%) of the respondents replayed there is no transparency during land delivery system. But very little accounting 37(22.8%) respondents answered that there is not much but small amount of transparency was practiced. The other accounting 21(12.96%) responded that they don’t know about Robe LDM office performance whither, they perform or not with accordance of transparency.
Figure 4.3 Transparency of Robe towns Urban Land Delivery System
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.4.6 Satisfaction Standards of Residents on Robe Town Land Delivery Process
According to survey conducted and described in table 4.8 respondents accounting highly satisfied 6(7.5%) Satisfied 7(8.75%) undecided 20(25%) dissatisfied 37(46.25%) and highly dissatisfied 10(12.5%) according to this the researcher concluded 37(46.25%) of the respondents that owned house not satisfied by the process of land delivery system of Robe town land delivery process.
Table 4.8 The Satisfaction of Respondents on Land Delivery System of Robe Town
Question Option Frequency Percent
How much you are satisfied by the land delivery system of the town urban land development and management office? highly satisfied 6 7.5
Satisfied 7 8.75
Undecided 20 25
Dissatisfied 37 46.25
Highly dissatisfied 10 12.5
Total 80 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.4.7 Robe Town Land Use System
Robe is one of the fastest growing towns in oromia region, of Ethiopia and it was located within 430 kilometers from Addis Ababa. Robe town has expanded to the four directions, so according to the interview respondents while the contemporary housing is settled to nearby the boundary of local kebeles. According to RTLDMO because of high immigrant and population growth to the town there is high land demand and generate housing shortage problem in the town. It results for squatting problem that shown in the town. The structure plan of Robe town administration has proposed the major part of the town for residential housing purpose. (Robe town annual report, 2017/2018)
Figure 4.4 Robe Town Land Use Type
Source: Robe Town Land Development and Management Officials 2018
188.8.131.52 Proposed Land Use
According to proposed land use of Robe town, land use is proposed by considering future sustainability of the town (Robe town’s annual report, 2017/2018). As described in the Table 4.9 below 61.84% of land from that Robe town has consisted it employ for residential housing purpose, this shares was above half of the towns land. But it did not perform as the standard because of illegal sub-division of land and poor performance of the delivery process which seen in Robe town LDMO,As observation conducted in the field, illegal settlements was expanded its boundaries from time to time, on the land that proposed from residential housing purpose or not. In addition to this informal construction of residential housing on the land that proposed for green and environmental sensitive area of land obstacles the future sustainability of the town land use plan.
Table 4.9 The proposed Land Use
No. Land Use Type Planned or proposed Actual Practice or Implemented Remark
In hector Percent In hector Percent
1 Service 202.20 2.52 78 38.57
2 Residential 4058.3 50.75 2510 61.84
3 Green Area 15.25 0.19 18 118.0
4 Industry 566.08 7.05 70 13.26
5 Commercial 255.16 3.18 170 66.62
6 Mixed Use 798.33 9.71 130 16.28
7 Infrastructure 1415.43 17.64 220 15.54
8 Reserved Area 669.20 8.34 138 20.62
9 Administration(Offices) 44.05 0.62 37 83.99
10 Total 8024 100.00 3371 42.01
Source: Robe town Land Development and Management Office, 2018
4.5 The Challenge of Land Delivery System on Residential Housing Development in Robe Town
As Analysis under taken in Robe land development and management offices show there are unfair distribution of land, mismatch of demand and supply of land bureaucratic steps and procedures of land delivery system and other problems related to supply of the towns land by the town land development and management. In addition to this, According to respondents who have got land replayed and described in table 4.10 inadequate institutional capacity accounting 30(37.5%),Inefficient and ineffective land management price accounting 34(42.5%)and poor know -how in rules, proclamation and other legal frame works accounting 16(20%).
In general, the responses of households who have land as responded the major cause for poor urban land delivery is related to inefficient and ineffective land management practice, next to this inadequate institutional capacity is also in second major problem which delayed land delivery system in Robe town. The list one is poor know-how the rules and regulations is executed to in intended goals. This poorly functioning land delivery process in the town leads to several effects including proliferation of squatter settlements, expansion of slum areas, speculation and other social, economical and environmental problems which described in details as follows
Table 4.10 Shows the Major Reasons for Land Delivery Process
Question Option Frequency Percent
What are the main cause of poor urban land delivery system of Robe town urban land Development and Management office? Inadequate institutional capacity 30 37.5
Inefficient and ineffective land management and practice 34 42.5
Poor know-how in rules proclamation 16 20
Total 80 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.5.1 Negative Effect of Land Delivery Systems
The demise of the formal land supply his subsequently seen the emergence of opportunistic and informal of land supply tendencies. According to data shows 15 (18.75 %) of households have turned to the face of informality to compensate for the deficits of the formal land market, 39(48.75%) expansion of informal settlements, 25(31.25%) land speculation behavior has also been on the rise in the informal private land market and 1(1.25%) illegal sub-division with the bulk of private land suppliers resorting to speculative behavior responsible hiking the value of land pilots. As table 4.13 replayed illegal sub-division expansion of informal settlements is another possible and significant negative effect of poor land delivery because of the worsening land supply situation in Robe town .this is a result for most people option to informal land delivery system.
Table 4.11 The Possible and Significant Negative Effect of Land Delivery System
Question Option Frequency Percent
What do you think are the possible and significant negative effect of land delivery system? Informal transaction 15 18.75
Expansion of informal settlements 39 48.75
Land speculation 25 31.25
Illegal sub-division 1 1.25
Total 80 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.5.2 The Negative Effects of the Town Land Delivery System on Future Development
Propagation of informal settlements in one of headache for Robe town LDM Office as well as for town administration as field observed and as documentary reviewed. The reason land rule is alienable by unofficial land occupants. In addition to this, poor implementation of town’s development plan and rejection of land released legal frameworks are the major negative effects of poor land delivery system.As the survey employed and described in table 4.12, the 60 (75 %) households who have land is responded the major poor implementation town development plan is the case of poor land delivery system. Next to this, as 11(13.75 %) responded proliferation of informal settlements is the other effects for formal land delivery system. As 7(8.75%) responded the land rule and regulation is not respected and executed well, because of informal land subdivision and poor performance of land delivery for housing and 2(2.5%) respondents accounting others.
Table 4.12 The Negative Effects of Land Delivery System on future Development
Question Option Frequency Percent
What are the major negative effects of the town land delivery system on future development? Proliferation of informal settlements 11 13.75
Poor implementation of towns development plan 60 75
Rejection of the land legal frame work 7 8.75
Other 2 2.5
Total 80 100
Source: Field Survey 2018
4.5.3 Man power resource of Robe town Land Development and Management Office
According interview of Robe town Land development and management office managers has supposed to have total of 46 statutory employees in all its departments and sections. However, the information from officials of the land development and Management office and the existing data show that the total number of current employees is 19.This reveals the existing 19 employees which is 41.3% of the total required are either working the jobs of 27(58.6%) employees on vacant positions in addition to their work or these jobs are ignored to some extent.
On the other side, education level, experience and field of study of existing employees are not as per the standard required. These show that there are capacity building works, but not achieved the target required in capacity building and assign the employer with minimum positional requirement. Furthermore, most of study area identify the employees has the back ground in urban related courses like urban management, urban planning, urban engineering, GIS, information technology and the like but nearest to half of the worker has unrelated educational back ground. This is adversely influenced the effective and efficient operational performance of the land development and Management Office of Robe town.
Table 4.13 Human Resource of Robe town Land Development and Management Office
No. Departments Allowed position Vacant position Available Staff Remark
Number in Dep. Number Percent Number Percent
1 Head, Deputy and core process owner of land development and transfer 18 11 61 7 38.8
2 Core Process owner of Land resource Management and delivery 16 9 56.25 7 43.75
3 Core Process owner land laws Monitoring and evaluation 12 7 58.3 5 41.6
4 Total Number of employee 46 27 58.6 19 41.3
Source: Robe town Land Development and Management Offices, 2018
4.6 The Impacts of the Land Delivery System on Residential Housing Development in Robe Town
According to secondary data that the collected from Baha Beftu and Oda Robe kebele the applicants that registered to get land for residential housing in 82 households. This shows that there is high demand of land for residential housing in the town.
The Table 4.14 on data analyses 28(34.1%) of the respondents that have not land is restricted them self due to financial constraints that happened, next to this 36(43.9%) of respondents hindered due to bureaucratic, cumbersome and length of process and corruption that urban land development of Robe town committed. Also 14(17%) of the respondents, responded that the supply of land that allocated by the government for residential housing development was limited and that land allocated by the government sold by high bid price.4(4.8%)of respondents they not want land for residential housing in Robe this described that they have house in other place or prefer rent house.
Table 4.14 The Impacts of Land Delivery of Robe Town
Question Options Frequency Percent
Why you do not acquire or owned land for Housing development in the town? I do not want land for housing development 4 4.8
Land allocation for housing development by the government is limited 14 17
Due to financial constraint that I felt 28 34.1
Due to bureaucratic, cumbersome and lengthy process and corruption 36 43.9
Total 82 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.6.1 Growth of Slum in Robe Town
Expansion of slum areas with legal but substandard settlements which mostly owned by kebele administration are observed mainly in center of the town. As head of Robe Town administration pointed that most houses in Robe town are below standard.
Figure 4.5 Informal Settlements on the Oda Robe way to Hora Boka
Source: Field Observation, 2018
4.6.2 Propagation of illegal settlements in Robe Town
The gap between demand and supply has been exhibited in Robe town which has strong relation with housing development which determines both the success and failure of housing development. As information from 82 of the members of the sample focus Robe town land development office, the major cause of squatting in the town is shortage of land supply.The urban Land Development and Management Office of Robe town which there is a vacant land but not development for residential purpose within the boundary planned.
4.6.3 Social, Economical and Environmental Problems of Squatter Settlements
Information from the town land development and management office indicates that even though there is no exact data on the social, economical and environmental problems which are related to land delivery system of the town, there are many indicators which can be observed really in the, socially, since most migrant reside within the center of the town, there is overcrowds, unemployment and crime with in the area relative to periphery.
4.7 Land Assumption in Robe Town
Land assumption which is related to several factors both on the demand and supply side are being observed in Robe town. On the supply side, as analyzed and discussed in previous topics, bottlenecks in the availability of serviced and slow provision of infrastructures and services are the major causes of land speculation. On other side, it is observed that many peoples in town want to have wide area of land without the permission of the town land development and management office by buying from different persons. They simply did very scattered and below standard development on the land and their intention are to get formally by the land Development and Management office
4.8 Urban Land Market in Robe Town
As researcher observation and interview conducted in the Robe town Land Development and Management Office land market requires understandable and unmistakable legal frameworks for rights to hold and to transfer the land in different ways. Operations, measures and legal formalities in the transfer of land are not simple and effective. Land price determination requires clear planning provisions and information about infrastructure. The lack of implementation urban plans has made land markets to be informal. Insufficient production of lawfully developed land has promoted informal and quasi-legal transfer; urban areas are held not for development but for speculation. Public ownership of land and the lease system of holding provide the basis for land market. However, currently the land market is inefficient and highly non-transport.
4.9 Land value and price of land rent in Robe Town
To examine the worth of land for inhabited use in Robe town, different related secondary data was reviewed as presently, the ordinary bench mark price of 244.07 birr per square meter. Even though no single bidder was permitted to by more than one tender document for the same plot, there was no official ground to stop such several purchases. Yet it is likely that many several biddings occurred. The consequence of bidding implement showed that the smallest bid price was 200 birr per square meter and the maximum was 300 birr per square meter, indicative of that the minimum attainment price was 200,000 birr for a 160 square meter plot and the highest acquirement price was 350,000 birr for a 250 square meter plot. According to the interview respondents the researchers conclude the price of land for residential purpose is very high in the Robe town.
4.10 Housing Condition in Robe
Building of housing in Robe town has diverse standards with respect to similar locality in agreement with official grading that go by 1st,2nd and 3rd principles are specifically about building type and substance, limits on developed land and the vacant space to be kept. Moreover, threshold and range standards that defined the lower and upper limits of the size of population and area to be serviced by a particular community facility are not clearly indicated in the existing standards.
4.11 Housing Building Standards in Robe Town
According to Robe Town land development and Management office officials responded the housing/building standards of low income housing in Robe town is mainly concerned with modernity or performance standards which define the quality of construction, the type of material to be used and the quality of service that can be offered. To construct residential house in Robe town, the minimum standard walls of the building hallow concrete bloket the flowers is tiles, the ceiling is chipboard, the roofing of the building corrugated Iron sheet, foundation is stone and plumbing or the table 4.15 Housing standards of low income housing in Robe town is mainly concerned with technological or performance standards which define the quality of construction, the type of material to be used and the quality of service that can be offered. As respondent’s accounting 63(78.75%) responded there are no different standards for housing but respondent’s accounting 17(21.75%) said that there are different standards in the town but not employed or not performed accordance.
Table 4.15 Housing Construction Standards
As there any standards for housing construction in the town? Option Frequency Percent
Yes 17 21.25
No 63 78.75
Total 80 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.12 The Housing Standards
As the table 4.16 the housing standard in Robe town is affordable as accounting 15(18.75%) respondents and accounting 65 (80.25%) respondents the standard of house is not affordable for low income earners. But according to officials of Robe town responded there are different types of housing standards but not performed as the standard is the deficit one that faces the office.
Table 4.16 Standard of Houses
The housing standards in the town are affordable to all income groups? Option Frequency Percent
Yes 15 18.75
No 65 80.25
Total 80 100
Source:Field Survey, 2018
4.13 Response against Informal Settlement in Robe Town
As secondary data 2018 annual report of Robe town Land Development and Management office, they employ both precautionary and remedial action towards informal settlements, as the annual report 2017/18, the unawareness is given to 300 residents on how to prevent squatters. In other side they screened 250 houses and 150 compounds that constructed informally. The curative action that was taken by the administrative was destructed 100 houses and 50 compound and returned back to land bank. The amount of land that returned to land bank 120 hectares and iron corrugated sheet 80.As information obtained from officials of that town Land Development and Management Office responded the consideration of the magnitude and scale of high housing deficit in the town and the lack of exhaustive action or insufficient response towards illegal settlement in the town.
This chapter was the core of the entire study and covered processes including data presentation, assessment of survey result, analysis of data and variables, and the presentation of answers to three research questions. The next chapter takes the information put together here to conclude the study by carrying out a detailed interpretation of the results, making recommendations for redressing the problems identified and for further studies, as well as proffering beneficial aspects of the study for social change.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The study designated to assess urban land delivery system for housing development.The output of the showed that the process of land delivery process is both formal and informal ways. Due to poor land delivery process formal land delivery process is not provide adequate land for shelter that needed by applicants. This section presents explanation of results, its inferences, conclusion and recommendation of the study. Explanation of the results is presented in four parts depend on the three research questions and the recommendation are for action and for advance study.
The processes of land delivery system in Robe Town were identified as both formal and informal land delivery ways. The informal ways of land delivery system is one of a major problem that facing Robe town sustainable development.The informal ways of land acquisition illegal subdivision of land, squatting and informal land transaction outside the legal formalities or beyond the government rules and regulation. Mention the land acquisition methods prevailed in the town were land allocation government, land purchased from individuals, inheritance and others ways. The data size of responders who got land informally was greater than the land located by RTLDM office. This indicated that how much the informal land position become dominant in the town.
The major impacts of poor land execution and delivery process for residential purpose in Robe town has many consequences. The proliferation of squatter settlements and expansion of slums are among consequences found. Squatters in Robe town are located on potential lands which are formerly by hazard settlement patterns, poor quality of housing and absence of public infrastructures and services such as piped water supply, sewerage, roods and electricity. The major challenges of land delivery system for housing development in Robe town Land Development and Management Office did have some of organized information about existing land by its uses and value but the implication is not satisfactory. The existing land delivery system for residential purpose in Robe town relatively benefiting higher income group accompanied by middle ones. Beside this, finding from the analysis of information from the demand side and existing data reveals that employees of Land Development and Management Office and others who have political power are among other groups who are getting benefit from the existing Land Development and Management Office and others who have political power among other groups who are getting benefit from the existing land delivery process for the purpose identified.The Land Development and Management Office neither increasing the choices available on supply side nor increasing affordability on the demand side. To sum up, the lower income groups are being considered from the land delivery system for residential purpose in the town.
This recommendation was linked with both research questions and conclusion. By depending on the basis of conclusions recommendation is suggested for future action. Recommendation is two type recommendation suggested for action and recommendation for further studies.
5.3.1 Recommendation for Action
This is about telling what should be done by different levels of administration to deliver efficient land delivery process. Since access of land is one of basic human rights to live on it, to construct real state on it, to build a residential house on it and its administration and management is complicated. So building the capacity of the employee is crucial for the effective and efficient performance of the jobs that urban Land Development and Management Office provided to their customers.Particularly, in the core process owner of urban land development and delivery. In addition to this, collaboration and amalgamation among existing employees and with outside clients should be strengthening.
5.3.2 Recommendation for Further Study
Land delivery system is a huge title which collectively uses diversity of understanding. It is a package of procedures in which land is delivered to developers, a process in which land is supplied for land demanders, it is steps in which land is transformed for the whole community use, it also a land rule and regulation which govern the land acquisition issue, and housing issue is raised with land issue so this all issue is invite additional study to address land issue in the modern world of urbanization.
The current land development characterized by in adequate serviced land development and administrative process, in consist land and land related laws and legal provisions, lack of clarity, articulated policy and directive and key strategic options. Shortage of infrastructures and services related problems and inadequate land development finance and disported land market system are the key problems related to urban land development that further constrained land supply for various uses in the town. The most common land related a difficulty facing city is lack of land meeting increasing demand. The inefficient land delivery system in Robe town is the core problem of this study because there were imbalances between demand and supply of residential plots of land, inefficient and substandard housing and revenue collection from land proliferation of illegal settlements as a result of access to land.