A PROJECT REPORT Submitted By LUKHI AKASH N. 161113109014 PATORIYA UTTAM P. 161113109030 VAGADIYA RAVI V. 161113109040 In fulfillment for the award of degree Of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING In ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Mahavir Swami College of Engineering and Technology, Surat Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad. May, 2018 MAHAVIR SWAMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Electrical Engineering CERTIFICATE Date- This is to certify the dissertation entitle HAND MOVEMENT BASE WIRELESS ROBOTIC ARM has been carried out by the Lukhi Akash N. (161113109014), Patoriya Uttam P. (161113109030), Vagadiya Ravi V. (161113109040), under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering (7th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year 2018. External Examiner Guide Krupal Dhimar ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is our great pleasure to acknowledge the contribution and assistance of a few individuals to this effort. We acknowledge here to our debt to those who have contributed significantly to this project. We are indebted to Prof. Krupal Dhimar for motivating us and fostering a feeling of belongingness towards our work. We are thankful to our project guide Prof. Krupal Dhimar for helping us at each step of our project. Their helpful solutions and comments enriched by professor experience for the betterment of the project. Our thanks go to all the staff members of Department of Electrical Engineering. Finally we would like to thank everyone who directly or indirectly helped in our project. With thanks to all. LUKHI AKASH N. 161113109014 PATORIYA UTTAM P. 161113109030 VAGADIYA RAVI V. 161113109040 ABSTRACT The objective of our project is to build a wireless gesture control robot using Arduino, accelerometer, RF transmitter and receiver module. The Arduino Uno microcontroller reads the analog output values i.e., axis like X and Y values of the accelerometer and converts that analog value into respective digital value. The digital values are processed by the Arduino Uno microcontroller and according to the tilt of the accelerometer sensor mounted on hand it sends the commands to the RF transmitter. Which is received by transmitter and is processed at the receiver end which drives the motor to a particular direction The robot moves forward, backward, right and left when we tilt palm to forward, backward, right and left respectively. The robot stops when it is parallel to ground. LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO.FIGURE DISCRIPTIONPAGE NO.Figure 2.1Gesture Movement diagram4Figure 2.2Network Connection in Wireless System7Figure 2.3Plan of Work9Figure 3.1Simple Arduino UNO13Figure 3.2Pin Diagram of Atmega32813Figure 3.3Block Diagram of Arduino15Figure 3.4Arduino Pro-mini16Figure 3.5Pin Diagram Arduino Pro-mini17Figure 3.6MPU605019Figure 3.7MPU6050 Connection with Arduino20Figure 3.8Flex Sensor23Figure 3.9Basic Flex Sensor Circuit24Figure 3.10RF Module25Figure 3.11Servo Motor and Arduino Interface28Figure 3.12DC Motor29Figure 3.13Operating Principle of DC Motor30Figure 3.14DC Motor Driver31Figure 4.1Block Diagram of Transmitter side32Figure 4.2Circuit Diagram of Transmitter side33Figure 4.3Block Diagram of Receiver Side34Figure 4.4Circuit Diagram of Receiver side35Figure 5.1Flow Chart of Calibration of sensor36Figure 5.2Flow Chart of Transmitted Data37Figure 5.3Flow Chart of Receiver Data38 LIST OF TABLE TABLE NO.TABLE DISCRIPTIONPAGE NO.Table No. 3.1Pin Function21Table No. 3.2Specification of Flex Sensor24 TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgementIIIAbstract IVList of Figures VList of Table VITable of Contents VIIChapter-1 Introduction1.1 Problem Summery11.2Aim of The Project11.3Problem Specification11.4 Literature Review and Prior art Search2Chapter-2 Project Technology 2.1Gesture Technology32.1.1Hand Gesture System42.1.2Application of Gesture Technology42.2WirelessTechnology62.2.1Wireless System72.2.2Application of Wireless Technology72.3Plan of Work92.4Material/tools Required10Chapter-3 Project Component 3.1Arduino113.1.1Arduino UNO113.1.2Arduino Pro-mini163.2 MPU6050183.2.1Application203.2.2Pin Diagram203.2.3Accelerometer Features213.2.4Additional Features21 3.3 Flex sensor 233.3.1Feature233.3.2Application23 3.3.3Specification243.3.4Working of Flex Sensor243.4 RF Module243.4.1 Introduction243.4.2RF Transmitter253.4.3RF Receiver263.4.4Application263.5Servo motor263.5.1Feature of Servo Motor273.5.2Controlling Servo Motor273.5.3Servo Motor Connection273.5.4Servo motor and Arduino Interface283.6 DC Motor283.6.1Construction and Operating Principle303.6.2Feature303.7L293D (DC Motor Driver)313.7.1Feature313.7.2Technical Specification31Chapter-4 Block Diagram and Circuit Diagram 4.1Block Diagram of Transmitter side324.2Circuit Diagram of Transmitter Side334.3Block Diagram of Receiver side344.4Circuit Diagram of Receiver side35Chapter-5 Processing of Robot 5.1Calibration of Sensor365.2Transmission of Data375.3Receiving of Data38 Chapter-6Summery6.1Advantages396.2Disadvantages396.3Application396.4Features396.5Scope of Future Work39References 40 CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION PROBLEM SUMMERY In industrial area, lot of heavy weight lifting work. For a heavy weight lifting we need more workers in industrial area and due to more workers labor cost also increases. Now available of more workers in industry increases more accidents. Some danger environment which is harmful for workers and all human beings. So, there is not suitable for workers. In surrounded area human cannot suitable to stay. AIM OF THE PROJECT Nowadays, robots are being integrated into working tasks to replace humans specially to perform repetitive task. In general, robotics is divided in two areas, industrial and service robotics. These robots are currently used in many fields of applications including office, military tasks, hospitals, dangerous environment and agriculture. For human beings it might be difficult or danger and also do some specific tasks like defusing bombs, picking up explosive chemicals or in case of scenario to pick and place bomb somewhere for containment and for repeated pick and place action in industries. Therefore a robot can be replace humans to do work. PROBLEM SPECIFICATIONS Industrial area- There are many heavy weight lifting works in the industry. So, more workers are required because of these the cost will be increase. Now, using of arduino base wireless robot less workers are required and labor cost is also decrease. Chemical area- In chemical area many dangerous chemicals are used which is damage human body. Using arduino base wireless robot gives protection against damage of human body and also save lifes. LITERATURE REVIEW AND PRIOR ART SEARCH There are many ways to control a robotic arm. In the past there have been many researchers working to control robotic arm through computer terminals, even interfacing them with the internet so they can be controlled from anywhere in the world. Usually most of the robotic arms are controlled by central controller which makes uses of Human Arm Movement Sensor. Arduino Robotic Arm Actuators 4 values taken in from the terminal that are entered by the user at the terminal to move the arm to a particular coordinates in space. . This makes the control very difficult as the control values of the motors are very difficult to predict a particular movement. This is easily achieved by our project. This Project represents a simple accelerometer controlled robotic arm using Arduino as the core of this robot. The robot does not require training because of the robotic arm is fully controlled by user. This interfacing is done using wired communication but it can easily to be switched to wireless with ease. CHAPTER 2- PROJECT TECHNOLOGY 2.1 GESTURE TECHNOLOGY Gesture recognition is a topic in computer science and language technology with goal of the interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face and hand. Current focuses in the field include emotion recognition from the face or hand gesture recognition. Many approaches have been made using cameras or computer vision algorithms to the interpret sign language. However, the identification and recognition of the posture, gait, proxemics, and human behaviors is also subject of gesture recognition techniques. Gesture recognition can be seen as a way for the computers to begin to understand human body language, this building is richer bridge between machines and humans than primitive text user interfaces and even GUIs (graphical user interfaces), which still limit the majority of the input to keyboard and mouse. Gesture recognition enables humans to interface with machine (HMI) and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. Using the concept of the gesture recognition, it is possible to point a finger at the computer screen so that the cursor will be move accordingly. This could potentially make conventional input devices such as a mouse, keyboards and even touch-screens redundant. Gesture recognition could be conducted with techniques from computer vision and image processing. The literature includes on going to work in the computer vision field on capturing gestures or more general human pose and movements by cameras connected to a computer. 2.1.1 HAND GESTURE SYSTEM Fig.2.1 Gesture movement diagram 2.1.2 APPLICATIONS OF GESTURE TECHNOLOGY Gesture recognition is useful for the processing information from humans which is not conveyed through speech or type. As well as, there are various types of gestures which can be identified by the computers. Sign language recognition. Just as speech recognition can be transcribe speech to text, certain types of the gesture recognition software can transcribe the symbols represented through sign language into text. For socially assistive robotics. By using proper sensors (accelerometers and gyros) worn on the body of the patient and by reading the values from those sensors, robots can assist in patient rehabilitation. The best suitable example is stroke rehabilitation. Directional indication through pointing. Pointing has a very specific purpose in society, to reference an object and location based on its position relative to ourselves. The use of gesture recognition to determine where a person is pointing, useful for identifying the context of statements or instructions. This application is particular interest in field of robotics. Control through facial gestures. Controlling a computer through facial gestures is a useful application of gesture recognition for users who may not physically be able to use a mouse and keyboard. Eye tracking in particular may be use for the controlling cursor motion or focusing on elements of display. Alternative computer interfaces. Foregoing the traditional keyboard and mouse setup to interact with computer, strong gesture recognition could allow users to accomplish frequent and common tasks using hand or face gestures to camera. Immersive game technology. Gestures also used to control interactions within video games to try and make the game players experience more interactive and enjoyable. Virtual controllers. For systems where the act of finding and acquiring a physical controller could require more time, gestures can be use as an alternative control mechanism. Controlling secondary devices in a car or controlling a television are examples of such usage. Affective computing. In the affective computing, gesture recognition is used in process of identifying emotional expression through computer systems. Remote control. By using the gesture recognition, remote control with the wave of hand of various devices is possible. The signal must not only indicate the appropriate response, but also which device to be control. 2.2 WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY Wireless telecommunications is the transfer of information in between two or more points that are not physically connected. Distances can be short, such as few meters for television remote control, or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of the fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants and the wireless networking. Other instance of wireless technology include GPS units, Garage door openers or garage doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and Headset (audio), headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones. Wireless operations permit services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with use of wires. The term is commonly used in telecommunications industry to refer telecommunications systems (e.g. RF transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF),acoustic energy, etc) to transfer information without use of wires. Information can be transferred in the manner over both short and long distances. Wireless networking (i.e. the various types of the unlicensed 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi devices) is use to meet many needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from one place to other places. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect through satellite. A wireless transmission method is logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change location. The following situations justify the use of wireless technology- To span a distance beyond the capabilities of the typical cabling. To provide backup communications link in case of normal network failure. To link portable and temporary workstations. To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult and financially impractical. To remotely connect mobile users and networks. 2.2.1 WIRELESS SYSTEM Fig.2.2 Network connection in wireless system 2.2.2 APPLICATIONS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY Businesses succeed today because they are faster, not vast. Instead of holding large stockpiles of materials and finished goods inventory to meet customer commitments, companies rely on fast information exchange to the drive responsive enterprise and supply chain systems that adjust to dynamic production, distribution or service needs. If information is old, it is wrong. And when information is wrong, systems stop, shipments are delayed, and service also productivity suffer. Wireless technology has become essential for getting accurate, real-time information when and where it is needed. Now companies are finding new ways to use wireless to create competitive advantage. They are leveraging legacy wireless LANs to provide automated asset tracking and to connect their workforces with wireless voice-over-IP (VoIP). Real-time responsiveness is being extended beyond the four walls with GPS and wide-area voice and data networks for dynamic dispatch and remote access to enterprise information. Before starting wireless project, make sure your solutions provider is grounded in all the aspects required to make a system successful. Many providers can hang access points and install radio cards, but cannot make the connection between wireless technology and business value. Mobile Telephone- One of the best-known examples of wireless technology is a mobile phone, also known as a cellular phone, with more than 4.6 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide as the end of 2010. These wireless phones are use for radio waves to enable their users to make calls from many locations worldwide. They can be used within range of mobile telephone site used to house the equipment required to transmit and receive the radio signals from these instruments. Wireless Data Communication- Wireless data communications are an essential component of the mobile computing. The various available technologies differ in local availability, coverage range and performance, and in some circumstances, users must be able to employ multiple connection types switch between them. To simplify the experience for the user, connection manager software can be used, a mobile VPN deployed to handle the multiple connections as a secure, single virtual network. Supporting technologies are including. Wi-Fi- It is wireless local area network that enables portable computing devices to connect easily to the Internet. Standardized as IEEE 802.11 a, b, g, n, Wi-Fi approach speeds of some types of the wired Ethernet. Wi-Fi has become the de facto standard for access in private homes, within offices, and public hotspots. Some businesses charge customers a monthly fee for service, while others have begun offering for free in an effort to increase the sales of their goods. Cellular Data Service- It offers coverage within a range of 10-14 miles from the nearest cell site. Speeds have increased as technologies have evolved, from earlier technologies such as GSM, CDMA and GPRS, to 3G networks such as W-CDMA, EDGE and CDMA2000. Mobile Satellite Communications may be used where other wireless connections are unavailable, such as in largely rural areas and remote locations. Satellite communications are especially important for transportation, aviation, maritime military use. Wireless Energy Transfer- Wireless energy transfer is process whereby electrical energy is transmitted from power source to an electrical load that does not have a built-in power source, without use of interconnecting wires. Computer Interface Device- Answering the call of customer frustrated with cord clutter, many manufactures of the computer peripherals turned to wireless technology to satisfy their consumer base. Originally these units used bulky, highly limited transceivers to mediate between a computer and keyboard and mouse, however more recent generations have used small, high quality devices, some even incorporating Bluetooth. These systems have become so ubiquitous that some users have begun complaining about lack of wired peripherals. Wireless devices tend to have slightly slower response time than their wired counterparts, however the gap is decreasing. Concerns about the security of wireless keyboards arose at the end of 2008, when it was revealed that Microsofts implementation of encryption in some of its 27 MHz models was highly insecure. Wireless printing- Print barcode and labels on demand wherever they are needed. Because wireless printers are independent of cabling and wired network infrastructure, they can be used virtually anywhere and relocated in minutes-without incurring additional costs. Wireless printing provides responsiveness and flexibility that modern manufacturing and supply chain operations demand. These benefits come without performance trade-offs and a premium price. In fact, the total cost of the ownership for wireless printing systems can be lower than traditional, wired-network configurations. 2.3 PLAN OF WORK Fig.2.3.Plan of work 2.4 MATERIALS / TOOLS REQUIRED MPU 6050 Flex sensor Arduino Pro-mini RF module Arduino Uno L293D Small DC motor Servo motors Battery Voltage regulator CHAPTER 3-PROJECT COMPONENT 3.1 ARDUINO Basically Two Type Arduino Are Use In Project- Arduino UNO Arduino Pro mini 3.1.1 Arduino UNO Introduction of Arduino board Arduino is open-source electronics prototyping platform base on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. Its intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, or anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments. Arduino can be sense the environment by receiving input from variety of sensors and can affect its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and other actuators. The microcontroller on the board is programmed using the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring) and Arduino development environment (based on Processing). Arduino projects can be stand-alone and they can communicate with software running on a computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, or Max MSP. It is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more the physical world than your desktop computer. It is an open-source physical computing platform based on simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board. Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from variety of switches or sensors, and controlling variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs. Arduino projects can be stand-alone, and they can be communicated with software running on your computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, or Max MSP.) The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled the open-source IDE can be downloaded free. The Arduino programming language is an implementation of Wiring, the similar physical computing platform, which is based on Processing multimedia programming environment. Characteristics of Arduino board Inexpensive Arduino boards are relatively inexpensive compare to other microcontroller platforms. The least expensive version of Arduino module can be assembled by hand, and even the pre-assembled Arduino modules cost less than 60. Cross-platform The Arduino software runs on the Windows, Macintosh OSX, and Linux operating system. Most microcontroller systems are limited to the Windows. Simple, clear programming environment The Arduino programming environment is easy-to-use for beginners, yet flexible enough for advanced users to take the advantages of as well. For teachers, it is conveniently based on the Processing programming environment, so students learning to program in that environment will be familiar with the look and feel of Arduino. Open source and extensible software The Arduino software and is published as open source tools, available for extension by the experienced programmers. The language can be expanded through C libraries, and people wanting to understand the technical details can be make the leap from Arduino to the AVR C programming language on which it is based. Similarly, you can add AVR-C code directly into your Arduino programs you want to. Open source and extensible hardware The Arduino is based on Atmels ATMEGA8 ATMEGA168microcontrollers. The plans for modules are published under a Creative Commons license, so experienced circuit designers can make their own version of the module, extending it and improving it. Fig.3.1 Simple Arduino board UNO Board description- The Arduino Uno is microcontroller board base on the ATmega328. It has 14 digital input and output pins (of which 6 can be use PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and reset button. It contains everything needed to support microcontroller simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. Pin configuration of AT mega 328- Fig.3.2 Pin diagram of Atmega328 Pin Descriptions VCC Digital Supply Voltage GND Ground Port B (PB7) Port B is 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both of high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even the clock is not running. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB7 can use as output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. PB6 Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB6 can use as input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. Port c (PC5) Port C is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with the internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if clock is not running. PC6 PC6 is used as a I/O pin. Note that the electrical characteristics of PC6 differ from those the other pins of Port C. PC6 are used as Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate Reset, even if clock is not running. Port D (PD7) Port D is a 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if clock is not running. AVcc AVcc is a supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter. It should be externally connected to Vcc, even if the ADC is cant used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to Vcc through low-pass filter. AREF AREF is analog reference pin for the A/D Converter. Block Diagram Fig.3.3 Block Diagram of Arduino 3.1.2 Arduino Pro mini Introduction The Omega MCU Systems Mini-328 is a miniature microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 and is intended for use on breadboards or embedded applications where space is limited. It has 14 digital input and output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 8 analog inputs, and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator. It can be programmed with USB to TTL adapter, RS232 to TTL serial adapter or by directly attaching an ICSP programmer to the appropriate pins. Alternatively, the Mini-328 can utilize with the Omega MCU Systems Dev – Duino. The Dev – Duino has RS232 interface, ICSP header, power supply, Zero Insertion force socket and SVG headers to make programming and building prototypes with the Mini-328 quick, reliable and repeatable Process. Fig.3.4 Arduino Pro mini Features- 1.6mm FR4 fiber glass board with the 1oz copper and HAL tinning for long life. Supplied with the two 12 pin male headers. Built-in 100 mA, regulated power supply that accepts an i/p voltage ranging from 7v to 24v. 14 digital I/O. 8 analog I/O. 6 PWM channels. Crystal controlled 16 MHz clock. 32KB of flash memory. 2KB static RAM 1KB EEPROM SPI capable I2C capable 100 compatible with the Arduino IDE software Pin compatible with the Arduino Mini 04 Comes with boot loader already loaded. Pin Configuration and Description Refer to Figure 3.5 for pin placement. For convenience in supporting various uses configurations, several of the signals/voltages appear on multiple pins. Fig.3.5 Pin Diagram Arduino Pro mini Pin Functions TX/D1 The Mini-328 transmits serial data on this pin for both programming purposes and data output. This pin can be also configured as digital I/O pin 1. RX/D0 The Mini-328 receives serial data on this pin for both programming purposes and data input. This pin can be also configuring as digital I/O pin 0. Reset Grounding this pin will be reset the Atmega328. There is an onboard 10K pull-up resistor attached between this pin and 5V. Vin Input to the on-board regulator. Can accept DC voltages between 7V and 24V. 5V Output for on-board regulator and Vcc for the Atmega328 chip. Can be used to supply Mini-328 with 5V regulated DC. GND This is common power and signal ground D2-D13 These are the digital I/O pins. D13 has an on-board 1K resistor in series with it. This allows for direct connection of an LED. A0-A7 These are the analog I/O pins. Specifications Power Requirement- Supply Voltage (Vin pin) 7V to 24V DC or (5V pin) Regulated 5V DC Supply Current Typically between 18mA and 22mA with the MCU only, while running the boot loader. Communication Requirement- Interface Types TTL level serial, standard ICSP, SPI I2C Connections TTL level serial through the RX/D0, TX/D1 and GND ICSP through the D11(MOSI), D12(MISO), D13(SCK) Reset and GND SPI through D10(SS), D11(MOSI), D12(MISO), D13(SCK) and GND I2C through A4(SDA), A5(SCL), and GND Supply Capability- Regulated Voltage 5V (4.8V 5.2V) Maximum current approximately 60 mA, allowing for MCUs own requirements. Physical- Length 31mm Width 18mm Height 15mm (with headers), 8mm (no headers) Weight 6g (with headers), 5g (no headers) Operating Temp. 0oC 85oC 3.2 MPU6050 The MPU-6050 features three 16-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for digitizing the gyroscope outputs and three 16-bit ADCs for digitizing the accelerometer outputs. For precision tracking of both fast and slow motions, the parts feature a user-programmable gyroscope full-scale range of 250, 500, 1000, and 2000/sec (dps) and a user-programmable accelerometer full-scale range of 2g, 4g, 8g, and 16g. Fig.3.6 MPU6050 An on-chip 1024 Byte FIFO buffer helps lower system power consumption by allowing the system processor to read the sensor data in bursts and then enter a low-power mode as the MPU collects more data. With all the necessary on-chip processing and sensor components required to support many motion-based use cases, the MPU-6050 uniquely enables low-power Motion Interface applications in portable applications with reduced processing requirements for the system processor. By providing an integrated Motion Fusion output, the DMP in the MPU-6050 offloads the intensive Motion Processing computation requirements from the system processor, minimizing the need for frequent polling of the motion sensor output. 3.2.1 Applications Handset and portable gaming. Motion-based game controllers. 3D remote controls for Internet connected DTVs or set top boxes, 3D mice. Wearable sensors for health, fitness and sports. Toys. 3.2.2 Pin diagram Fig.3.7 MPU6050 Connection with Arduino VDDMPU-6050VLOGIC2.375V-3.46VSerial Interfaces1.71V to VDDSupportedI2CPin 8VLOGICPin 9AD0Pin 23SCLPin 24SDA Table no.3.1 Pin function 3.2.3 Accelerometer Features The triple-axis MEMS accelerometer in MPU-60X0 includes a wide range of features Digital-output triple-axis accelerometer with programmable full scale range of 2g, 4g, 8g and 16g. Integrated 16-bit ADCs enable simultaneous sampling of the accelerometers while requiring no external multiplexer. The MPU-6050 includes the following additional features 9-Axis Motion Fusion by on-chip Digital Motion Processor (DMP). Auxiliary master I2C bus for the reading data from external sensors (e.g., magnetometer). 3.9mA operating current when all 6 motion sensing axes and DMP are enabled. VDD supply voltage range of the 2.375V-3.46V. Smallest thinnest QFN package for portable devices 4x4x0.9mm. Minimal cross-axis sensitivity between accelerometer and gyroscope axes. 1024 byte FIFO buffer reduces power consumption by allowing host processor to read data in bursts and then go into low-power mode as the MPU collects more data. Digital-output temperature sensors. User-programmable digital filters for gyroscope, accelerometer, temp sensor. 10,000 g shock tolerant. Motion processing The FIFO buffers complete data set, reducing timing requirements on the system processor by allowing the processor burst read the FIFO data. After burst reading the FIFO data, the system processor can be save power by entering a low-power sleep mode while the MPU collects more data. Programmable interrupt supports features such as the gesture recognition, panning, zooming, scrolling, tap detection, and shake detection. Digitally-programmable low-pass filter. Low-power pedometer functionality allows host processor to sleep while the DMP maintains the step count. 3.3 FLEX SENSOR Flex Sensor is 2.2 RoHS Compliant Description The simple flex sensor length 2.2. As the sensor is flexed, resistance across the sensor increases. The resistance of flex sensor changes when the metal pads are on the outside of the bend (text on inside of bend). Connector is 0.1 spaced or bread board friendly. Note Please refrain from flexing and straining this sensor at the base. The usable range of the sensor can flex without a problem, but care should taken to minimize flexing outside of the usable range. For best results, securely mount the base and bottom portion and only allow actual flex sensor to flex. Fig.3.8 FLEX SENSOR 3.3.1 Features Angle Displacement Measurement. Bends and Flexes physically with motion device. Possible Uses. Low profile. Simple construction. 3.3.2 Applications Robotics. Gaming (Virtual Motion). Medical Devices. Computer Peripheral. 3.3.3 Specifications ParameterValueLife cycle1 millionParameter0.43mmLife cycle-35C to 80C Table no.3.2 Specifications of Flex Sensor Fig.3.9 Basic Flex Sensor Circuit 3.3.4 Working of Flex sensor The impedance buffer in the Basic Flex Sensor Circuit single sided operational amplifier, used with these sensors because the low bias current of the op amp reduces error due to the source impedance of the flex sensor voltage divider. 3.4 RF MODULE 3.4.1 Introduction An RF Module is a (usually) small electronic circuit used to transmit, receive, transceiver radio waves on one of a number of carrier frequencies. RF Modules are widely used in consumer application such as garage door openers, wireless alarm systems, industrial remote controls, smart sensor applications, wireless home automation systems. They are often used instead of infrared remote controls as they have advantage of not requiring line-of-sight operation. Several carrier frequencies are commonly used in commercially-available RF modules, including 433.92MHz, 315MHz, 868MHz and 915MHz. The RF module, as the name suggests, operates Radio Frequency. The corresponding frequency range varies between the 30 kHz 300 GHz. In this RF system and digital data is represented as variations in the amplitude of carrier wave. This kind of modulation is known as the Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). Transmission through RF is better than IR (infrared) because of the many reasons. Signals through RF can be travel through larger distances making it suitable for long range applications. Also, while IR mostly operates in the line-of-sight mode, RF signals can travel even when there is an obstruction between transmitter and receiver. Next, RF transmission is strong and reliable IR transmission. The transmitted data is received by an RF receiver operating at same frequency as that of the transmitter. The RF module is often used along with a pair of encoder by decoder. The encoder is used for encoding parallel data for the transmission feed while reception is decoded by the decoder. HT12E-HT12D, HT640-HT648, etc. are some commonly used encoder by decoder pair ICs. Fig.3.10 RF Module 3.4.2 RF-Transmitter Radio transmitter design is a complex topic which can be broken down into the series of smaller topics. A radio communication system requires two tuned circuits each at the transmitter and receiver, all four tuned to same frequency. The transmitter is an electronic device which can be usually with the aid of an antenna, propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. Arrangement of RF-Transmitter The transmitting system consists of two tuned circuits such that the one containing the spark-gap is a persistent oscillator the containing aerial structure, is a free radiator maintained in oscillation by being coupled to the first. The oscillating system, including the aerial structure with its associated inductance-coils and condensers is designed to be both a sufficiently persistent oscillator and sufficiently active radiator (Oliver Lodge). The transmitting system consists of two electrically coupled circuits, one of containing the air-gap is a powerful but not persistent oscillator, being provided with a device for quenching the spark so soon as it has imparted sufficient energy to other circuit containing the aerial structure, this second circuit then independently radiating the train of slightly damped waves at it is own period (Oliver Joseph Lodge and Wilhelm Wien). 3.4.3 RF-Receiver The RF receiver is specially designed to receive the signal from the RF transmitter to demodulate and decode the original signal. Receiving Can be use receiver and for decoding we use the IC HT12D. 3.4.4 Application RF Modules are used in applications where size, price and power consumption coupled with the long range are important parameters. RF Module integration with MCU, memory and ADC, will be fit almost all applications. 3.5 SERVO MOTOR A servomotor is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of the angular position. The servo motor is an entirely different story. The servo motor is actually an assembly of the four things a normal DC motor, gear reduction unit, a position-sensing device (usually a potentiometera volume control knob), and a control circuit. The servomotor has a 3-wire connection power, ground, and control. The power source must be constantly applied the servo has it is own drive electronics that draw current from the power lead to drive the motor It consists of a motor coupled to the sensor for position feedback, through a reduction gearbox. It also requires a relatively sophisticated controller, often the dedicated module designed specifically for use with servomotors. Servomotors are used in applications such as the robotics, CNC machinery or automated manufacturing. 3.5.1 Features of Servo Motor Designed to interface to small micro-controllers. Required Pulse 3 to 5 Volt Peak to Peak Square Wave. Operating Voltage 4.8 to 6.0 Volts. Operating Temperature Range -20 to 60 Degree C. Current Drain (4.8V) 8.8mA/idle and 400mA no load operating. Current Drain (6.0V) 9.1mA/idle and 500mA no load operating. 3.5.2 Controlling Servo Motor Servomotors are controlled by sending them a pulse of variable width. The control wire is used to send pulse. The parameters for pulse are that it has a minimum pulse, a maximum pulse, and a repetition rate. Given the rotation constraints of the servomotor, neutral is defined to be the position where the servo has exactly the same amount of potential rotation in the clockwise direction as it does that in counter clockwise direction and that position is always around 1.5 milliseconds (ms). 3.5.3 Servo Motor Connection All of our Hitec servos come with the S and universal connector. This connector works with any brand of receiver, servo controller and servo extension. The type of Motors has three wires Red is VCC the power supply. Black is the ground. Yellow is for digital pulse that controls the rotation of the motor. 3.5.4 Servo Motor and Arduino Interface Fig.3.11 Servo Motor and Arduino Interface 3.6 DC Motor Permanent magnet excited brushless DC motors are becoming increasingly attractive in the large number of applications due to performance advantages such as reduced size and cost, reduced torque ripples, increased torque-current ratio, low noises, high efficiency, reduced maintenance or good control characteristics over a wide range in torquespeed plan. In general, Brushless DC motors such as fans are smaller in size and weight than AC fans using shaded pole and Universal motors. Since these motors have the ability to work with the available low voltage sources such as 24-V and 12-V DC supply, it make the brushless DC motor fans convenient for use in electronic equipment, computers, mobile equipment, vehicles, and spindle drives for disk memory, because of it is high reliability, efficiency, and ability to reverse rapidly. Brushless dc motors in the fractional horsepower range have been use in various types of the actuators in advanced aircraft and satellite systems 1-4. Most popular brushless DC motors are mainly three phases 5-7 which are controlled and driven by the full bridge transistor circuits. Fig.3.12 DC Motor Together with applying permanent magnet excitation, it is a necessary to obtain additional torque components. These are components can be obtained due to the difference in magnetic presence in both quadrature and direct axis therefore, reluctance torque is developed and torque null regions are reduced significantly 8, 11. In this paper, a brushless DC motor with distributed winding and the special form of PM-rotor with special stator periphery are described. Which develop a speed control system for the BLDC motor by closed loop control technique. The proposed system uses a microcontroller of the 8051 family to rectified-power supply. A set of IR transmitter and photodiode are connected to the microcontroller for counting the number of rotations per minute of DC motor as a speed sensor. Optocoupler is connected to trigger the MOSFET for driving to the BLDC motor which is duly interfaced to the microcontroller. A matrix keypad is interfaced to the microcontroller for controlling the speed of motor. The speed control of the BLDC motor is archived by varying the duty cycles (PWM Pulses) from microcontroller according to the program. The microcontroller receives the percentage of duty cycles from the keypad and delivers the desired output to the motor driver so as to control the speed of the BLDC motor. The speed sensed by IR sensor is given to the microcontroller to display it on the LCD display. 3.6.1 CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE Brushless DC motors developed from conventional brushed DC motors with the availability of the solid state power semiconductors. Brushless DC motors are similar to the AC synchronous motors. The major difference is that synchronous motors develop a sinusoidal back EMF, as compared to the rectangular, or trapezoidal, back EMF for brushless DC motors. Both stators have created rotating magnetic fields producing torque in a magnetic rotor. The basic construction of the brushless-dc consists of a fan blade attached to a permanent magnet rotor that surrounds the electromagnetic coils of the stator and associated control electronics. Fig.3.13 Operating Principle Of DC Motor A typical bi phase brushless fan motor is made from permanent magnet rotor assembly that surrounds four electromagnetic coils. The coils work in pairs, with the coils A and C forming one phase and coils B and D the other phase. A Hall Effect sensor monitors rotor position, providing feedback to embedded MCU for commutation, speed regulation, and fault detection. 3.6.2 Features 300RPM 12V DC motors with Gearbox. 4mm shaft diameter with internal hole. Suitable for 6mm shaft holes. 125gm weight. Same size motor available in various rpm. 2kgcm torque. No-load current is 60 mA(Max), Load current is 300 mA(Max). 3.7 L293D (DC Motor Driver) The L293D motor driver is available for providing User with ease and user friendly interfacing for the embedded application. L293D motor driver is a mounted on good quality, single sided non-PTH PCB. The pins of L293D motor driver IC are connected to the connectors for easy access to the driver ICs pin functions. The L293D is a Dual Full Bridge driver that can be drive up to 1Amp per bridge with supply voltage up to 24V. Fig.3.14 DC Motor Driver 3.7.1 Features Easily compatible with any of the system. Easy interfacing through FRC (Flat Ribbon Cable). External Power supply pin for Motors supported. Onboard PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) selection switch. 2pin Terminal Block (Phoenix Connectors) for the easy Motors Connection. Onboard H-Bridge base Motor Driver IC (L293D). 3.7.2Technical Specification Power Supply is Over FRC connector 5V DC External Power is 9V to 24V DC. Dimensional Size is 44mm x 37mm x 14mm (l x b x h). Temperature Range is 0C to 70 C. CHAPTER 4- BLOCK DIAGRAM AND CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER SIDE Fig 4.1 Block Diagram of Transmitter Side Arduino Pro-mini used in transmitter side. 9v battery is also used in transmitter side. 9v battery connected with voltage regulator to control the voltage that gives to Arduino Pro-mini. It is necessary to control the voltage that gives across to Arduino Pro-mini otherwise it may damage Arduino Pro-mini. 4.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER SIDE Fig 4.2- Circuit Diagram of Transmitter Side MPU6050 and flex sensor connected with Arduino Pro-mini. Flex sensor sense flexibility or gives signal to Arduino Pro-mini. Arduino Pro-mini programmed by user and gives command to RF transmitter to transmit the signal to RF receiver. 4.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RECEIVER SIDE Fig 4.3 Block Diagram of Receiver Side In gesture base wireless robot, 12v battery supply gives direct to L239D and voltage regulator. It is must be to regulate the voltage that give to Arduino UNO because Arduino UNO need small voltage to work well if voltage is above the rated value then Arduino UNO may be damage. 4.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF RECEIVER SIDE Fig 4.4- Circuit Diagram of Receiver Side There are two motors used at receiver side which is DC motor and other one is servo motor Arduino UNOs outputs connected with servo motor and L239D. RF receiver gives receiving signal to Arduino UNO. L239Ds input connected with Arduino UNO and output connected with DC motor. Arduino UNO control the speed of servo motor by using its program that build up by user and speed of DC motor control by L239D. CHAPTER 5- PROCESSING OF ROBOT 5.1 Calibration of sensor The accelerometer has been calibrated to get it maximum or minimum value. This depends upon the external environmental conditions. This also gives the closure sensitivity. The process can be understood by the help of flow chart. Fig 5.1- Flow Chart of Calibration of Sensor 5.2 Transmission of data The input is given by accelerometer that has been analog in the nature. It is has been digitally coded by the input A/D converter. The A/D converter is in built in the Arduino board that is of 8 bit and output goes to the digital pins of the Arduino board. Fig 5.2 Flow Chart of Transmitted Data 5.3 Receiving the data The receiving data on the digital pins is sent to the L293D and servo motor. According to the output the motors it will run in forward, backward, left, right and robotic arm .so the output depends upon the directly to the accelerometer and flex sensor input that can be used for the robot controlling and accelerometer input depends upon the movement of the gestures. Fig 5.3 Flow Chart of Receiver Data CHAPTER 6- SUMMERY 6.1 ADVANTAGES Easy to operate. Lower power consumption. User friendly. Single equipment multiple application. It is portable. Wireless makes easy operation. 6.2 DISADVANTAGES Range of operation is as we are using the RF module for communication, the range of operation is up to 20 to 30 meters. Capacity of battery is as the project is Battery operated the capacity of the cell decides the durability of the robot. Larger Battery makes robot more bulky and smaller battery affects the capacity. 6.3 APPLICATION Remote Surveillance, Military. Physically Challenged In Wheelchairs. Construction Vehicles In Civil Side. Medical Application For Surgery. 6.4 FEATURES Easy to use. Person do anything to anywhere without any hard work due to using hand gesture technology. Advance using in future. Person can do physical gesture to the digital world. It is applicable for the person who cannot talk, they can do only hand tricks to communicate. 6.5 SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK Research is going on use brain signals to control the robotic arm. This is achieved will be of great help to the physically handicapped. Robot can be controlled through voice recognition mechanism. Connecting bomb detector or metal detector. Adding video camera for live streaming. REFERENCES References- Mohammad Javed Ansari, Microcontroller Based Robotic Arm University Chittagong (IIUC) Chittagong, Bangladesh,2014. Rahul Sekhar, INERTIAL SENSOR BASED WIRELESS CONTROL OF A ROBOTIC ARM Basavanagudi, Bangalore – 560 019, India 2012. Hasan U. Zaman, ECE, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2017. S. Waldherr R. Romero and S. Thrun A gesture based interface for human to robot interaction in self governing Robots vol. 9 no.2 pp. 151-173 Springer 2000. G. Hirzinger J. Bals M. Otter and J. Stelter The DLR-KUKA success story robotics research rectify industrial robots in IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine vol. 12 no. 3 pp. 16-23 2005. S. Perrin A. Cassinelli and M. Ishikawa Gesture recognition using laser and based tracking system in Sixth IEEE International Council on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition pp. 541-546 2004. K. Murakami and H. Taguchi Gesture Recognition using Recurrent Neural Networks in Proceedings of ACM CHI91 Council on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 237-242 New Orleans USA 1991. HAND MOVEMENT BASE WIRELESS ROBOTIC ARM. 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