Each country cultivates a different tradition of translating films and subscribes to one of the two major mode which is (1) dubbing and (2) subtitling as far as cinema translation is concerned, or sometimes to a third, minor, mode voiceover in the case of television translation. The decision as to which film translation mode to choose is by no means arbitrary and stems from several factors, such as historical circumstances, traditions, the technique to which the audience is accustomed, the cost, as well as on the position of both the target and the source cultures in an international context (See Dries 1995).
The purpose of this literature review is to know how International movies and Soap Operas enters the homes of hundreds of millions of viewers here in the Philippines and to know what is the importance of dubbing. According to the Guidon (Dubbing diorama) in many countries, the English language does not reach the average movie viewing experience. Does the integration of English into foreign pop cultures have on a country’s level of English fluency? Furthermore, do countries with dubs speak and understand better English?
Dubbing is often employed in the original-language version of a sound track for technical reasons. Filmmakers routinely use it to remedy defects that arise from synchronized filming in which the actors’ voices are recorded simultaneously with the photography and it is also used to add sound effects to the original sound track. It may also be used in musicals to substitute a more pleasing voice for that of an actor who performs a song on camera and it is the total replacement of the originally recorded audio with a new one itself took on a whole new important role, which is to clarify and familiarize for the local audience the dramas that are otherwise played out by foreign actors. For the first time, local viewers saw Mexican actors conversing in Filipino, in colorful dialogues that could have been culled straight out from one’s own neighborhood.
Dubbing and subtitling, each of them interferes with the original text to a different extent. On the one hand, dubbing is known to be the method that modifies the source text to a large extent and thus makes it familiar to the target audience through domestication. It is the method in which “the foreign dialogue is adjusted to the mouth and movements of the actor in the film” (Dries 1995: 9 qtd. in Shuttleworth and Cowie 1997: 45) and its aim is seen as making the audience feel as if they were listening to actors actually speaking the target language.
To throw a wrench in the theory, today, the practice of dubbing has enamored Filipino audiences, who now subscribe and dubbed foreign shows in almost equal measure. While critics roll their eyes at the mention of the practice, some argue that “Filipinized” shows can serve as a unifying and even liberating medium, bringing admirers of the art form closer together.
From its inception, the soap opera has been a defining piece of everyday entertainment. Even as the technologies used to broadcast it died one by one, the demand for soap operas survived. The form has transcended multiple mediums: Radio, television, and in recent times, digital on-demand streaming. The soap opera’s pervasive nature has allowed it to penetrate many cultures, and the Philippines is no exception. The local incarnation of the soap opera, called the teleserye, has become an indispensable fixture in the national consciousness. TV stars have risen, fallen, and even died, yet the teleserye remains deep-seated. however, the teleserye has ceded some ground to dubbed foreign shows. A soap opera is a narrative in service of economic interest, the cost of producing homegrown shows is exceedingly high when compared to acquiring dubbing rights, and this has led some networks to take advantage. In lieu of exclusively producing teleseryes, TV networks today buy the right to dub and air foreign shows, broadcasting them alongside local offerings. As long as viewers remain glued to their channel, it doesn’t really matter what content they serve. The thinking makes sense for a profit-maximizing TV network.
Thus, the practice of importing and dubbing foreign shows experienced explosive growth. In the 1990s, the first imported Latin American soap operas arrived on our shores. Marimar (1994) introduced the first Filipino-dubbed Mexican telenovela to the Philippines in 1996, and would later be remade starring a Philippine cast in 2007. The tradition continues to this day with K-Dramas and other foreign soap operas, whose airing and dubbing rights are particularly easy to acquire. “You buy K-Dramas by the bulk,” says Sanchez. This combination of factors has allowed foreign soap operas—particularly the K-Drama—to crack the Philippine market. In 2003, GMA was the first network to premiere a Korean series dubbed in Filipino, starting with Bright Girl (2002), and continuing with Stairway to Heaven (2003) and Full House (2004), among many others. Full House would go on to become one of the highest rated K-Dramas in the country, with an average rating of 42.3%. Even the Taiwanese have made a lasting impact on the country’s “Asianovela” experience, with Meteor Garden (2001) topping Korea’s Full House with a peak rating of 63.8%.
Early this year, local TV network ABS-CBN, the self-styled “First and True Home of Asianovelas,” acquired the rights to air dubbed versions of seven of Korea’s hottest dramas. These include South Korean top raters Legend of the Blue Sea (2016), Love in the Moonlight (2016), Goblin (2016), Hwarang (2016), W: Two Worlds (2016), Doctors (2016), and Weightlifting Fairy (2016). The premieres were considered a success. Goblin scored a national TV rating of 12.1% compared to its rival program, which only scored 6.1%. Meanwhile, Legend of the Blue Sea ranked with a national TV rating of 15.5% versus its rival program’s 11.8%. The pilot episodes were met with an outpouring of support from fans on social media, with local hashtags like #GoblinOnABSCBN trending nationally and globally on Twitter. Suffice it to say, the importation and dubbing of international shows has changed the landscape of Filipino TV. These foreign shows have outpaced the teleserye in terms of affordability and ease of acquisition.
Economic considerations, however, cannot be the only cause for the popularity of foreign dramas. For any cultural phenomenon to sustain its momentum, it must find a way to root itself onto the host culture, or else be dismissed as a fad. The question, then, is this: What exactly has allowed the dubbed soap opera to latch itself so tightly onto the Filipino mind? The answer, arguably, is strikingly simple. The process of dubbing itself, ,Filipinizes foreign soap operas, allowing Filipino audiences to relate with the alien realities expressed within the show. It’s a good thing to Filipinize the foreign texts. Somehow the access grow more widespread . In this sense, dubbing can be taken as a transformative, liberating medium, in that it allows people to transcend the material limits that they live with on a daily basis. The beauty of television is that, no matter what your station is in life old or young, rich or poor you can get lost in the imagined world of a soap opera all the same.
“Normalizing and achieving inclusivity in media access helps promote discourse and reduce learning gaps” Bertulfo says. By way of example, while not everyone has the wherewithal to purchase mangas a Japanese comics It posits that animes still became part of mainstream media because of the practice of dubbing. “This is something we ought to promote,” he adds.
The Filipinization of foreign soap operas possesses the potential to bring the disparate strata of Filipino society closer together, if just a little. As these Filipinized shows grow more widespread, the shared experience they create allow even people of differing stations in life to form meaningful bonds and enriching the discourse, and bringing the nation and world closer together.
On the other hand, subtitling, supplying a translation of the spoken source language dialogue into the target language in the form of synchronized captions, usually at the bottom of the screen, is the form that alters the source text to the least possible extent and enables the target audience to experience the foreign and be aware of its ‘foreignness’ at all times. Dubbed means to add a soundtrack to a film, where the voice actors speaking one language are recorded over the voices of the original actors (speaking in the original language).
Dubbing gives the appearance of the actors on screen actually speaking the language of the audience, but results can vary widely, depending on the two languages, the synchronization of the actors’ lips speaking to the new audio, the sound of the voiceover actors, etc. Subtitles depend on the translation quality, but the intonation and timing of the actors speech is preserved with all the intended nuances.
Dubbing is a way of translating a particular foreign language to their mother tongue of which country it is being shown for the benefit of the local audiences that could lead us to an easier way of discrimination of information. It is not only done with anime or any animated programs and telenovelas but it was also done even in the oldest produced film recorded in the country common practice had it that dubbing for films was done during post production to enhance the quality of the actors’ dialogues and separate it from the environment noise that has been recorded. Based on their related literature gathered, dubbing was not included in the historical timeline of Philippine Mass Communication. (Abella etal., 2010)
Films on television and in cinemas are dubbed, except for the few art house cinemas which cater for an audience interested in original versions with subtitles. Although other countries will probably say that they would prefer subtitling to dubbing (for a variety of reasons, including language competence acquisition and faithfulness to the original film), it is not clear whether they are really convinced about this or whether this is simply the most respected opinion today. In addition, although many kinds of audio and subtitle combinations are possible with DVDs, it is not at all clear how DVDs are really used in the average household. Professionals working in the sector will have a different view on dubbing. The view of many dubbing actors or voice talents, particularly of older generations, is that dubbing is the perfect solution for film translation whereas subtitles are at best makeshift. At the same time, we find the opinion that dubbing developed as job market for actors and directors who could not find a job otherwise — an opinion also held by some professionals in the field (Bräutigam, 2009: 14).
Martin-Barbero (1993) in his study of Latin American telenovelas (televisionnovels or “soaps”) states that he sees stories that are tied to strong oral narrativetraditions which enable characters, authors and viewers to constantly exchange places.He states: “It is an exchange, a confusion between story and real life, between what theactor does and what happens to the spectator. It is a literary experience open to thereactions, desires and motivations of the public” (p. 43)
Delabasta (1989) provides a number of guidelines for judging the effectiveness of dubbed films :
1. Lip match: What effort will be made to match lip movements to the new language? Is the target culture accepting dubbed films because of past history or are films in general new to them?
2. Acting: How do the actors deliver their lines? Is there an attempt made by the dubbing actor to match the emotional intensity of the original delivery?
3. Additions or reductions: Is anything added to the original text?
4. Target language: Were there regional variants of the new language to choose from and what criteria were used? This has an impact on understandability as well as an important hypothesis that linguistic usage on television has a major modeling impact on the linguistic norms of a speech community.
5. Target audience: Is the new translation targeted to a less sophisticated audience, or a mature, well-educated one?
As dubbing is also an important economic factor in film and TV industry, it makes sense to assume that translators play an important role in a dubbing production, and that translator training in Germany caters for a career as a dubbing translator. However, this is not the case, mainly since translators only. play a minor role in the actual dubbing process, a situation which is not likely to change soon. This article will argue that training in dubbing is nevertheless worth the effort and it will illustrate how it might be implemented in the translation classroom. Research in dubbing has increased over the past years with the boom experienced by Audiovisual Translation (AVT) at the close of the 20th century. Teaching dubbing has commanded little interest so far, especially if compared to other audiovisual translation modalities such as subtitling. However, a tradition of teaching dubbing as a combination of text and film analysis and practical workshops seems to have developed in the late 1990s. Publications on the topic increase slightly after 2000, a vast majority being written either in Spanish or in Catalan (Agost, Chaume and Hurtado, 1999). In print, Díaz Cintas (2008) provides the most comprehensive overview on teaching AVT to date, with chapters on teaching voice-over (Matamala, 2008) and on teaching dubbing (Chaume, 2008), the latter being one of the most important contributions to the didactics of lip-synch dubbing. The Media for All conferences held since 2005 and organized by the Transmedia research group also reflect the development in research on AVT. Apart from the fact that the number of delegates has increased almost exponentially, the topics of the papers have broadened considerably and an increase in papers related to dubbing training can be identified. Especially relevant is the paper presented by Martínez Sierra (2009) on the use of dubbing software in the translation classroom, as well as the paper by Adams and Cruz García (2009) on the use of simultaneous interpreting for the development of audiovisual translators’ skills. In the 2011 edition, it is worth highlighting the paper «How not to dub: dealing with dubbese in AVT translator training». Some authors such as Danan (2010) have also explored the potential of dubbing in foreign language teaching. An interesting contribution to the use of dubbing in the foreign language classroom is provided by Burston (2005). This author does not deal with dubbing as a form of translation, but works with muted films in order to have the students produce a natural text in a foreign language, based on the images of the film.
The process of dubbing is characterized by the high number of people involved. In contrast to subtitling, where the team usually consists of a translator, a technician and a proof-reader, dubbing is split into an even higher number of sub-activities, which means there are more professionals involved in the process. It is quite common that the members of a dubbing team never meet face to face or have direct contact with each other. Many companies in Germany follow a similar dubbing workflow which normally starts with a rough translation of the original script with footnotes. This task is done by translators, who are not expected to produce a translation which can directly (or with minor changes) be used for dubbing. In most cases, this is the only stage of the process where professional translators (or graduates who have received training in translation) are involved, as they are not responsible for dialogue writing, that is, for adapting the translation to fit characters’ movements and utterances.