1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Advertising is any type of non-personal promotion of ideas, products and services by an individual or group of people called sponsors (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). Informative advertising, persuasive advertising, comparison advertising, and reminder advertising are some few forms of advertisements. Informative advertising is a form of advertising that is used to make customers aware of new products and services or helps to know future demand. It gives a detailed information available products and services, brings out the corrections of false impressions created and helps the company’s image to be built in a right way.
Advertising goes through several medium of which one is print media, which includes newspapers, brochures and magazines. Audio media can also be used for advertising. For example, radio. The use of visual media which also includes billboards, and television can be used.
Advertising being a promotional tool also assist customers in remembering the existence of a product or service, reassure and induce the decisions of the consumers since advertisement itself edifies and sets straight, educates and convince consumers on their acceptability of the product offering. With advertisement in media, it may be grouped into two, the print media or broadcast. Some examples of the print media can be flyers, newspapers, magazines and billboards; and broadcast may be in a form of television advertisements or radio advertisement.
However is the process by which individual and groups of consumers look for, identify or choose, buy, use and dispose of products and services in terms of how satisfied they are with product or service can be explained as the consumer buying behaviour(Schiffman, kanuk, ; Hansen, 2012).
The firm must design a marketing mix that satisfies consumers since the buying behaviour of consumers has a direct impact on the firm’s ability to be successful. Individual or group of consumers go normally go through five stages in their purchase decision process. These steps include recognition of the problem, searching of information, evaluating and testing of alternatives, purchase decision, purchase and post purchase evaluation. It is not every consumer that goes through all the stages, it depends on the degree of risk involved and the degree of complexity.
Consumers show or express for types of purchasing behaviour; these include a regular or consistent response which involves a very little amount of search and buying product frequently, limited decisions which is used when buying products that are known as low priced brands. Extensive decision has a high degree of economic, performance and psychological risk which demands lot of time in seeking information and deciding and impulse buying which is spontaneous and needs no conscious planning.
The increase in competition and blooming appearance of new entrants in industries in Ghana has forced the industries to be customer centric and pay most attention of its advertising programs on the customer. This helps to lure and entice new customers, keep and maintain already existing ones and increase sales too.
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Advertising is an important tool used to stimulate consumer buying behaviour by way of getting consumers informed or reminded about a product but it must persuade for a purchase. Firms engage in consistent advertising of their products and services to increase their sales volume. It may advise either through newspapers, televisions, billboards, broachers, magazines, outlets, and radio. Marketing problems faced by firms most of the times have both long-term and short term effects on the company and if not paid attention to can cause a great threat to the ongoing existence of the company. (Giles, 1997).
Consumer preferences are increasingly segregated and maintenance of high service quality in the market nowadays. For instance, Schiffman et al. (2012) identified that consumers experience a cycle of decision making process before taking an action which defines their attitude or decisions in buying products. Different internal and external factors influence the purchasing decisions which makes the process a complex one.
Several techniques of marketing can and are used by firms to establish a stable ground in their various markets. In the brew industry where many main competitors are producing the same or similar products at the same or similar prices, it is crucial for businesses to differentiate themselves from each other in order to give customers reasons to buy which may maximize profit. Different means of marketing are generated and used to induce customers and advertising is one of the major forms of marketing and with the fastest results.
Looking at the recent economic recession, it is even more crucial that companies induce consumers into the markets and give them reasons to make purchases.
Despite the efforts in advertising regularly, most companies have not been able entice their desired targets. In the light of the above statement lead to the examination of the impact of advertising on consumer buying behaviour.
1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1. To examine the forms of advertising activities by beta malt product.
2. To access the impact of advertising on consumer buying behavior
3. To identify the factors that influence consumers buying habit.
1.3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the forms of advertising use by beta malt product?
2. What are the impact of advertising on consumer buying behavior?
3. Which factors influence consumers buying habit?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is intended to reveal how advertisement impacted on consumer buying decision in Ghana. It has provided a benchmark as well as recommendations on the sectors that management of companies can improve on in order to be competitive in the market. . The study also benefitted prospective investors in the fast beverage industry in Ghana as it provided a comprehension of the impact that advertising had on consumer buying decision in Ghana. What generated from the research were of interest to the marketers, managers and also consultants in arriving at decisions regarding the advertisement budget of a firm. The study aimed to establish the advertisement effectiveness in relations to impact to consumer purchasing decision.
This study was of benefit to the practitioners and academicians both in the private and in public sector by contributing to the existing body of knowledge in the area of advertising. The study also helped marketers plan their advertising campaigns to lead to much consumer purchasing decisions.
Academicians used findings for further research, while practitioners applied lessons in planning and implementing future strategies in order to market the company.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study was limited to beta malt product only. The study covered the impact of advertising on consumer behaviour, the factors that influenced the buying habit of consumers as well as the forms of advertisement used by beta malt. The population under study was the University of Ghana, Legon which has a population of over three thousand nine hundred but for the purpose of this study, just 100 students was sampled. The research design used for the sample was a cross sectional research design which covers populace with different interest but with the university as their common characteristic.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The data for this study was collected in a single location. That is, from consumers of beta malt on the University of Ghana, Legon campus. Hence, the results may not be transferred into other regions. Another limitation faced was the scope of research. Due to the fact that we do not have experience in conducting of research, the scope and depth of discussions is compromised as compared to the works of experienced researchers.
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The organization of the study deals with the following: Chapter one deals with the introduction of the topic which involve background of study, statement of problem, objective of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study and organization of the Study. Chapter two is made up of review of previews literature by other authors and researchers that relates to the area of study. Chapter three encompasses methodology of the study which provides detail description of how data used for the study would be collected. Furthermore, chapter four will deals with critical discussion and analysis of data collected in the course of the research. Finally, chapter five has to do with the summary of findings in chapter four, conclusion and recommendation of the study
This chapter contains literature of research, books, journal and articles that have been written by different writers. It explains the theories and concepts underpinning this study. The literature review gives an in depth understanding on the subject matter of study which is advertising and consumer behaviour. The meaning, forms and importance of advertising will be explained in this chapter as well the meaning of consumer buying behavior, the determinants of buying behaviour and the consumer buying process.
Advertisement helps to reach the mass and can be used as a persuading tool to attract customers to purchase goods and services of an organization. Even though advertising is used largely by profitable businesses, it is also used by a broad range of non-governmental organizations advertise their objectives to their diverse target markets (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). Advertising involves using paid mass media by an identified sponsor to convey marketing communications to target audiences (Belch & Belch, 2005).
Boveé and Arens (1989) also defined advertising as a non-personal communication of information often paid for and often convincing in nature, about products, service, or ideas by identified promoters across the media. Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas and goods, or services by a branded promoter (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). The non-personal feature means that, recipients of the message have no chance of giving feedback immediately since advertising involves the use of mass media.
2.2 ADVERTISNG OBJECTIVES
An advertising objective is a given communication duty to be carried through with an identified target audience over a particular period of time (Kotler & Armstrong, 2012). The overall advertising objective is to help build client relationship by communicating customer value to a target market. Identifying the objectives of the advertisement is the first procedure in the advertising process. Every advert is a specific communication that must be effective not just for one consumer, but for many consumers (Mohan, 2005). This means that specific targets should be set for each particular advertising campaign. Advertising seeks to condition the consumer so that he/she may have a positive response towards a product or service. Advertising objectives provide guidelines in planning and implementation of an advertising campaign.
The objectives of an advertisement according to Pickton and Broderick (2005) includes:
(i) To increase sales
(ii) To build brands
iii. To encourage people to make purchase
iv. To help differentiate between brands
2.3 FORMS OF ADVERTISING
According to (Kotler & Armstrong, 2000), there are different forms of advertising that is, informative, persuasive and reminder advertising. Shimp (2010) also recognized these forms of advertisement as the functions of advertisement. He identified these functions of advertising as; informing, influencing and reminding. He also included other two (2) functions as; adding value and assisting other company’s efforts.
Informative advertising is used to tell the customers about a new product or feature and to improve the image of the company (Kotler ; Armstrong, 2000) where as Shimp (2010) explained the informing function as the ability of a company to create aware of new brands and educate the customers about their distinct features and benefits.
Persuasive advertising is one used to increase selective demand for a brand by convincing consumers that it offers the best value for their money (Kotler ; Armstrong, 2000). (Shimp, 2010) stated the influencing function aims as influencing the target audience to patronize the advertised goods or services.
Reminder advertising is one used to keep a product or service fresh in the minds of the target market (Kotler ; Armstrong, 2000). Shimp (2010) also emphasized that reminding function keeps the brand new in the consumers mind.
2.4 IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING
Advertising covers the major costs of producing newspapers and magazines. Newspapers, magazines and radio are especially attractive to local advertisers. However, television offers many advantages to a national advertiser but it is expensive. Nevertheless, few media besides television allow advertisers to reach so many people with such impact. Marketers must choose which media and programs to reach the audience and their desire. Different kinds of advertising are used by various organizations to reach different market targets. (Kotler, 2005). Advertising helps to reduce cost as it involves the use of mass media which reaches mass audience. This saves or reduces the cost on personal selling (Dominic, 2013 as cited in Terkan, 2014). Mahendra (2005) also stressed on the point that advertising is a rather a low-cost method of communicating with many potential buyers. It can secure leads for salesperson and by persuading buyers to ask for additional information.
Advertising also serves as a tool for competition. Companies create attractive messages to persuade customers to make more purchases. However, Philip and Kotler (2008) argues that the point is not what a company says about itself but rather what the customer says about the company instead.
Advertising is a significant tool in the crusades to achieve societal-oriented goals such as the discouraging people from smoking, encouraging family planning and healthy lifestyles, and the eradication of drug abuse (Mahendra, 2005).
Young (2005) also indicated that promoters create branding moment that will resonate with target markets and stimulate them to buy the product or service. Firms copy test their advertisement before showing it to the public.
According to Biel (1993), Advertising plays many roles in marketing. One of the roles of advertising is the informative role. Advertisers use the various advertising channels to reach its target market.
Advertising helps to maintain a brand’s image which in the long run helps to improve a company’s reputation and long-term investments. Advertising attains the above by influencing the perceived qualities of products (Kirmani ; Zeithmal, 1993).
2.5 ADVERTISING MEDIA
Advertising media is the mode through which advertising messages are delivered to the target market (Kotler ; Armstrong, 2012). Advertising involves the use of non-personal media to communicate with the target market, hence the need for an advertising medium. An advertiser must profile his or her target market accurately in order to find a suitable mode of communication that will reach the target market effectively. There are seven (7) kinds of media an advertiser can choose from (Belch ; Belch, 2005). These are: interactive media, internet and direct mail, television, magazine, radio, newspaper and outdoor (for example; billboards).
2.6 STEPS IN CHOOSING AN ADVERTISING MEDIA
Kotler and Armstrong (2012) specify four major steps to be considered when choosing an advertising medium. These are:
i. Deciding on the medium to use, reach and frequency. Reach is the total number of different members of a target market who are exposed to one of the advertising media over a given period of time. Frequency refers to the number times an individual in the target audience is likely to see or hear the message. Advertisers would want to do more than just reaching customers with their adverts. The advert should be able to influence the consumer in a positive way.
ii. Choosing among media types is the second step of this process. The choice of media to be used is influenced by the media habits of target consumers. That is, the media that will reach the target market successfully must be used. The type of product or service being advertised and the cost of the media are factors to consider when selecting an appropriate media.
iii. The next step is choosing specific media vehicle. After companies have gone through the advertising media, they must decide on a medium or media which will give them a greater reach, a higher frequency and have a better media impact on its target market.
iv. Media timing is the last step of the media selection process. The company must determine how to schedule the advertising over a given time. An advertiser could decide to use continuity or the pulsing means of media timing. Continuity means arranging the adverts equally within a specific period of time while pulsing means arranging the adverts unequally over a given period of time
2.7 STEPS TAKEN IN SETTING AN ADVERTISING BUDGET
Kotler and Armstrong (2010) brought out clearly the steps to examine when budgeting for an advertisement program. Stages in product life cycle determines the form of advertising to be done. Great advertising budgets are normally needed at the initial stage of new products to build brand awareness and matured brands often require lower budgets.
Advertising frequency; when many repetitions are needed to represent the brands message to consumers, the advertising budget must be larger.
Product differentiation. A brand that closely resembles other brands in its product class needs heavy advertising to set it apart. When the product differs greatly from competitors, advertising can be used to level out the differences to consumers (Kotler ; Armstrong, 2010).
Dibb, Simkin, Pride, and Ferrel (2012) suggested five significant decisions to be looked at when drawing advertising program; these include what media should be taken? What message should be passed? What should be the company’s overall advertising budget? How does the firm know that the advertising is achieving its aims?
The main aim for advertising is to sell something that is product, service or even an idea (Well, Burnett & Moriarty, 1998). They also insisted that it is not enough to produce a good product, advertising only makes it available to customers and stimulates consumption and purchase.
2.8 CONCEPT OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR
Consumer behaviour can be explained as to the attitude consumers show or exhibit when looking for, purchasing, applying, analysing and disposing of products and services that they think can satisfy their needs (Schiffman et al., 2012).
The field of consumer behaviour focuses on how people make decisions to spend their available resources on consumption-related items (Schiffman & Kanuk, 1997). The field of consumer behaviour covers a lot of ground. According to Solomon (2011), consumer behaviour is the study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of merchandise, services, ideas, or experiences to fulfil needs and desires.
According to Solomon (2006) and Belch (2008) consumer behaviour is a study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, buy, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to fulfil needs and desires.
2.9 DETERMINANTS OF ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR
2.9.1 Economic Factors and Buying Behaviour
The purchasing behaviour of consumers is massively influenced by their economic situation. The smaller the consumer’s family size, the higher the income and savings of such a consumer. This will in turn influence the buyer to purchase expensive goods. On the other hand, a person with low earnings and savings will buy less costly products. Myers, Stanton and Haug (2001) also provided support for the predictive power of economic factors such as income, family size and consumer budget over other social factors in explaining expenditure patterns for low-priced goods. They established that economic factors are a major element of buying behaviour and can be used to determine the type of goods consumer is likely to buy.
When it comes to brand identification, Keiser and Kuehl (2002) reported on the importance of economic factors on buyer behaviour. Their study showed that individuals who earn higher incomes are able to associate themselves with higher brands than other individuals. A detailed and resourceful study was done by Schaninger (2001) in the examination of both usage/non-usage criteria and also the frequency of the use of data for a large range of products, where it was concluded that economic factors are the most significant factors in explaining the consumption of low social value products and services that are not related to class symbols, he opined that it is irrational and wrong to deny the influence that income has over buying behaviour, both on type and prices of clothes purchased.
2.9.2 Personal Factors
Etzioni (2008) stated that all human life is experienced at two stages. The internalized stage of experiences includes biological, psychological, and the social factors influence our buying decisions. Interactions with parents, friends and the people in our immediate environment results in personality development, and our personal values formation. Personal values then develops our attitudes and beliefs and this eventually affects our purchasing behaviors, which normally carries some similarity with the buying behaviour of the people around us.
Research in the marketing literature has shown that religion is an important aspect of culture which influences behaviour as well as purchasing decisions (Essoo ; Dibb, 2004). Defining religion has become a challenge intellectuals face (Guthrie, 1996). However, most scholars would agree that a religion denotes a unified systems of practices and beliefs in relation to sacred things; which according to Delener (2000), influences buying pattern in different ways. Understanding how religion influencing consuming behaviour is quite complex. Almost every aspect of religion is combined to shapen our religious thus, complicating efforts.
2.9.3 Cultural Factors
Every society or community has its own culture that makes it distinct from others. This way of life affects what and how we buy and as such local and international marketers must understand the way of life in each of their target market and adapt to it strategically. Firms are constantly striving to find cultural shifts in order to identify new products that might be desired. For instance, the cultural transformation toward greater concern about health and fitness has created a huge industry for more natural and low fat foods as well as equipment for exercising (Lawan ; Zanna, 2008). There has also being an increase in the demand for simpler home furnishings and casual clothing due to the shift towards informal lifestyles.
The demand for convenience products such as microwaves and fast foods have increased due to busy lifestyles and schedules. Culture is learned from the family and from the immediate environment around us while growing up and also from learning the ways of the world. Culture sets a limit within which an individual thinks and does. The nature of cultural influences is such that we are seldom aware of them. One feels, behaves, and thinks like the other members of the same culture.
Hofstede (2000) explained how culture influences our buying behaviour by coming up the cultural dimensions. He saw culture as the interactive aggregate of common features that determine a group’s response to its surroundings. Nakata and Kumar (2000) stated that this cultural dimension serve as the most influential culture theory among social science research.
Hofstede (2000) stated that culture has the following dimensions: Individualism, uncertainty avoidance and power distance.
Perceptual experience is the procedure through which an individual selects, organizes and interprets the information he has in order to do something that makes sense (Rani, 2014).
According to Rani (2014) there are three different perceptual processes which are selective attention, selective distortion and selective retention. Selective attention is where customers are selective in terms of the attention they give to commercial stimuli (Schiffman et al., 2012). In the case of selective attention, marketers try to attract the customer attention however, in case of selective distortion, customers try to interpret the information in a way that will support what the customers already believe (Rani, 2014).
Personality varies, depending on the individual, time and place. Therefore, it can influence the buying behavior of purchaser greatly. It has various features such as: dominance, aggressiveness and self-confidence which can be useful to decide the consumer behaviour for particular product or service (Rani, 2014).
2.10 THE CONSUMER BUYING PROCESS
The consumer buying process is a long procedure. It commences with the consumer being able to identify a need which is then followed by an information search and evaluation of alternatives. A purchase is then made after alternatives have been carefully evaluated by the prospective buyer.
The first stage of the process according to Schiffman, et al, (2012) is the recognition that they have needs that are not met. The recognition of need may be internal, such as hunger, thirst, or exhaustion, or external such as advertising, communicating with sales men and women, or window shopping. It is important for firms to understand customer needs and then convert these needs into wants for a specific product. “The idea is to build on the basic need and convince potential customers to want your product because it will fulfil their needs better than any competing product” (Ferrell & Hartline, 2008, p. 152). Customer needs are not satisfied sometimes simply because they do not like the product. In such instances, marketers must first educate consumers on their need of the product and then, after customers realize their need, persuade them that their product is better than that of their competitor.
After customers recognize their need for a product, they then start to either actively or passively look for information (Schiffman et al., 2012). Passive information searches may involve simply paying closer attention when adverts about a product the customer is interested in are showed while active information searches involve the customer actively searching for information about a product, such as looking on the Internet or speaking to friends about the product.
When looking for information, customers may look internally and/or externally. Internal sources are more reliable and include personal experiences and sources such as friends or family whereas external sources include advertisements, websites, salespeople, and displays. The options are reduced until the consumer is left with lesser options to choose from (Ferrell & Hartline, 2008).
Customers decide which of the alternatives will satisfy their needs during the evaluation of alternatives stage. Usually, the evaluation level of consumer purchasing is hard to influence, understand or measure as this stage is done internally by the customer (Schiffman et al., 2012). Even though it is hard for marketers for persuade customers during the evaluation stage, it is still essential to understand the customer’s choice criteria and the importance they place on differing product attributes and attempt to improve the customer’s image about a product. Retailers and marketers may try to remind consumers of product offering through TV or radio commercials as well as other forms of advertisement.
Purchase decision is the next step of the consumer buying process. After a consumer has reached a decision to purchase, the critical issues for marketers are product availability and possession utility (Ferrell & Hartline, 2008). Thus, it is appropriate for supermarkets and other retailers to maintain an appropriate quantity of merchandise in storage and to exhibit the product easily.
The last and very important level can help build a long-term customer relationship is the post-purchase evaluation. The potential results for buyers during the post-purchase evaluation are delight, satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and cognitive dissonance, or post-purchase doubt. Customers are delighted when the performance of the product surpasses their needs, satisfaction is when the performance meets expectations, dissatisfaction occurs when the performance is below expectations, and cognitive dissonance occurs when the customer is uncertain of the product’s performance compared to his or her expectations. ‘By reducing cognitive dissonance and dissatisfaction, businesses hope to increase customer satisfaction and increase positive word-of-mouth regarding their product’ (Ferrell ; Hartline, 2008, p. 155).
This chapter contains the research methodology of the study. It explains how the researcher will achieve the stated objectives and answer the research questions. It presents the methods that were used in this research, the research design, sample size and techniques, population, data collection tools, and data analysis procedure.
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
The research design used for the study was the cross-sectional research design. “The cross-sectional research design is a type of research involving the collection of information from any given sample of population elements only once” (Malhotra ; Birks, 2007, P.74).
3.2 SOURCES OF DATA
The data collection method that was used for the study was the primary data. The meaning of primary data, its sources and the instruments used in collecting such data are discussed below:
3.3 PRIMARY DATA
This data is obtained directly from the field. This is used when a researcher requires detailed information which does not exist already or when the topic is being researched on for the first time.
The research comprised of customers who take beta malt on the University of Ghana campus, Accra. The total customers from whom the population was drawn was estimated at 100 people. These respondents provided the necessary information for the topic under study.
3.5 SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
The sample size used was a 100 respondents and these respondents were selected based on availability from the selected population under the study.
The sampling method used in this study will be the simple random sampling which is a probability sampling technique.
3.6 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS
The researcher used one main data collecting tool which was the use of questionnaires to collect data from the sample size.
The researcher used self-administered questionnaires which allowed the participants to choose from options provided by the researcher. The information collected from the respondents will then be analysed to provide the needed answers to the research questions.
A five-point Likert-scale, multiple choice-rating questions will be used in which some of the questions will be closed-ended questions where the respondents can choose one or more alternative answers. This will make the questionnaires easy to complete within a short period of time by the respondents.
3.8 DATA PROCESSING ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
This was presented using frequency tables. This helped to summarize data into tables using a descriptive statistic such as percentages and frequencies.
3.9 DATA ANALYSIS
Finally, the data collected from the entire customers were analysed to know how advertising has influenced the buying behaviour of beta malt consumers.
SPSS was used for the data analysis and results was presented in a table form. Open-ended answers will be subjected to content analysis and close-ended choice answers will be straightforwardly tabulated.
3.10 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
Validity defines whether the research actually measures that which it was proposed to measure or how accurate the research results are. Researchers generally determine validity by asking a sequence of questions and will often look for the answers to the topic under study.
The degree to which results are steady over time and an exact representation of the total population under study is referred to as reliability and if the outcome of a study can be reproduced under a similar procedure, then the research instrument is said to be reliable (Joppe, 2000). With this study, it can categorically be stated that the information that was obtained from the study is reliable and valid for further researchers.
3.11 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
A thorough explanation of the purpose and importance of the whole study was given to the research participants. The respondents had the chance to ask questions as well as share their concerns. Their questions and concerns were addressed and clarified accordingly. Participants were assured that data obtained was used for the purpose of the research work only. Confidentiality was assured and also names of respondents were not attached to contributions made to the research work.
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
This chapter introduces the analysis of data gathered, upon which conclusions and recommendations shall be based. The data represent discussions of the facts and those gathered in the field. This expanse through the analysis of questionnaires directed to respondents, and the discussions of findings from students. Descriptive statistics like frequencies and percentages were used. This aspect of the analysis presents descriptions of the responses using charts and tables from the raw data collected.
4.1 GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS
From the 100 respondents, 38 out of them were male which represent 38 Percent whiles 62 of them were females representing 62 Percent. From the data obtained, it is evident that females form the overall study participants making it a female dominant study. This is depicted in the table below.
Table 1 GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS
Category Occurrence Percentage
Male 38 38
Female 62 62
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.2 AGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS
An enquiry made into the ages of the respondents in table 2 shows that from the 100 respondents 20 of them were less than 20 years representing 20 Percent. Moreover, 68 respondents representing 68 Percent were from age between 20 years to 29years. Besides, 10 of them were from the age between 30-39 years representing 10 Percent whiles 2 respondents were from the age group 40 years and above representing 2 Percent. This is shown in the table below.
Table 2 Age Distribution
Category Frequency Percentage
Less than 20 years 20 20
20-29 years 68 68
40 years and beyond 10
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3 FORMS OF ADVERTISING ACTIVITY BY BETA MALT PRODUCT
In order to analyse this objective, responses were provided for the respondents as strongly agree, agreed, neutral, disagreed and strongly disagreed. Each category had a series of reactions from respondents. For the print advertising category, 13 respondents strongly disagreed representing 13% of the total respondents strongly disagreeing to the fact that beta malt uses print advertisement such as newspaper, magazine, flyers etc. as a form to advertise to its customers. 24 respondents agreed to it, representing 24% of the total respondents, 51 respondents were neutral to print advertising indicating 51% of the entire respondents however 7 and 5 respondents disagreed and strongly disagreed correspondingly, representing 7% and 5% of the 100% total. This means that, in total, respondents were neutral to the fact that beta malt uses print advertising effectively.
The second category depicting how consumers are familiar with beta malt using outdoor advertising showed that, 10 respondents strongly agreed to it representing 10% of the whole respondents, 74 respondents agreed to it, signifying 71% of the total percentage, 9 respondents were neutral, representing 9% while 3 and 4 disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively signifying 3% and 4% of the entire percentage. This shows that, respondents agreed to beta malt using outdoor advertising as a form of advertisement to communicate to its customers.
Also, for the third category being the broadcast advertising as a form of advertisement been used by beta malt, respondents agreed to that fact. The breakdown of this is explained as; 28 respondents strongly agreed to beta malt using broadcast advertisement representing 28% of the total responses. 57% agreed to it, representing 57% of 100%, 8 respondents were neutral about it while 5 and 2 respondents disagreed as well as strongly disagreed respectively, demonstrating 5% and 2% of the whole responses.
For covert advertising, 2 respondents strongly agreed to beta malt using that form of advertisement, 4 respondents agreed representing 4% of the total responses, 23 were neutral to it, representing 23%, 62 respondents disagreed to using covert advertising representing 62% while 9 respondents strongly disagreed to beta malt using covert advertising representing the other 9% of the 100%.
The last category being celebrity advertisement showed a positive feedback from respondents. 29 respondents agreed to beta malt using celebrity advertisement representing 29% of the total respondents, 68 respondents agreed representing 68% of the total, 2 respondents were neutral to beta malt using celebrity while just one respondents disagreed to this category representing 15 of the total percentage. This indicated that respondents agreed to beta malt using celebrity advertisement.
In general, it was realized that respondents were familiar with beta malt using celebrity advertisement (advertising using celebrity), broadcast advertisement (TV, radio and the use of the internet) and outdoor advertisement (billboards, bus shelter, kiosks, transit).
The dominant results are depicted in figure 3 below
Table 3. Advertising Activities by Beta Malt Product
Category Number Dominant Frequency Dominant Percentage (%) Dominant Remark
Print advertising (newspaper, magazine, brochures, Fliers) 100 51 51 Neutral
Outdoor advertising (billboards, bus shelter, kiosks, transit) 100 74 74 Agreed
Broadcast advertising (television, radio and internet) 100 57 57 Agreed
Covert advertising (Advertising in movies, TV shows sport events) 100 62 62 Disagreed
Celebrity Advertising (Advertising using celebrity) 100 68 68 Agreed
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.3.1 CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR CONSUMERS TO BELIEVE IN AN ADVERTISEMENT
A query made on the conditions for believing in an advertisement presented that, 57 respondents would only believe an advertisement when they try the product out themselves representing 57% of the total percentage. 32 respondents however, indicated that they would believe an advertisement when they feel personally involved and like the advert representing 32% while 11 respondents held that, they would believe an advertisement when they believe the idea the advertisement tells theoretically representing the remaining 11% of the total population of 100. This analysis disclosed that, respondents would believe an advertisement when they try out the product it sells themselves as this response had the highest percentage from respondents. This is depicted in the table below;
TABLE 4. Conditions for Believing in an Advertisement
I believe an advertisement when RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
I feel personally involved and like it 32 32%
I believe the idea it tells theoretically 11 11%
I try it out myself 57 57%
Source: Field Survey, 2019
4.4 THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR.
4.4.1 The Impact of Beta Malt Advertising on Consumer Buying Habit.
An enquiry was made about how beta malt product advertising is being impacted on each respondent’s buying behaviour. From the 100 respondents, 45 of them were of the view that it makes them to make a purchase representing 45 Percent. Again, 20 respondents representing 20 Percent were of the view that it makes them recommend for friends. Besides, 32 of them answered that beta malt advertisement makes them do repurchase representing 32 Percent whiles 3 respondents were of the judgement that beta malt advertisement makes them love the brand representing 3 Percent.
From the analysis, it can have finalized that beta malt product has impact on its consumers through making a purchase of the beta malt, doing repurchases of beta malt and making recommendation for friends. This is shown in the table below.
Table 5 The Impact of Beta Malt Advertising on Consumer Buying Habit.
Category Frequency Percentage
Make a purchase 45 45
Recommend for friends 20 20
Do repurchase 32 32
Love the brand 3 3
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey: 2018
4.4.2 How Likely Are Consumers to Purchase Beta Malt?
This section presents on the scale of 1-10 how likely consumers are to purchase beta malt using SPSS. The results are presented below;
The mean response for how likely consumers are to consume beta malt was approximately 8 (7.75) indicating a high level of purchase. It was indicated that the highest frequency was 26 indicating that 26 respondents rated the question at 7. The least frequency was 1 indicating that just a single person opted for the lowest response of 2.
This means that, on the average, consumers are expected to purchase or prefer beta malt.
TABLE 6. Likeliness of Consumers to Purchase Beta Malt.
RESPONSES (SCALE) FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
2 1 1.0
4 2 2.0
5 6 6.0
6 6 6.0
7 26 26.0
8 24 24.0
9 25 25.0
10 10 10.0
Total 100 100
4.4.3 How Likely Are Consumers to Recommend Beta Malt to a friend?
For the recommendation, the mean response was approximately 6 (6.09), representing an average response to how likely consumers are to recommend beta malt to their friends. The minimum respondents were on the 3rd scale while the maximum response was on the 8th scale. The highest response was 29 indicating that 29 respondents opted averagely to recommend beta malt to friends. The least frequency was 1 indicating that a single person was less likely to recommend beta malt to a friend.
This represents a not so strong response to recommendation yet, consumers will recommend rather than not recommend at all.
TABLE 7 Likeliness of Consumers to Recommend Beta Malt to a friend.
RESPONSES (SCALE) FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
3 1 1.0
4 7 7.0
5 24 24.0
6 29 29.0
7 28 28.0
8 11 11.0
Total 100 100.0
SOURCE: Field Survey, 2018
4.5 THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CONSUMERS BUYING HABIT
4.5.1 Factors that Influence Buying Habit of Beta Malt Consumers
Looking at the data collected, consumers are being influence by certain factors in their purchasing tradition. Out of the 100 respondents, 15 responded that the name of the brand influences their buying habit, which represent 15 Percent. Again 20 responded that, the quality of the product stimuluses their purchasing tradition which represent 5 percent. Moreover 10 responded that the quantity of the product motivates their buying habit representing 10 percent. Also 20 responded the price factor motivates them to buy the product representing 20 percent. Besides, 5 respondents were of the view that word of mouth has dispassionate influence on their buying habit representing 5 percent whiles 30 responded that advertising has much influence on their buying traditions representing 30 percent. It can be concluded that from survey that the most factors that influence consumers buying tradition are advertisement, price factor, quality and brad name of the product. This is showed in the table below
Table 8. Factors that Influence Buying Habit of Beta Malt
Category Frequency Percentage
Brand name 15 15
Quality 20 20
Quantity 10 10
Price factor 20 20
Word of mouth 5 5
Advertisement 30 30
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
4.5.2 Factors that Inspire the Purchase of Beta Malt When Advertised
Considering at the data collected, consumers are being motivated by certain issues in their purchasing decisions. From the 100 respondents, 32 responded that the celebrity they use makes them purchase beta malt product which represent 32 percent. Again 4 respondents were of the view that, their mode of communication makes them purchase beta malt which represents 4 percent. Moreover 20 responded that the frequency in which they advertise motivates them to buy beta representing 20 percent. Also 20 responded the product package influence them to buy beta malt product representing 20 percent whiles 24 respondents were of the opinion that the appeal of the product advertisement makes them purchase beta malt representing 30 percent.
It can be concluded that from analysis that the most factors that inspires consumers to purchase beta malt are the celebrity they use, the appeal of the advert, the frequency in which they advertise and the product package. This is showed in the table below
Table 9. Factors that Inspire the Purchase of Beta Malt When Advertised
Category Frequency Percentage
The celebrity they use 32 32
Their mode of communication 4 4
The frequency in which they advertise 20 20
The product package 20 20
The appeal of the advert 24 24
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey, 2018
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This section encompasses the summary of the research based on the analysis found. It then dives into the conclusions made per the analysis of the research and has made some necessary recommendations for consideration by marketing/advertising managers on other forms of advertising as well as other ways to reach their advertising objectives.
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The study surveyed the impact of advertising on consumer buying behaviour a case of beta malt. It has been easily perceived from the research that there are many forms of advertising used by beta malt that consumers are familiar with, including celebrity advertising, outdoor advertising and broadcast advertising. Also, beta malt advertisement has various impacts on consumer buying behaviour. Finally, there are major factors that inspires consumers to purchase beta malt in the country. The details of this summary are indicated below.
5.1.1 Forms of Advertising Activities by Beta Malt
The study was structured to examine the form of advertising activities used by beta malt and it revealed that beta malt product practised celebrity advertising (advertising using celebrity), broadcast advertising (television, radio and the use of the internet) and outdoor advertising (billboards, bus shelter, kiosks, transit). Also, consumers believed the advertisement beta malt displayed more when they try out the product. The minority also believed the advertisement more when they feel involved or can relate to the advert hence liked it.
5.1.2 The Impact of Advertising on Consumer Behaviour
Per the analysis, it was certain that beta malt product had an impact on its consumers. The various impact based on different respondents includes; making a purchase of beta malt, repurchasing of beta malt and making recommendations for friends has those responses dominated the research. With regards to making a purchase, consumers are more expected to make a purchase per the analysis made and are also likely to recommend beta malt to a friend since the results was a bit above average.
5.1.3 The Factors That Influence Consumers Buying Habit
There are factors that motivates consumers to respond to beta malt advertisement. As per this study, the major factors that influenced consumers buying tradition were advertisement, price of the product, quality associated with the malt and brand name of the product that is how well beta malt is positioned in the minds of its consumers.
To conclude, the major factors that inspires consumers to purchase beta malt are the celebrity they use that is Vera Hamenoo-Kpeda popularly known by the stage name as MzVee being their brand ambassador, the appeal of the advert, how frequent they advertise and the product packaging.
Advertisement has a major impact on consumer behavior, especially making purchases. Advertisement helps develop customer relationship by conveying customer value to a particular target throughout an exact period. Advertisement performs a very central role in aiding consumers to make a decision to purchase an item. The interpretations from the study shows advertisement made by beta malt influences consumers buying habit.
Beta malt should practice other forms of advertising like supporting events such as sports and other entertainment events and the usage of cell phone advertisements. This will escalate awareness around their products.
Beta malt should research and consider the most effective media for advertising that will reach its consumers. The company should also consider the use of diverse local dialects applied in their operating nation so that their target market can get the ideas from their advertisements.
The institution should as well consider the usage of E-marketing so that they can reach most of their target consumers who spend most of their time on the internet besides have no time on the radio or television.
The study recommends further research in other areas such as the potentials of covert advertisement that is advertisement in movies, TV shows and sport events to increase customer volume, where there could use large sample size and population with different product.