CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ‘If one does not know To which part one is sailing

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
‘If one does not know
To which part one is sailing. No wind is Favorable.’
Lucius Annaeus Seneca
2.1 Introduction
A literature review is a body of text that aims to review critically at the existing research that is significant to the concerned area. It provides the content for present research by looking at what work has already been done in this area and what still remains enveloped in darkness. Once we come to know about what is already researched and what portion is left out, we can proceed logically and try to fit the prevailing ideas into present research.

Brand plays an important role in enhancing the value of a product. It is a firm asset that contributes identity and character, guides consumer for product choices and forms the relation among the consumers. It is a quality indicator and creates awareness of products to the consumers. It starts in a wide perspective by investigating what researchers have written about consumer behavior and brand. Thus, the research is narrowed down by investigating brand awareness for different products, which affect the consumer buying behavior. In the area of the research study, related to brand awareness, several studies, research papers, articles, books, etc are available. References of these earlier studies were found to be relevant to shape the present study.

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2.2 Literature Review
For clear and easy understanding, the following existing concept shall be helpful to get an insight into the present research topic:
Buying Behavior
Consumer Behavior
Role of Children in buying decision
Media Effects
Brand
Brand Awareness
Brand Loyalty
Brand Image
Berey and Pollay (1968) measured the assertiveness of the child (in favor of a brand preferred by the child) and the child –centeredness of the mother in the case of purchase of a brand of breakfast cereal. They found that high child-centered mothers purchased the child’s favorite brand less frequently, implying that when a mother is child centered, she would purchase a brand that is good for the child and not necessarily one that is preferred by the child. They also found that the assertiveness of the child enhanced the recall of the child’s favorite brand among mothers.

Ekstrom, Tansuhaj and Foxman (1987) In their study concludes that children influence their parents purchases by direct expression of preferences and by communicating new knowledge to the parents and influencing purchases. They proposed that children whose family communication pattern is characterized by a high concept- orientation will influence (socialize) their parents more than children whose family communication pattern is characterized by a high socio-orientation. A child in a single parents family, higher socio- economic status, and higher personal resources and in a sex role egalitarian family will have more influence. A child influences only those buying decision for a product for which they have sufficient knowledge or which product they think important for them. Their participation in family decision making will tend to increase satisfaction with family purchase decisions.

Venkateshwaralu et al (1987) analyzes the buyer behavior towards biscuits and concludes that consumers prefer packed biscuits as compared to unpacked biscuits. It was also found that children are the major influencers in decision making while purchasing biscuits, though parents are equally involved. The study also concludes that majority of the respondents purchase biscuits once in a week. It was concluded that the marketers have to give considerable importance to taste, freshness and brand name of biscuits as they largely affect the decision making process of consumers.

Robert Mayer (1994) has observed that it is quite evident that children not only attempt to influence their parents to make purchases of special interest to them, but also products of remote interest (e.g. Laundry detergents). For which they see advertisements on T.V Robert and Chris have argued that it is commonly expected that advertising effects will be diluted when consumers encounter ads for competing brands. Consequently, advertisers attempt to avoid competitor’s ads when buying media. It has been suggested that advertising for mature and familiar brands may not work in the same way as advertising for unfamiliar brands. Relative to information related to the more familiar brands advertised in the market place may be less susceptible to competitive inference.

Jennifer and Deborah (1995) has concluded in their study that younger kids tend to use fewer dimensions to compare and evaluate brands, use simple choice mechanisms based on single attributes rather than employing compensatory choice strategies of products in gathering information and making choices.

Fruits of the Boom by Diane Crispell (1998) explains how baby boomer children differ from their parents across a broad spectrum of consumer preferences, attitudes, influences and demographics, including:
Pervasiveness of technology – especially computers – and its effects and perception
More single-parent households and working mothers
Acceptance of racial and ethnic diversity
More control of things that are purchased by or for them, even to the extent of influencing family cars and homes.

Claude Pecheux and Christian Debix (1999) have said that children’s attitude towards particular brand is more crucial to understand than their choice behavior and this is important not only to understand a child’s behavior as present consumer but also as future consumer.
James U. Mc Neal (1999) explained that children represent three different strategies for making money.

a)Children have money of their own to spend (current market)
b)They influence family decisions (influence market)
c)They are open to advertising campaigns designed to make them future consumers (future market)
Mc Neal further explained that in the 1960s.children aged 2-14 directly influence about $5 billion in parental purchases. Mc Neal wrote “In the mid -1970s, the figure was $20 billion, and it rose to $50 billion by 1984. By 1990, it had reached $ 132 billion, and in 1997, at around $188 billion. It is expected that children’s aggregate spending roughly doubled during each decade of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s and has tripled so far in the 1990s”.

Abhilasha Mehta (Gallup and Robinson inc. 2000) has concluded that print advertising performance is influenced by consumer’s attitudes towards advertising in general. People having positive attitude towards advertisements, have more recall memory and were more persuaded by advertisement. The research shows that to be effective, advertisement should be something people should like looking at, believe and find utility with keeping up to date about products and services.

Gene Del vecchio (O & M, Los Angeles 2000) has argued that marketers must gain an intimate understanding of a child’s emotional needs, their hopes and fantasies in order to succeed in creating and sustaining bonds with almost universal child appeals.

Rajan Banarjee (2000) discussed the rising importance of children in the retail purchase decision, and how stores need to evolve to retain the adults of tomorrow. He also said that in the consumer products, international research shows that children tend to influence purchase decision of many products, which they consume. According to him any Indian middle class family with a child between five and ten years of age, the child is often the most advertising savvy person in the entire household. ‘Savvy’ means aware and not necessarily discerning. International manufacturers of packaged foods have gone beyond merely making the product accessible and attractive to the children. He counts two reasons for this, firstly, in the era of double-income, family has more outing with the children and secondly, if we satisfy child of today he grows into the adult of tomorrow. In a nutshell, he wants to conclude that, earlier, it was sell to the parents and close with the child’. Now, the mantra is ‘sell to the child and close with the parent’.

Yoo et al (2000) In his study concludes that brand associations have more influence on consumer choices, preferences, buying intentions, and willingness to pay a higher price for the brand, accept brand extensions and recommend the brand to others.

Deepak Halan (2002) opines in a focus group study by kids-link, the market research group of kid stuff promos and events with boys and girls in the age group of 13-15 years in Delhi, girls estimated that they were able to influence 50 percent of the decisions. The study highlighted that kids have a lot of information because of exposure to television, other media, and friends. They reflected that parents sought their opinion even in making purchase of products not directly related to the children, such as cars, because of their higher knowledge of brands, models and the latest trends. Also, children stated that parents bought products that made the kids happy.

Sanjaya Gaur et al (2002) in their comparative study of Chennai City and Coimbatore City on buyer behavior for branded fine rice, concludes that quality and brand image were the major factors influencing brand preference regarding rice. The decision for purchasing branded fine rice was mostly made by the female members of the family. It is also found that retailers are the main source of information about branded fine rice to consumers. Monthly purchase is the most preferred frequency of purchase, which might be due to the fact that most of the respondents are of monthly salaried class and they would have planned their purchase accordingly along with other provision items.

Anup Shah (2003) explains that marketers see children as a future as well as current market and hence brand loyalty at a young age helps in the quest of continued, sales later. According to the journal of American Medical Association children between the age of two and seventeen watch an annual average of 15000 to 18000 hours of television as compare to 12000 hours spent per year in school. Children are the prime target for T.V advertising; they watch the product in advertisement and influence their parents to buy the product. It has been observed that approximate $1 billion a year is spent on ads and commercials directed at children’s.

Casey, Russell Allan (2003) in his study, the effect of brand equity on brand knowledge: An empirical and comparative analysis focuses on the reciprocal effects of brand extensions on brand knowledge and its effect on the parent brand. Previous findings state that luxury brands appear to be able to extend into unrelated categories. The findings also suggest that students that attend a Historically Black College/University (HBCU) perceive brand extensions differently than students that attend a predominately White Institution (PWI). Conclusions suggest that companies desiring to make an unrelated brand extension should take into consideration their target population prior to launching a brand extension.

Verma and Sheetal (2003) Examined the dimension of buying roles in family decision making , by taking the survey of families living in Delhi using at least one of six durable consumer products; audio system, car, personal computer, refrigerator, television and washing machine in recent years. Five roles namely the initiators, influencers, the deciders, the buyers and the users played by family members were examined in the study. The study revealed that the young, well educated women in the family emerged as initiators of the buying decisions, student and children were among the influencers. The study further stated that the purchase decision process was relatively democratic at the initial stages, subsequently it seemed to become much more unilateral in terms the role played by the decider-members. The husband was found to play the significant role of coordinators, decider and buyer.

Bansal (2004) opines that ‘It s all a kid’s play anyway’, Today’s youngsters have profound influence over purchases in all kinds of product categories. They are the centre of the aspirations of the family. The Findings of a survey named as new generations 2001, conducted on Indian kids by cartoon Network, reconfirms the power of the kids to make their parents dance to their tune when it comes to purchasing a product. The study also throws light on some of the compelling aspects of the child as a consumer. Insistence power emerged as one of the New Generations 2001 study’s important findings by virtue of which the kids pester their parents and make them invest on their favorites. In the study mothers were interviewed in order to validate the claims made about the children’s power of insistence. It measured the level of influence children have on purchase and brand decisions across 37 product categories The survey indicates that today’s children usually have a strong opinion on brands. For instance, the study conducted on kids aged 7-14 revealed that Santro is their favorite car followed by Maruti 800 and Zen. And Nokia was voted as their most favorite mobile brand. An International comparison on the extent of influence on Parent’s purchases, conducted across 30 product categories, revealed that while South Korea and Japan were at the upper end, India in the middle, Singapore and Malaysia figured at the bottom.

Chidambaram et al (2004) In his study on brand preference of the consumers of Talcum Powder concludes that sixty percent of the respondents are loyal to the brand they are already whereas the remaining forty percent of the respondents prefer to switch over the brand. The study further explains that consumers are influence by fragrance, brand image, price and package of the talcum powder.
D. P. S. Verma ; Neeru Kapoor (2004) in their study ‘influence of TV Advertisements on Children’s Buying Response: Role of Parent-Child Interaction’ revealed that parents give due recognition to the increasing role of children above the age of eight years in the family purchase decision. However the parent’s response has been influenced by the age of child, price of the product and income of the family.

Children perceived their role to be highly important in the family’s decisions. They claimed to play the role of influencer and decider in the purchase of a majority of personal products, consumables, household durables and even family automobiles. They also said that they play the role of buyer for a number of products.

Rajarashmi and Sudarsana (2004) revealed that, almost all the sample respondents preferred branded products and if their favorite brand is not available in the retail shop, they will go for another store and their favorite brand. If it is not available in the market, the respondents are ready to postpone their decision. The results revealed that factors affecting repurchase intents vary across the two cultures.

Adeolu et al (2005) Analyzed the influence of advertising on consumer brand preference towards Bourn vita in Nigeria.315 customers of different cities of Southwestern Nigeria were surveyed to investigate the relationship between age group and the influence of advertising. Nigeria is dependent on consumers’ age bracket. Many consumers do not buy whatever is available or affordable and if a product is worth the price, it will fetch brand loyalty. However, advertising helps in projecting quality and value before the consumers.
Horgan Sheena (2005) found the following facts related to children’s brand awareness (a) Childrens’ ability to make consumer choices increased at a young age.

— Children at 18 months can recognize corporate labels.

— By 20 months associate items with brand names.

— By 2-3 years can draw brands.

— By 4 years have developed consumer preferences and use information from advertising to develop these.

— By 5 years actually purchase brand.

(b) Children are a Highly Media Savvy and Brand Awareness Audience.

— Kids are more receptive to advertising and marketing as they have been born into a highly consumerist and branded world which in turns makes then more discerning about the message they retain .

— Kids also think in an interactive dimension and so the emergence of the internet and subsequent rise in e-marketing feeds their need for instant gratification, immediate and interactive response, real time conversations, 24/7 requirements. It’s little wonder therefore with such a media savvy and multi – message recipient that forester research found that the effect of marketing to tween segment is increased by 200% when several channels used for the message. Art that “with the same level of exposure kids are 3 times. More likely to remember that they’ve seen an ad on TV than adults.”
Ramasamy et al (2005) indicated that, the buying behavior is vastly influenced by brand awareness and attitude towards the product. Commercial advertisements over television was said to be the most important source of information, followed by displays in retail outlets. Consumers do build opinion about a brand on the basis of which various product features play an important role in decision making process. A large number of respondents laid emphasis on quality and felt that price is an important factor while the others attached importance to image of manufacturer.

Kurt Matzler, Sonja Bidmon, Sonja Grabner-Krauter (2006) conducted a study on two personality traits (extraversion and openness), indulgent value, brand effect and loyalty. It argues that individual differences account for differences in the value sought by the consumer and in the formation of brand affect and loyalty. It was found that extraversion and openness have positive effect to indulgent value of a product and that the personality traits directly and indirectly influence brand affect which in turn drives attitudinal and purchase loyalty.

Nithinla Vincent (2006) has conducted a study to find out the level of brand consciousness among children and also to analyze the effect of brand consciousness among children in the family buying behavior. The study revealed that there is a very high degree of brand awareness among children. Further the author found in the survey that around 60% of the parents have said that their children insist for branded items at some point of time.

Ramkrishnan Venkatesakumar, D. Ramkumar and P. Thillai Rajan (2008) confirms that Brand loyalty and Brand switching behavior of the consumers are evergreen issues of research and strategic importance to the marketers and academic researchers. The current research aims to address the significance of product attributes in brand switching behavior through multi-dimensional scaling and results suggest that a set of product attributes trigger the intention to switch the current brand.

Shibashish, Chakraborty and Kalyan Sengupta (2008) endeavors to make a detailed study on important demographic variables of customers affecting brand switching of customers. This study will highlight pertinent aspects of prediction of switching proclivity of customers from one service provider to another.

Nazlialimen and Guldemcerit (2009) Analyzed the perception of university students and conclude that the fashion brands should concentrate on knowledge, image and awareness of brands to target the young consumers. In a globalized world where local preferences are also playing an important role, brands act effectively in the development of the market demand. Brand knowledge is a key to evaluate in reaching the consumers and this research has proved the importance of empirical studies in this respect.

Arvind Sahay and Nivedita Sharma (2010) conducted their study on three dimensions, relation of the brand for different categories of young consumers, the effect of peer pressure, family preferences, and relationship of brand on switching intentions amongst young consumers, the impact of price changes on switching intentions in the context of brand relationships. Researcher’s results suggest that young consumers develop relationships on all brand relationships dimensions.

Luca Petruzzllis (2010) referred and concluded that technology now days are overcome by customer preferences and needs. The role of the brand is to be analyzed with respect to its influence in changing customer preferences from the technical performances to the emotional/symbolic and tangible elements to intangible elements. The researchers had provided an analysis of the brand attitude and perception tested and viewed through user eyes.

Prakash (2010) has conducted a study to know the consumer perception in buying Coca-Cola soft drinks. The study attempted to find out the factors influencing brand preference, sources of awareness , reasons for shifting from one brand to another and the effectiveness of promotional strategy in Coca-Cola industry. The researcher adopted convenience sampling technique for selecting the samples. The major findings of the study shows that 31 percent of the respondents are earning less than rupees 5000 monthly income, 25 percent of the respondents consume soft drinks once in a day and 76 percent of the respondents are loyal towards a particular brand of soft drink. The findings of the study indicated that a high degree of satisfaction is exhibited by the consumers regarding the price of Coca-cola soft drinks. The study concludes that the public is happy with the quality, flavor and taste of Coca –Cola. All respondents are aware of the various flavors of the Coca-cola brand. Hence it is the right time to introduce any new flavor.
Ahmed Alamro, Jenifer Rowley (2011) explored the antecedents of brand preference; which can be categorized as awareness antecedents controlled communication (advertising), and uncontrolled communication (publicity, word of mouth)); image antecedents comprised of service value attributes (price, quality), provider attributes include brand personality, country of origin, service (employee + location), and corporate status (corporate image , corporate reputation); and, customer attribute antecedents (satisfaction, perceived risk, and reference group). He analyzed the contribution of each antecedent to brand preferences through multiple regression technique.

Janghyeon et al (2011) in their study showed that consumers develop brand loyalty because the brand experience fits well with their lifestyles and social identity. So there is need to strengthen brand equity and brand loyalty which will helpful to empower consumer through brand experience for the association or disassociation with a social group. To do this, hotel and restaurant brands should develop new products to enhance customers’ social identity.
Yaseen khan (2011) has studied the buying behavior and brand perception of consumers visiting Shopping Malls. In India Shopping Malls are upcoming industry worth Rs 17000 crores. Gurgaon is the most favorite place for shopping malls. M.G (Meharauli- Gurgaon) road is the place where most of the famous Shopping Malls are located. On M.G Road Gurgaon, MGF Group has two shopping malls in operation MGF Metropolitan Mall, and MGF Plaza, Sahara Group has its Sahara Mall and DLF Group has its City Center. Taking metropolitan Mall as a base the study conducted to make a comparison of consumer buying behavior and brand perception of consumer regarding shopping malls on M.G road. Shopping Malls are the places for the fun ; entertainment, family outing, shopping and eating. Age factor is the most dominant factor as per the study on consumer behavior towards Shopping Malls is concerned. It is found that the purchasing power of consumers is the main factor, which determines their buying behavior towards shopping malls.

Anju Thapa (2012) examined the various factors which influence the consumers to buy a shampoo of particular brand and reasons for their switching over to other brands. It has been concluded that some individuals highly use this brand of shampoo and majority people are aware of cosmetic shampoos rather than herbal and medicated ones. It has been found that while Price, availability, packaging of the product play an important role in buying the shampoo, consumers also prefer gifts, extra quantity, discount and price off while making decision for buying shampoo. It is also found that the factors affecting the switching behavior of the consumers are packaging, price rise of current brand, advertisement and non-availability of expected brand in the market.

Hossien et al (2012) in their study revealed that the brand equity of chocolate products is directly made up of two dimensions, namely brand loyalty and brand image. These two dimensions have a medium direct impact on brand equity as hypothesized. Other dimensions have a very small and venial direct impact on brand equity that disregarded in building of brand equity in chocolate industry of Iran. The aforementioned findings are in conformity with past researchers that have also found brand personality, brand association and brand image related to brand equity.

Imran khan et al (2012) Conducted a study to know the impact of brand related attributes on the purchase intention of the consumers. The results identified that both the gender has same impact on brand knowledge and brand advertisement. It is found that female consumers have more behavioral intention, past experience and purchase intentions whereas male consumers have stronger brand relationship. It is found that as age increases the impact of advertisement and knowledge about brand also increases. All the brand related factors shows positive relationship with purchase intention of consumers. So, Pakistan companies should improve their brand related attributes.

Me and Elmarie (2012) conducted a study to find out the influence of demographic variables on brand associations and found the negative influence of demographics on brand associations which shows the universality of brand, and it can also be concluded that marketing cost can be reduce by maintaining these universal brand, as target market can associate with these brands in the same way.
Tajzadeh Namin A. A. ; Rahmani Vahid ; Tajzadeh Namin Aidin (2012) analyzed that the process of deciding over (choosing) a brand may be influenced by situation and content. The findings suggest a significant relationship between the variables “brand attitude”,”corporate attitude”,and “product (cell phone) choice.” In addition, no significant relationship was found between individual decision making processes (independent or medicated) and product choice.

Witt Susan D (2012) has done research on the influence of television on gender role socialization and explains that as children move through childhood and adolescence, television is an important influence on their gender role socialization.

Jose and K.P. Saraswathiamma (2014) in their study concludes that cartoon characters associated with brands have a great influence in making the brand attractive to kids. A well thought out advertisement campaign involving cartoon character can draw the attention of the kids. Though the believability of the facts in the advertisements involving cartoons characters figured relatively low in high involvement product category, they seemed to be effective in impulse purchase decisions. The kids’ preferences for brand were in sync with, ‘which’ of their favorite cartoon characters was associated with the brand. The main source of information about brands to kids was Television. Cartoon channels like Kochu TV, Pogo and Cartoon Network being the favorite choice. it is found that brand recall was high in kids and they were found to be more brand specific.
2.3 Research Gap and Conclusion
The literature review relating to the present research study has been deeply analysed from various perspectives. The past findings have attempted to examine consumer buying behavior and brand awareness for different products by different family members. The analysis also ascertained that not much study has been attempted in relation to brand awareness among children. In order to cover this research gap, the present study has been conducted on the children of small vs. big city, of different age groups and genders and focuses to yield fruitful insight into brand awareness amongst them.