Introduction Now and again

Introduction

Now and again, humans are entirely and surrounded by signs of branding which include, fonts, fonts and logos. Many people are able to recognise the label of a car from a tiny image. We do not have to read the name on the car itself. We all have been more confident in the companies we are dealing with and these products we choose to buy from if some sort of noticeable customer relationship is already present. Another company can provide exactly the same product for less money; however, due to the power of branding, we will avoid that company and continue to choose the brands we recognise. By and large, identifiable brands offer greater credibility. Because we are able to instantly recognise a brand, the majority of us belong to the misdirected presumption that well-branded companies provide superior products. We all believe they are more trustworthy, and the products and services they provide are features simply a lot better than any other brand. It’s a very brilliant strategy and one which we are all influenced by eventually in our lives – whether you worry, to be honest, or not.
Aims of Study

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This kind of literature review aims at assessing the impact of branding on consumer purchasing behaviour. The literature has been distilled from the body of knowledge on marketing generally and specifically from branding and consumer behaviour. Databases on the Internet such as Google Scholar, Questia and JSTOR were the key resources of information and other relevant textbooks were also consulted with this materials review. The researcher used search conditions like the role of branding in marketing and consumer purchasing behaviour; brand loyalty and consumer purchasing behaviour; brand image and consumer purchasing behaviour. The history of branding, theories of marketing and the styles of branding were reviewed. The elements of consumer purchasing behaviour, the impact of branding on consumer behaviour were also reviewed. Bottom line and advice were also attracted with this research.

Objectives of the review
• To describe the role of branding in marketing.
• To evaluate the elements of consumer purchasing behaviour.
• To assess the impact of branding on consumer behaviour.

Definitions of terms

According to (Kotler ;Keller, 2015) Branding is the process of giving a meaning to a specific company, products or services by creating and shaping a brand in consumers’ minds. While marketers’ definitions of branding may differ, what’s consistent is the importance of building your brand as a competitive marketing tool. Brands retain their power in today’s evolving social media ecosystem and device indifferent information consumption because they provide a shorthand communication that breaks through the ever-increasing message-laden environment. What matters to your bottom line is that your prospects have strong, positive brand associations that they’ve integrated into their worldview. Fleming, (2012) review states that branding is a dirty word for many activists, but it really just means “the set of expectations, memories, stories, and relationships that, taken together, account for a consumer’s decision to choose one product or service over another.”¹ If we take branding out of the realm of consumption and into the interplay of ideas in the public sphere, then we see that the tools of branding can be used for more than just selling soap. Consumer behaviour is the study of how individual customers, groups or organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of ideas, goods, and services to satisfy their needs and wants. It refers to the actions of the consumers in the marketplace and the underlying motives for those actions. Researching consumer behaviour is a complex process, but understanding consumer behaviour is critical to marketers.
History of branding
At the time you hear about “branding” you also think of Ancient Westerns or recent rising companies. And while the history of branding is somewhat obscure, there are definitely ideas about where and how the practice originated. Before we jump into the history of branding is important to create a clear definition of the word. A brand, in the simplest terms, is a distinct mark. This kind of mark can take the shape of a symbol or logo that associates an item, individual or business. In the meantime, the idea of branding can be described as forging an identification for a given good, person or business. Both equally “the brand” and the style or “branding” have an extended history and variety of traditions- some of which are still alive today (Bastos, 2012: 347).
Simply because before the beginning of recorded history, humans have planned to leave their symbol. Several of the earliest facts of humans marking their terrain is cave artwork. Since of 2014, the first cave paintings were seen in what is referred to as the Pettakere gives in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The paintings are simple- and are mainly stencils of hands- nevertheless, they are a few of the first recorded indications of humans attempting to leave a mark. More than time, hand stencils advanced into more advanced images describing stories of mankind, and even historical and spiritual events.
In such a way, one can argue that writing developed as a form of branding. Antique law rules, prices and records were carved into stone before the development of newspaper. This offered a sewing-embroidery. First, it enabled the laws of the land to be immortalized, and it also allowed the people to attach personal markings to their works. Archaeology has indeed revealed that brands were used very early in world by kings, artisans and merchants to mark something as their own. Relevant to an instance, archaeologists found brand-like motifs during their excavation of the Indus valley, which has recently been once home to one of the earliest known human being civilizations. One other example of early branding use is the cartouche, which was employed in Antique Egyptian. The cartouche was essentially an underlined oblong with enclosed emblems that were found top quality into documents, architecture and writings signalling their respectable royal status. For Ancient Egypt Royals, the cartouche offered in lieu of a signature to signal a state document or record (Bastos, 2012: 348).
Art logos continued even after writing started out to be more commonplace. Symbols associated with specific deity, furnished historic Egyptian and Ancient Greek temples. It could have been around that time that brands began out to stand not only for a name but also for a story. One example that still strongly resonates with modern society is the Caduceus. While the name might not exactly reasonable familiar, the symbol consists of two snakes wrapped around a winged staff. You may have likely seen the sign at the local hospital or pharmacy. When considered to be the model of the messenger god, Hermes, the caduceus has, mistakenly, been adapted into the American medical health care system and now shows up in medical signs as emblematic for healing.
Relating to Bastos (2012: 349) another form of marketing that stood the test of time, despite innovating, is the minting of coins. Once the money started out to supersede the exchange of goods, ancient rulers commenced choosing symbolic to add to their currency. Probably the most apparent good examples are the Ancient both Roman Empire, where coins transformed regularly depending on who was Emperor at that time. Presented the political climate of ancient Rome, this occurred on a regular most basic. But that did not stop this tradition from evolving into what in modern times, since even today, U. S. money carries a historical brand. The penny, for example, still bears the face of Abraham Lincoln.
Whilst some brands have endured the test of time, others are confined to history. Luis the XIV often referred to as the sunlight King, attempted to rebrand French monarchy as a godly force to be reckoned with. Luis XIV chosen brand was the sun, which this individual linked to himself and the French King proceeded to go as long as to construct Versailles and host of dedicated court rituals. Unfortunately for Louis XIV, his brand did not quite make it through the test of time. Versailles, nevertheless, remains an exceptional sight.
The Dark Part of the Brand: Certainly not all branding was positive. As an example, the branding of criminals and social outcasts also has a long-standing tradition. These kinds of branding have historically considered over a variety of forms- from brutal and inhumane, to more benign, but still detrimental. One such example comes from a well-known novel- The Scarlet Letter. Written by Nathanial Hawthorne make in colonial America, the book follows the story of any young woman who is found guilty of marriage act and forced to put on the scarlet “A”- the brand name of adultery. The Scarlet Document has a historical basis with law records enacted in both Plymouth and Salem that required adulterers to wear a public brand on their clothes.
Through the span of record, according to Conejo and Wooliscroft (2015: 394), the practice of branding continued to grow and advance, changing from a concern of shame to an issue of prestige and pride. Modern branding also ties in with marketing. Some prominent examples of business brands today include Apple Inc and Starbucks. For instance, every Apple product, no matter how small, bears an apple to display the prestige of the company as well as for additional marketing purposes. A similar extension can be made for designer clothing, cars and other luxury amenities which bear the design of their given brand. Some other good examples of brands include Tuning, Gucci and Versace.
Present branding comes from a long way from handprints on cave walls, sometimes of the older origins of the practice have continued. For example, builders and craftsman are still marking their work. In some cases, this requires the form if a signature, in others, logos irons may be used to mark an artwork or item. The nature of the brand differs {depending on work of artwork. For example, wood and steel artisans might use custom brands to mark their work. Regardless of the type or its exact nature in the modern world, branding continues to be a common practice as creators, governments and even corporations stick to the tradition of attempting to leave their mark (Conejo & Wooliscroft, 2015: 392).
Consumer buying behaviour refers to what consumers buy at a certain point in time that involves their decision making. So it is very important for any firm to keenly analyse consumer buying behaviours as it has a great impact on the firm’s online marketing strategy. It also plays a key role in the success of the company. It is important for any firm to make a marketing mix that satisfies the customers.
Generally, there are few types of buying behaviours based on the sort of products which needs to can be found. Complex buying behaviour is where an individual looks for a lot of information about a high-value brand product before purchasing it. Habitual buying behaviour is where the individual purchases the item out of the behaviour. Variety seeking buying behaviour is where the person likes to look around and experiment with different products. Customer buying behaviour is dependent upon the level of involvement in the purchase decision (Hampf, & Lindberg-Repo, 2011: 1)

The nature of the decision process varies depending on the item and the consumer. The marketers need to determine the sort of making decisions behaviour that is associated with the particular product in order to know the behaviour of the buyer. Howard (1989) classifies consumer buying decision into three broad categories:

Routine Response Programmed Behaviour- A consumer generally uses a routine response behaviour while frequently buying the inexpensive goods or services. These goods and services may be referred to as low involvement products as the consumer usually spend little time on decision making and purchases easily. The consumer is familiar with different brands in this product category but usually sticks on to one brand. The consumer usually skips many steps in the decision process as he buys the product out of the behaviour.

Limited Decision Making – Ordering product occasionally. When you need to obtain information about an unfamiliar brand in a product category. Requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering since it is compared with various brands. Acquiring information about an unfamiliar product category is called as limited decision making. Examples are books, clothes and cosmetics.

Extensive Producing decisions – Consumers usually spend much time on intensive making decisions with high involvement when they purchase an unfamiliar expensive product. This is the most complex type of consumer decision making as the consumer’s desire for a lot of information to compare it with its alternate brands. Good examples are cars, computers. Complex buying behaviour involves three steps:
• The consumer develops a perception about the product.
• The consumer develops an attitude about the product.
• The consumer makes a thoughtful choice.

Consumers usually engage in complex buying behaviour when they are highly engaged in a purchase, which usually occurs when the product is expensive, risky, and highly self-expressive. Many products do not carry features unless the buyer does some research. The marketing expert of a high engagement product must understand customer’s information- gathering and analysis process. According to this, the marketer needs to develop strategies that will determine the buyer in learning about the products features and their importance. The marketer also needs to differentiate the brand features, motivate storekeepers, and use proper print mass media to describe the brand name and the buyer’s interaction to influence the brand choice.

Dissonance-Reducing buyer behaviour – According to Herbert (1965), the consumer sometimes gets highly involved in a purchase but see little distinctions between brands. The high involvement is a result of the fact that the purchase is expensive, infrequent and risky. For this type of buy, the consumer will shop around to find out more on the product but purchase it quickly responding to the main factors like price or convenience. After the purchase, the buyer might experience dissonance by hearing great things about others or noticing certain disquieting features. Now the consumer will alert the informants who support his or her decisions. For instance, here, the consumer acted first then acquired new philosophy and ended up with a set of thinking. Marketing communication should source beliefs and evaluations that help the customer feel good about the brand of his choice.

Variety-Seeking Buying Behaviours are categorized by low involvement but significant brand differences. Generally, consumers do a lot of brand switching. Take, for example, cookies. The consumer has some knowledge about cookies, chooses them without much analysis and assess the product during intake. But next time the buyer may reach for another brand according to his taste. Brand switching occurs for the sake of variety rather than discontentment (Bashir, Zeeshan, Sabbar, Hussain, & Sarki, 2013: 93).
Elements of consumer purchasing behaviour
Psychological factors
Psychological factors are characterised as the internal processes that control a consumer’s decision-making. The impact of perception, motivation, learning, beliefs and attitudes on the consumer decision-making process is reviewed.
According to Babin and Haris (2012: 47), attention is the purposeful allocation of information the processor toward developing an understanding of some incitement. It is impossible for consumers to allocate their time and effort in addressing each bit of information. Consequently, this strategy is known as discerning attention. Thus, selective preservation describes that consumers are likely to remember good points made about brands they favour and ignore good points made about competing brands (Purwanto 2013: 72).
A belief is defined as an individual’s supplementary thought on anything at all (Akgün & Yal?m, 2015: 132). In respect to Rani (2014: 60), a belief is a conviction that the person has on something and through the experience this individual acquires, his learning and his external influences (family, friends, and so on ), he will develop beliefs that influence his buying behaviour. Furthermore, a customer possesses specific values and attitudes towards various products and since such beliefs and attitudes makeup brand image and affect consumer buying behaviour, marketers are enthusiastic about them (Rani 2014: 60).
In the same way, Junga, Shimb, Jinc and Khangd (2015: 5) claim that attitude refers to customers’ psychological likelihood as shown by assessing a particular object which includes the extent of favour or disfavour. It performs an important role in consumer behaviour, which simply cannot be observed directly. For that reason, from the authors’ information, it can come to the conclusion that a temperament is a way individuals think, feel and act towards some aspects of the environment such as an apparel selling stores.

Lifestyle
A consumer does not buy the same products or services at 20 or 70 years and it is obvious that the consumers change the purchase of goods and services with the passage of time (Rani 2014:57). This factor is strongly related to consumer buying behaviour and it is a good predictor of how the target market will respond to a specific marketing mix (Lamb et al., 2010:51), and it influence the abilities and resources the consumer brings when making purchasing decisions (Yoon, Cole & Lee 2009:13).
Every person gets to think of his or her income and expenditure before spending. Tamilarasu and Kumar (2015:149) assert that the selection of a particular commodity depends on the income of the consumer and necessity of the product to the individual. Income level affects what a consumer can afford and perspective towards money (Lautiainen 2015:8). Khaniwale (2015:282) is of Chapter 2: Literature review 45 view that the economic condition of individual’s influence what price range product they buy and consumers always hunt for economic deals, however, if the economic condition of the buyer is very good he or she may buy premium products. Studies indicate that lower-income consumers behave in fundamentally different ways to high-income consumers While on the other hand, higher income wage earners may have the economic resources to buy expensive products, but decide against it because they often possess high levels of personal spending control (Bearden & Haws 2012:181).

Different consumers’ lifestyles are regarded as strong predictors of their specific buying habits and preferences (Babin & Harris 2012:117). For instance, Generation Y female student consumers are likely to show an interest in apparel wear which is linked to a modern lifestyle. Therefore, it would be beneficial for retailers and marketers to effectively communicate with their current and potential consumers in an attempt to understand their lifestyle and this can also be useful in positioning products that can meet their demands (Lee, Lim, Jolly and Lee 2009:155).

Culture
Culture is one of the factors that influence behaviour. Culture can be defined as our attitudes and beliefs. It is developed along with age in the society. For an individual growing up, a child is influenced by their parents, brothers and sisters. They learn about their religion and culture which helps them to develop opinions, attitudes and beliefs. These factors will influence a buying behaviour of the consumer, other factors like friends or people they look up may also influence their choices of purchasing a particular product. Culture is the most basic cause of a person’s wants and behaviour. Culture is learned from family, church, school, peers, and colleagues. It reflects basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviours. Cultural shifts create opportunities for new products or may otherwise influence consumer behaviour.
According to Penn`s article, she states that cultural influences can affect the buying behaviour of the individual. A person’s culture is his set of values and beliefs learned in the context of a community. These values and beliefs lead to certain buying behaviours. Your social class based on your occupation, income and education can influence buying behaviour as can your association in a group such as family and friends at work or at school. Often, there is an opinion leader in the group who has influence over the buying behaviour of others because of specialized knowledge of sheer force of personality (Kumar & Jain, 2017:46).
People’s social status plays an important role in the consumer buying behaviour. Social class distinctions allow companies to position their products to appeal to certain social classes. The easiest example is automobiles. Marketing for Mercedes Benz is completely different from the marketing campaign from Honda or Toyota because they target individuals from the upper class. Another powerful and easy factor that companies manipulate in their marketing efforts is the social factor. To be part of a group, or represent a certain lifestyle, you must have certain possessions. Personal and Psychological factors are very specific realms and the target market segment becomes even smaller. That means even less amount of people can use these products. This reflects in higher prices to account for the decrease in volume (Martinez-Caraballo, Salvador, Berne, & Gargallo, 2013:57).

Purwanto (2013:71) defines sub-culture as a smaller part of a culture or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. Sub-cultures are described as possessing unique beliefs, values and customs that set them apart from other members of society (Motale, 2015:34)). Sub-culture provides specific ways of recognition and socialisation for their members (Kotler & Keller, 2012:175).
Music can be defined as a pleasant sound that impacts consumers’ conscious and unconscious decisions (Hussain & Ali 2015:36). Soundhariya and Sathyan (2015:248) are of the view that soft, light music soothes customer’s minds and helps them make good decisions. Idris (2013:23) is of the view that background music is the art of arranging sounds continuously, unified, and evocative composition through the melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre.Teik, Mhao, Juniaty, Jhet, Wong, Rick, & Gullantheivello (2015:137) stated that younger shoppers who were exposed to background music tended to spend more time shopping, while older shoppers showed similar tendencies in the presence of foreground music. Based on Kulkarni (2012:152) study’s recommendations, retailers should carefully select a music genre, style and tempo from their marketing toolbox.

Impact of consumer purchasing behaviour

Brand loyalty and brand equity
Baskar and Sundaram (2014: 113) creating and sustaining durable brands and faithful customers have become an extremely difficult task in the competitive environment of the modern world. Larger rates of return and brand loyalty have recently been found to be absolutely related. Market share of any company increases with a rise in brand commitment.
In India, Braskar and Sundaram (2014: 113) used the brand equity in which they combined the variables like brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, brand trust and brand commitment to form what they termed as a macro term (Kumar, Dash & Purwar, 2013: 142). Baskar and Sundaram (2014: 116) found a substantial positive association between brand attributes and consumers acquiring brands, a significant association between demographic factors and consumers purchase of brands, a substantial relationship between ethical concerns of shoppers and purchase of brands, an important association between brand equity and consumers purchase of brands, an association between brand real reviews and consumers purchase of brands and finally an association between brand real reviews and brand equity. Furthermore (Kumar, Dash & Purwar, 2013: 142) found a high positive significant romantic relationship between brand awareness, recognized quality, brand association, and brand loyalty with brand equity. The literature review cited above have all been based on research in India and as it is known that culture has a great influence on attitudes, therefore, it is likely that in some cultures brand image might not exactly affect consumer behaviour as in India.
According to a review that was conducted by Villarreal and Ricardo overall, results of sample study suggest support for the contention that Hispanics are brand dedicated. A strength in this information comes from the fact that two weighing scales conceptually related to brand loyalty, one positively and one negatively, were used in understanding the impact of familism on Asian consumer behaviour. The current study gives a clearer, within-in group description by indicating Hispanics with higher levels of familism will be more brand loyal than Hispanics lower on familism. The studies may have important aimed towards and branding implications for U. S. Hispanics. That is, rather than assuming all Hispanics are brand dedicated, the current results provide a more in interesting depth look at how the level of familism is related to Hispanic consumer behaviour. This within-group behavioural difference may help manufacturers’ better target Hispanics with branding tactics. For example, for Hispanic with higher levels of familism, brands can build and/or enhance the brand as part of the Hispanic customers’ family. This can be achieved by communications that are founded on the overlapping characteristics of determination, trust, and loyalty. This kind of orientation implies the brand is an extension of the Hispanic consumer’s usage life and family. This kind of, in turn, implies a level of respect by the brand for the Hispanic customer. This type of orientation is not just reflecting on current marketing considering but is directly in line with the idea of Hispanic familism. In addition, brands can expand the customer-brand orientation by connecting the brand to the Hispanic consumer’s role in caring for their immediate family. For example, in the context of a Hispanic adult looking after an elderly parent or child/children, the use of branded products can be an expression of value and love the childcare professional has for her/his family. This brand-as family positioning may go a long way in keeping Asian consumers loyal to a particular brand.
According to Maziriri`s literature review this individual states that behaviour occurs either for the specific or in the situation of a group (Yakup & Jablonsk, 2012: 61). Consumer buying behaviour can be defined as the study of individuals, teams or organisations and the process they use to choose, secure, use and get rid of products, services, activities, or ideas to gratify needs and the impact the particular processes have on consumers and the contemporary society. According to Rani (2014: 52), consumer buying behaviour is the decision techniques and acts of ultimate consumers involved with buying and using products. According to Sharma and Garg (2015: 1016), quite a few factors such as social, personal, cultural and psychological, can influence the buying behaviour of consumers. Most of these factors are unrestrainable and beyond the hands of marketers nonetheless, they have to be considered while trying to understand the complex behaviour of the consumers (Brosekhan & Velayutham 2013: 8). In the modern-day increasingly complex retail environment, an understanding of customers’ buying behaviour and their familiarity with products and services is critical for high-quality business decisions. A quantitative research approach was used for this research and a non-probability convenience sampling procedure was implemented in this study.

Visual elements of branding
Store design identifies the allocation of floor spaces and products and product grouping in the store environment (Lu & Seo 2015: 96). For example, impressive design features, such as multi-level atriums and curved escalators, have a regular effect on excitement and the desire to stay longer. In accordance with Beneke, Hayworth, Hobson and Mia (2012: 29), a well-configured store layout that is straightforward to navigate will reduce a shopper’s search time. The store layout also can be a strategy of differentiation, which gives more shopping experience to the customers (Berman & Evan 2007: 51). Sherawat, Widiyanesti and Siregar (2015: 1625) maintain that store structure can influence how long the customers stay in a store, how many products can be viewed through visible contact and route by which customers have to experience. Better designed designs are extremely important due to their strong impact on shopping atmosphere (Ijaz, Rhee, Lee & Alfian 2014: 312). Consequently, managers should boost a good store layout to increase the ease of the consumer (Sharma & Garg 2015: 1017). Moreover, Iqbal, Akhtar and Lodhi (2014: 34) are of the view that marketers should promote a good store design to maximise the simplicity of the consumer.

According to Modig (2012: 1), advertising is defined as the activity or occupation of producing advertisements for commercial products or services in order to explain or draw attention to a product or service, service, or event in a public medium as a way to promote sales or attendance. Moriatry, Mitchell and Wells (2012: 55) illustrate advertising as a paid form of persuasive communication that uses mass and interactive media to reach a broad audience in order to hook up a discovered sponsor store with buyers and provide information about products.