Basic Electrical & Electronics Assignment-1
A technical Report on the topic
“Power System Protection Equipments”

Submitted to,
S.N. Name SRN
1 Aishwarya.B.V R18CS024
2 Aishwarya.G.V R18CS025
3 Aishwarya.S.S R18CS027
4 Akash H Hirur R18CS028
Title of the topic :
Power System Protection Equipments

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The main idea of this report is that Power protection system must identify the blame and flag electrical switch to seclude the blame dependably and as quick as could be allowed. To ensure the framework by a few deficiencies happening in the framework
Presently, Power protection system has being developed into a part branch of electrical power engineering that arrangements with the insurance of electrical power frameworks from issues through the disengagement of blamed parts from whatever remains of the electrical system. Of blamed parts from whatever remains of the electrical system.
Protective relays provide the “brains” to sense trouble, but they arenot able to open and isolate the problem area of power system
CircuitBreakers and different kinds of circuit interrupters are utilized to give the blame disengagement.
Power system protection is to isolate a faulty section of electrical power system from rest of the live system so that the rest portion can function satisfactorily without any severer damage due to fault current.The circuit breaker isolates the faulty system from rest of the healthy system and this circuit breakers automatically open during fault condition due to its trip signal comes from protection relay.

Protection of power system can prevent the flow of fault current through the system, it only can prevent the continuation of flowing of fault current by quickly disconnect the short circuit path from the system
There are various types of . Protection device used to protect from different faults
Protective relay
Current transformer
Potential transformer
Circuit breaker
Lighting arrester

Despite the fact that Telecommunication (gave modernized system framework) which, together with multifunctional assurance gadgets permit streamlining the current/new power system. operation, the expertise in Power System Operation is MAIN KEY in giving Reliable Power System Operation
Firstly, we thank REVA UNIVERSITY for providing necessary infrastructure and creating good environment.
We give Our sincere thanks to Prof. Mamatha.N who has always been a guiding, encouraging and motivating force. Who gave us valuable suggestions and ideas. It has been fascinating learning experience, which we will always cherish in our heart.

We also extend our thanks to our lab faculties who gave us thier valuable guidance and suggestion.

We would like to express our profound thanks to all our respected teachers for their encouragement and support.

Our obligations remain due to all the people who have directly or indirectly helped us in successfully completing of our report. No amount of words written here will suffice for our sense of gratitude towards them all.

Aishwarya .B.V
Aishwarya .G.V
Aishwarya .S.S
Akash H Hirur

Power system protection is an intense building branch that arrangements with electrical framework insurance. The goal of utilizing this plan is to keep control framework stable and leaving the system as yet amid task. The defensive frameworks contain five distinct parts:
• Current and Voltage Transformers: This is to venture down high voltage and flow of electrical power framework
• Protective Relays: It detects the blame to start trip
• Circuit Breakers: To open and close the framework and depends on autorecloser directions
• Batteries: To supply control if there should arise an occurrence of disengagement
Target of Power System Protection:
The fundamental goal of utilizing Power System Protection assurance is to segregate the broken segment from the framework to make whatever remains of the bit work with no unsettling influence. What’s more, it is utilized for the security of intensity framework and keep the stream of blame current. It can help in keeping the continuation of stream by rapidly detaching the short out.
Insurance transfers, then again, are the critical normal for power framework security disconnects the workforce part of the electrical framework. Nonetheless, it is essential for this transfer to have certain characteristics that are made reference to beneath:
• Dependability:
This is a vital part of the hand-off to have, as it stays out of activity for quite a while before the blame happens. Be that as it may, if the blame happens, the hand-off ought to react effectively.
• Selective:
The assurance transfer ought to work on the appointed condition in the electrical power framework. There are circumstances amid blame which transfers shouldn’t be worked after an unmistakable time restrict, henceforth it ought to be sufficiently competent to choose the fitting condition for task.
• Speed:
It is critical for the defensive transfers to work at a required speed. In addition, there ought to be right coordination in different power framework security transfers with the goal that it ought not aggravate the sound segment. The blame flow courses through a sound part as it is electrically associated and connected with the solid bit. Additionally, if transfer related with the defective segment does not work in the given time, at that point next hand-off related with sound bit ought to be worked upon to detach the blame.
Once you’ve comprehended the goal and practical prerequisites of intensity framework security and transfers, let us check the components of the equivalent.
• Switchgear:
This component comprises of the mass oil electrical switch, least oil electrical switch, vacuum electrical switch, and so on. Likewise, extraordinary working frameworks like the solenoid, spring and water powered are utilized in an electrical switch. Electrical switch, the primary part of assurance framework is consequently disconnected.
Protection concept
• Protections are given by excess assigned essential and remain by assurance, or PYPN and SYPN utilizing indistinguishable or distinctive producer multifunctional transfers.
• Each,PYPNand SYPN areconnected to separatecurrenttransformer centers and voltage transformer windings.
• Dependability of the singlecircuitbreakers are providedby breaker disappointment protectionand essential and reserve breaker trip curls
• Lineprotection utilizing telecommunicationsare furnished with capacities that work to give blame clearing free of the TelecommunicationPower
With the quick advancement in fast correspondence system and data innovation, there were critical improvements in power framework security, control framework control and wide territory control lately, especially in the wide-zone and coordinated insurance.
Ongoing advancement
• Wide area protection
Lately, the quick advancement in correspondence advances makes the wide area protection
conceivable. In this regard, the development of the wide region estimation framework gives another plan to the structure of intensity framework assurance frameworks. The primary wide-zone insurance standard is gotten from the transient based assurance in 1996, in which GPS time synchronization assumed a noteworthy job in the plan. This was promptly trailed by a synopsis paper in 1997, which efficiently diagrams the idea of the alleged “wide zone insurance”, concentrating primarily on the control part of the region. The wide region insurance dependent on novel calculations, which is gotten from the estimations of numerous data focuses, can give quick, solid and precise blame leeway, investigate the consequences for the framework steadiness dependent on the blame framework examination and take fundamental control measures to play out the elements of transfer assurance, security, and soundness control with the end goal to avoid voltage crumple. Wide territory transfer security has rapidly turned into a hot research theme with many research results distributed especially as of late.
•Integrated protection

With the improvement of computerized innovation, more insurance capacities for some random device (line, transformer, generator, and so forth.) have been executed inside one defensive gadget to accomplish a specific level of incorporation. For instance, a numeric line assurance hand-off may have separation or current differential capacity as the primary security, and directional and over current capacities as the reinforcement insurance. The ongoing advancements in chip and correspondence systems gave new intends to determine new security standards and plans dependent on the data acquired from various power plants and segments, which could have noteworthy focal points over the current insurance methods dependent on the individual plant or part. In contrast to incorporated security (or substation zone assurance), the coordinated insurance does not just unify the transfer equipment/programming, but rather focuses on the advancements of new ideas and calculations dependent on numerous purposes of estimations; by means of this implies it is trusted that the execution of security can be enhanced essentially. There was likewise investigate in the field of coordinated wide territory assurance.
• Wide area control
The expanded arrangement of wide-zone estimations will fundamentally upgrade the power framework wide-zone control framework task and control. They give voltage and current pharos data, synchronized with high accuracy to a typical time reference given by GPS. Consequently, an extensive variety of intensity framework checking and control applications can be actualized in the framework for enhancing framework mindfulness and unwavering quality, which incorporates improved state estimation dependent on blended Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) and Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) estimations , dynamic model online estimation and approval constant clog administration, ongoing strength estimation , discovery and damping of between territory motions . Be that as it may, the most essential and challengeable applications are the executions of wide zone solidness constant recognition and control to forestall power outages . There was likewise explore in the coordinated security and control
New concept and development
Based on the developments mentioned above, a new concept of the integrated wide area protection and control (IWAPC) has been proposed recently. The main focus of the concept 16, is the integration between the protection and control, particularly at the wide-area or regional level, aimed to provide a number of benefits to the future protection and control system, e.g., the potential to merge the three lines of defence system and on-line self-healing decision making, in order to prevent cascading tripping of large area power network. The concept of integrated wide area protection and control is introduced, in which a three-level hierarchically coordinated system, supported by the specially designed real-time synchronised wide-area communication network, provides the protection and control for wide area or regional power substations/plants and their associated power network. The key element in the system is the integrated wide area protection and control information platform, which receives real-time synchronised data from the communication network to support the integration of protection and control at the wide area/regional level.

The information platform also supports the application of a cloud computing system, which is specially designed to implement a number of secondary functions for substations and power networks. In addition to the basic functions of relay protection, the platform should have a large capacity of fault information and data storage, fast data processing functions, powerful communication functions, and other protection, control devices and scheduling network to share the whole system data, information and network resources, and can also carry out remote monitoring with the computer monitoring system of substation communication. With the proposed platform, the architecture of future substation equipment may be reshaped to provide a flexible framework for building an interactive grid and subsequently improve the reliability and security of power grids.

Objective of Power System Protection Equipments
Power System Protection alludes to the Protection of Power System from the stream blame current in the Power System
The goal of intensity framework assurance is to disconnect a flawed area of electrical power framework from rest of the live framework so the rest part can work agreeably with no severer harm because of blame flow.
All things considered electrical switch confines the flawed framework from rest of the sound framework and this circuit breakers naturally open amid blame condition because of its trek flag originates from assurance hand-off.
The fundamental logic about insurance is that no security of intensity framework can keep the stream of blame current through the framework, it just can keep the continuation of streaming of blame current by rapidly separate the short out way from the framework. For fulfilling this fast detachment there ought to be an insurance transfers
Essential idea of Protection framework in power framework and coordination of assurance transfers.
The auxiliary of current transformer is associated with the current curl of hand-off. What’s more, optional of voltage transformer is associated with the voltage loop of the hand-off. At whatever point any blame happens in the feeder circuit, proportionate optional current of the CT will course through the current curl of the transfer because of which mmf of that loop is expanded. This expanded mmf is adequate to mechanically close the ordinarily open contact of the transfer. This transfer contact really closes and finishes the DC trip curl circuit and subsequently the outing loop is empowered.
The mmf of the outing curl starts the mechanical development of the stumbling component of the electrical switch and at last the electrical switch is stumbled to seclude the blame.
Important Elements for power system protection
Switch gear
Comprises of basically Bulk oil Circuit breaker, Minimum oil Circuit breaker, SF6 Circuit breaker, Air Blast Circuit breaker and Vacuum Circuit breaker and so forth. Diverse working components, for example, solenoid, spring, pneumatic, pressure driven and so forth are utilized in Circuit Breaker. Electrical switch is the primary piece of security framework in power framework it consequently separate the flawed part of the framework by opening its contacts.
Protective gear
Comprises of basically control framework assurance transfers like current transfers, voltage transfers, impedance transfers, control transfers, recurrence transfers, and so forth dependent on working parameter, unequivocal time transfers, backwards time transfers, ventured transfers and so on. according to working trademark, rationale astute, for example, differential transfers, over fluxing transfers and so forth. Amid blame the security hand-off gives trip flag to the related electrical switch for opening its contacts.
Station Battery
All the circuit breakers of electrical power framework are DC (Direct Current) worked. Since DC power can be put away in battery and if circumstance comes when add up to disappointment of approaching force happens, still the circuit breakers can be worked for reestablishing the circumstance by the intensity of capacity battery. Consequently the battery is another basic thing of the power framework. Some time it is alluded as the core of the electrical substation. A Substation battery or essentially a Station battery containing various cells gather vitality amid the time of accessibility of A.C supply and release when transfers work with the goal that significant electrical switch is stumbled.
Protective relay
A relay is automatic device which senses an abnormal condition of electrical circuit and closes its contacts. These contacts in turns close and complete the circuit breaker trip coil circuit hence make the circuit breaker tripped for disconnecting the faulty portion of the electrical circuit from rest of the healthy circuit.

Pickup level of impelling sign: The benefit of inciting amount (voltage or current) which is on limit above which the hand-off starts to be worked.
On the off chance that the benefit of activating amount is expanded, the electromagnetic impact of the hand-off loop is expanded or more a specific level of impelling amount the moving component of the hand-off just begins to move.
Reset level: The estimation of current or voltage beneath which a hand-off opens its contacts and comes in unique position.
Working Time of Relay ‘ Just in the wake of surpassing pickup level of impelling amount the moving component (for instance turning plate) of transfer begins moving and it at last close the hand-off contacts toward the finish of its voyage. The time which slips by between the moment while inciting amount surpasses the pickup incentive to the moment when the transfer contacts close.
Reset time of Relay ‘ The time which slips by between the moment when the activating amount turns out to be not exactly the reset an incentive to the moment when the transfer contacts comes back to its typical position.
Reach of transfer ‘ A separation hand-off works at whatever point the separation seen by the hand-off is not exactly the pre-indicated impedance. The inciting impedance in the hand-off is the capacity of separation in a separation insurance transfer. This impedance or comparing separation is called reach of the transfer.
Types of Relays
Types of protection relays are mainly based on their characteristic, logic, on actuating parameter and operation mechanism
In light of activity instrument assurance hand-off can be sorted as Electro Magnetic hand-off, Static transfer and Mechanical hand-off. All things considered hand-off is only a mix of at least one open or shut contacts. These all or some particular contacts the transfer change their state while inciting parameters are connected to the hand-off. That implies open contacts wind up shut and shut contacts end up open. In electromagnetic hand-off these end and opening of transfer contacts are finished by electromagnetic activity of a solenoid.
In mechanical hand-off these end and opening of hand-off contacts are finished by mechanical dislodging of various rigging level framework.
In static hand-off it is chiefly done by semiconductor switches like thyristor. In advanced hand-off on and off state can be alluded as 1 and 0 state.