Since its autonomy in 1971

Since its autonomy in 1971, the nation has identi?ed populace size and development as the main national issue and has received a solid populace control arrangement with a quantitative focus of accomplishing substitution level fertility, ?rst by 2005 and after that before the finish of each 5-year design period, yet has still not accomplished the objective. As indicated by the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey report, the aggregate fertility rate in Bangladesh is 2.3, which isn’t exceptionally a long way from a substitution goal of 2.1, and no less than two regions(administrative divisions), Khulna and Rajshahi, have just accomplished substitution level fertility. Bangladesh has gained great ground in achieving huge advancements that include the decrease of poverty, change in health care, expanding enrolment at grade schools, accomplishing sexual orientation equality, enhancing vaccination scope and diminishing the rate of transmittable diseases (Bangladesh Planning Commission 2015). It has gained some honorable ground in the decrease of poverty and the poverty gap proportion from 70.2 and 17 % individually in 1992 to 31.5 and 6.5 % separately in 2010 (Bangladesh Planning Commission 2015).
Toward the start of the twentieth century, the aggregate populace of Bangladesh was under 30 million. The yearly development rate of the populace was under 1 % until 1931 when the extent of the populace achieved 35.3 million. After 1931, the populace multiplied in measure at regular intervals. Toward the start of the present millenium, the number of inhabitants in the nation remained at around 130 million. As per the most recent populace statistics of 2018, the aggregate populace of Bangladesh was specified as 166 million (WorldoMeters 2018), which is more than twofold its size in 1971 when the nation accomplished autonomy following a 9-month long freedom war with Pakistan. The populace development rate achieved an unequaled high in the 1960s. Amid the 1970s, the development rate briefly fell because of numerous regular catastrophes, for example, a typhoon in 1970 and starvation in 1974, and additionally the freedom war in 1971 that slaughtered three million individuals. The populace development rate kept on being more than 2 % until the point that the 1990s and afterward began declining in the 2000s and achieved near 1 % in the 2010s (World Population Review 2018). The main principle behind the declining populace development rates of the 1990s ahead was the quick decrease in fertility and the moderate yet consistent decrease in mortality. Without significant change in the financial conditions in the nation over the period, most scientists trusted that a powerful family arranging program assumed a noteworthy part in the fast decrease of fertility in Bangladesh. Regardless of a proceeded decrease in the growth rate, the populations strength is because of the youthful age structure and will continue driving its number to increment in the coming years.
The total fertility rate (TFR) of the nation additionally declined astoundingly from 6.3 births for every woman in the mid-1970s to 3.3 births in the mid 1990s (World Bank 2017), an enormous decrease of three births for every woman within a brief time period of two decades. In any case, the TFR was static at around 3.3 births for each woman amid the 1990s, regardless of the increase in contraceptive use. Following 10 years in length stagnation, the TFR began to diminish again toward the start of the 2000s, achieving 2.7 births per woman in 2007 and 2.3 births in 2011 (World Bank 2017). Then again, the Infant mortality rate has declined from 62 newborn child deaths for every 1000 live births in 1993 to 30 out of 2016 (World Bank 2017). All other mortality pointers, for example, the child mortality rate,under-?ve death rate, etc also likewise indicated declining patterns. Thus, future during childbirth has additionally enhanced from 60 years in 1992 to 72 years in 2015 (Gapminder 2017). The populace development rates likewise declined from 2.3 % in 1992 to 1.1 % in 2017 (WorldoMeters 2017).
The demographic change in Bangladesh has usually a decrease in mortality followed by a decrease in fertility. The pre-transitional period of demographic progress in Bangladesh proceeded until the 1960s. Bangladesh went into the ?rst stage of demographic transition in the 1960s with a sharp decrease in mortality while birth rates demonstrated a moderate decay until the1980s (Gapminder 2017). The second period of statistic change in Bangladesh started around 1980 when the decrease in fertility turned out to be faster (Gapminder 2017). Bangladesh is currently toward the start of the third period of its populace progress.
the populace development rate in Bangladesh was much lower amid the pre-progress period (until the point when the 1950s) than it is currently. This does not imply that the fertility rate around then was lower than it is presently. Indeed, the populace development rate was much lower than 1 % until 1931 in light of high mortality and high fertility amid the period. The populace development rate was extensively higher after 1950 because of the amazing decrease in the death rate, when fertility rate additionally declined however at a slower rate. A further decrease in fertility and mortality will additionally reshape the age structure of the Bangladesh populace until the point when fertility achieves substitution level (TFR achieves 2.1 births per woman). In the meantime, if the death rate keeps on falling and achieves a level nearer to the level of fertility, and after that both the fertility and death rates stay steady for a more drawn out period, the Bangladesh populace will accomplish a stationary condition (where it is right now, stage 3). According to the site Population Pyramid, the aggregate populace of Bangladesh will cross the 200 million stamp in 2050, regardless of whether it accomplishes substitution level fertility inside the ?rst quarter of the present thousand years. This will mean an immense number of individuals inside a very little region (as if overpopulation wasn’t already a problem for the nation). With such a big population, Bangladesh is probably going to surpass the cutoff points of its ecological footprint and biocapacity. Its individual to land proportion will be for all intents and purposes soaked as the nation has constrained rural land, leaving exceptionally restricted ability to grow food and resource production(Global Footprint Network 2016). Notwithstanding, the populace development rate will keep on coming down to a low level and the populace is probably going to balance out at around 189 million in 2080 (Population Pyramid 2018).
The adjustments in age structure, are a basic outcome of demographic transition. A populace pyramid is an ef?cient and broadly utilized technique for graphically delineating the age-sex structure of a populace. The populace pyramids uncover that various changes have happened in the age structure and that this will proceed because of the different periods of demographic transition in Bangladesh. A pyramid with an extremely expansive base that decreases quickly towards the more established age bunches proposes a run of the mill populace in a beginning period of statistic improvement with generally high birth and demise rates and an energetic populace. The wide-based triangular-formed populace pyramids of Bangladesh for the period 1980– 2000 show such a regular age structure. The decrease in mortality and relentlessly declining fertility caused a quick change in the age structure in the vicinity of 2000 and 2010. The sharp fall in fertility amid this period created a diminishment in the number of children under the age of 5, which is re?ected in the limited base of the pyramids. Additionally, the populace socio-economics change and the rising windows of age groups 5– 9 and 10– 14 likewise dropped amid the period between 1990s-2010s. The projection demonstrates that the power of this transition will additionally increase in the following four decades. Amid this period the base of the populace pyramid will thin both in relative terms and in overall numbers. Therefore, the age structure will lose its pyramidal shape and will develop as an barrel shape. Such a pyramid is representative of a populace having low birth and death rates and an expansive extent of the populace being able to live longer. In such a circumstance, the working age (15– 59 years) populace will increase because of the energy of the past fast populace development and later the old (60 years or more) population will likewise increase as well.
The age structure of a populace can comprehensively be classi?ed into four life-cycle stages with their particular financial ramifications. The four life cycle stages are young (age 0– 14), young working class (15– 24), working age (25– 59) and elderly (60+). The youthful populace of the young age group (0– 14) place an economic weight to the family as kids rely upon the parents and older guardians working populace for their resources and needs. The youthful working-age populace (15– 24) likewise causes costs, however, its needs are unique in relation to the youthful populace of age 0– 14 years. The working-age populace (25– 59) is probably going to earn more and have a higher saving rate. Then again, the greater part of the elderly populace rely upon others for their human services, nourishment, and other social needs, and accordingly turn into a financial weight on the family and society.
Because of fertility decrease that began in the mid 1980s in Bangladesh, the size of the population (under 15) started to decline from 27 % in 1992 to 19 % in 2017 (Population Pyramid 2018). As indicated by projections from Population Pyramid, the size of the population under the age of 15 will keep on declining further and will tumble to 11 % in 2055. Such decrease in the reliant populace will lessen the potential economic weight on families and increment the chance to enhance human capital and quality kid child care and health in Bangladesh
Since 1980, Bangladesh has been encountering a youth bulge in which individuals ages 14-24 take up 20 % of the population. This is believed to proceed until 2025, and from that point forward, the size of the young populace is required to decay (Population Pyramid 2018). Be that as it may, without a doubt the extent of the young populace will keep on increasing until the point that at around 2060 where the overall population starts to decline (Population Pyramid 2018). Bangladesh is at present confronting and will keep on facing numerous difficulties in addressing the requirements and administrations of its gigantic youth bulge. In Bangladesh, the prime working age population (ages 25– 59) in the past were low because of the high fertility rates, but as time goes on those children start grow older and soon we see the increase of the prime working age group and a small proportion of a young population (due to low fertility rates currently). The size of the aging populace (60+) will keep on increasing in Bangladesh at a moderate pace, and then expand very quickly because of the increasing individuals in the prime working class get old (increases in the future). The size of the seniority populace will increment from 2-3 % in 1992 to 4 % in 2017 and to 11-12 % in 2055 (Population Pyramid).