FAR EASTERN FEDERAL UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF BIOMEDICINE
“EFFECT OF RAPID GROWTH OF OVER -POPULATION ON THE ECONOMY”
A Population is a group of interbreeding organisms in a specific region it is examined in terms of its variability, density and stability along with environmental and other processes and circumstances that affect these characteristics. Problems of population size and growth, resource utilization and depletion, and environmental deterioration must be considered on a global basis. population control is obviously not a panacea-it is necessary but not alone sufficient to see us through the crisis. Population density is a poor measure of population pressure and redistributing population would be a dangerous pseudo solution to the population problem.
“Excessive population growth may reduce output of individual worker, repress levels of living for the masses and engender strife.”
RAPID POPULATION GROWTH:
An increase in the number of people that reside in a country, state, county, or city. To determine whether there has been population growth, the following formula is used: (birth rate + immigration) – (death rate + emigration). The world’s population growth has touched a peak of 7.3 billion in 2015, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion, “population explosion is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing PROBLEMS THAT AFFECT THE WORLD TODAY high birth rates
The problems we have today such as war, crime, food shortages, water shortages, water pollution, and air pollution; global warming and unemployment are the effects of over-population. The more people there are the more resources consumed and the more waste created on the land. The increase in over-population causes employ mental problems and the people migrate from place to place for getting jobs for their daily needs. According to survey India is the first country which has over-population, so most of the peoples migrate to other developed countries for their employment. If the population increases people suffer to get their daily needs. And the forest is destroyed mainly due to over-population. They destroyed the forest for constructing building and mostly constructions. The people use motor bike, and other vehicles and burning fossil fuels that creates global warming.
Causes of Overpopulation
Decline in the Death Rate: At the beginning of overpopulation is the difference between the overall birth rate and death rate in populations. Number of born is equal number of death then the population will be equilibrium discussing about overpopulation shows that while there are many factors that can increase the death rate for short duration of time, the ones that increase the birth rate do so over a long duration of time. The discovery of agriculture by our ancestors was one factor that provided them with the ability to sustain their nutrition without hunting. This created the first imbalance between the two rates.
Better Medical Facilities: Following this came the industrial revolution. Technological advancement was perhaps the biggest reason why the balance has been permanently disturbed. Science was able to produce better means of producing food, which gives satisfy and happy of many people medicine science made many discoveries thanks to which they were able to defeat a whole range of diseases. Illnesses that had claimed thousands of lives till now were cured because of the invention of vaccines. Combining the increase in food supply with fewer means of mortality tipped the balance and became the starting point of overpopulation.
More Hands to Overcome Poverty: However, when talking about overpopulation we should understand that there is a psychological component as well. For thousands of years, a very small part of the population had enough money to live in comfort. The rest faced poverty and would give birth to large families to make up for the high infant mortality rate. Families that have been through poverty, natural disasters or are simply in need of more hands to work are a major factor for overpopulation. As compared to earlier times, most of these extra children survive and consume resources that are not sufficient in nature.
Technological Advancement in Fertility Treatment: With latest technological advancement and more discoveries in medical science, it has become possible for couple who are unable to conceive to undergo fertility treatment methods and have their own babies. Today there are effective medicines which can increases the chance of conception and lead to rise in birth rate. Moreover, due to modern techniques pregnancies today are far more safer.
Lack of Family Planning: Most developing nations have large number of people who are illiterate, live below the poverty line and have little or no knowledge about family planning. Getting their children married at an early age increase the chances of producing more kids. Those people are unable to understand the harmful effects of overpopulation and lack of quality education prompts them to avoid family planning measures.
REASONS FOR THE EXPLOSION:
The main reason for slow and fluctuating population growth prior to early 1800’s was the prevalence in epidemiology disease such as small pox, mumps, and measles and scarlet fever. In addition, epidemics, diphtheria of diseases such as typhoid, cholera, jaundice, diphtheria and plague and chicken pox washed out many of the large number of adults and families. Most of the peoples where die due to attack of newly disease without discovery of the medicines. Reproductive rates were largely equalized by high mortality of peoples. It causes spectacular reductions in mortality, especially among infants and children, so it causes increases in birth rate. Human population is to remain high in crowd. It entered in to exponential growth. After the new medicines and industrial revolution, the death rate is decreased and birth rate is increased, so the human population growth rate is high and results as over-population. People should subdivide their farms and lands among the children (or) intensifying their cultivations of existing land to increase production per unit area. Increasing population especially affects women and children. Over-population causes effects to the environment both positively and negatively.
Provide universal access to safe and effective contraceptive methods for both female and male preventing from over-population. With two in five pregnancies reported as mistimed or never wanted, lack of access to good family planning services is among the biggest gaps in assuring that each baby will be wanted and welcomed in advance by its parents. Guarantee education through secondary school for all, especially girls. In every culture surveyed to date, women who have completed at least some secondary school have fewer children on average and have children in future than do women who have less education. Eradicate gender bias from law, economic opportunity, health, and culture. Offer age-appropriate sexuality education for all students. End all policies that reward parents financially based on the number of children they have.
Effects of rapid population growth on labor supply and employment- Bloom, 381-414.
Bloom D. E (2011). Population dynamics in India and implications for economic growth.