EVALUATION OF PROPERTIES OF FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE Group Members YASIN UL HAQ SUIT-13-01-079-0068 SARFARAZ KHAN SUIT-13-01-079-0066 SHAHARYAR KHAN SUIT-013-01-102-0012 Supervised By ENGR

EVALUATION OF PROPERTIES OF FIBER
REINFORCED CONCRETE

Group Members
YASIN UL HAQ SUIT-13-01-079-0068
SARFARAZ KHAN SUIT-13-01-079-0066
SHAHARYAR KHAN SUIT-013-01-102-0012

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Supervised By

ENGR.FAWAD AHMAD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
SARHAD UNIVERSITY OF
INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY
PESHAWAR
SESSION: 2013-2017

EVALUATION OF PROPERTIES OF FIBER
REINFORCED CONCRETE

Project submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering, Sarhad
University of information and technology Peshawar, in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR
OF
TECHNOLOGY (CIVIL)

Group Members

YASIN UL HAQ SUIT-13-01-079-0068
SARFARAZ KHAN SUIT-13-01-079-0066
SHAHARYAR KHAN SUIT-013-01-102-0012

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
SARHAD UNIVERSITY OF
INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY
PESHAWAR
SESSION: 2013-2017

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

This is certified that the work contained in this thesis entitled “Evaluation of
properties of fiber reinforced concrete” was carried out by

Group Members

YASIN UL HAQ SUIT-13-01-079-0068
SARFARAZ KHAN SUIT-13-01-079-0066
SHAHARYAR KHAN SUIT-13-01-102-0012

Under my supervision and that in my opinion, it is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, for the degree of B.Tech. Civil from Sarhad University of
information and technology University Peshawar.

Approved By

Signature:
Supervisor: ENGR. FAWAD AHMAD

Verified By

Signature:
Chairman
Department of Civil Engineering (BTech)
Stamp:

DEDICATION
We
Dedicate this humble effort to our
Sweet, great and respectable
“Teachers and Parents”
Whose
Prayers and love open the secret of

Successful life for us.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I bow my head to “ALMIGHTY ALLAH” the omnipotent and omnipresent,
for his blessing, especially the faculties that He endowed upon me and I was
able and capable enough to undertake the task and complete it. I offer my
countless salutation upon the holy prophet MUHAMMAD (S.A.W) the entire
source of guidance for humanity as a whole forever.
We feel it our pleasure to avail this opportunity in recording our deep sense of
gratitude to honorable Engr. Fawad Ahmad, Lecturer department of civil
Engineering ANSI Mardan, for his valuable suggestions and positive attitude
throughout the project.
And in the last, we are thankful to all our well-wishers and class fellows for
their moral support throughout our university life.

YASIN UL HAQ
SARFARAZ KHAN
SHAHARYAR KHAN

ABSTRACT

Portland cement concrete is considered to be a relatively brittle material.
When subjected to tensile stresses, non-reinforced concrete will crack and fail.
Since mid 1800’s steel reinforcing has been used to overcome this problem. As
a composite system, the reinforcing steel is assumed to carry all tensile loads.
Another approach is to replace the bars in the steel with fibers to produce a
fiber reinforced concrete and this is termed as FRC. This research presents
possibility of using various fibers in concrete and their effect on strength.
Fibers selected to be used were steel fibers (binding wires). Steel fiber was
used 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4% by weight. Compressive and tensile strength
increases with addition of these steel fibers.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………………. i
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………….. ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………. iii
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………………v
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………………… ix
CHAPTER-1 ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1
INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Background …………………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Historical background …………………………………………………………….2
1.3 Problem statement ………………………………………………………………….3
1.4 Project scope …………………………………………………………………………3
1.5 Project objectives …………………………………………………………………..4
1.6 Organizational Study ……………………………………………………………..5
CHAPTER-2 ……………………………………………………………………………………. 6
LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………………. 6
2.1 Fiber-reinforced concrete ………………………………………………………..6
2.2 Types of fiber reinforced concrete ……………………………………………7
CHAPTER-3 ………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………13
3.1 Procurement of materials ………………………………………………………13
3.2 Mixing Of Fiber Reinforced Concrete …………………………………….14
3.3 Samples preparation ……………………………………………………………..16
3.4 Curing ………………………………………………………………………………..17

3.5 Compressive Strength Tests …………………………………………………..19
3.6 Tensile strength test ……………………………………………………………..22
CHAPTER-4 ………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
RESULTS ; DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………………..24
4.1 Results ……………………………………………………………………………….. 24
4.2 Results of compressive test ……………………………………………………24
DISCUSSION …………………………………………………………………………………. 35
4.2.1 Compressive strength …………………………………………………….35
4.3 Results Of Tensile Tests ……………………………………………………….35
DISCUSSION …………………………………………………………………………………. 46
4.1.2 Tensile strength …………………………………………………………….46
CHAPTER-5 ………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ……………………………….. 48
5.1 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………….48
5.2 Recommendations ………………………………………………………………..48
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………..49
SEARCH ENGINES…………………………………………………………………………49

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig-2.1: steel fibers ………………………………………………………………………. 9

Fig-2.2: steel fibers ………………………………………………………………………. 9

Fig 2.3: fiber glass ………………………………………………………………………. 11

Fig 2.4: polypropylene ………………………………………………………………… 11

Fig 2.5: polyester ………………………………………………………………………… 11

Fig 2.6: bamboos ………………………………………………………………………… 12

Fig 2.7: bamboos ………………………………………………………………………… 12

Fig 3.1: binding wires ………………………………………………………………….. 13

Fig 3.2: cutting of binding wires……………………………………………………. 13

Fig3.3: cutting of binding wires ……………………………………………………. 13

Fig 3.4: cutting of binding wires……………………………………………………. 13

Fig 3.5: mixing of steel fibers in concrete ………………………………………. 16

Fig 3.6: mixing of steel fibers in ……………………………………………………. 16

Fig 3.7: mixing and preparing of steel ……………………………………………. 16

Fig 3.8: samples of FRC cylinder ………………………………………………….. 17

Fig 3.9: samples of FRC cylinder ………………………………………………….. 17

Fig3.10: shows filled moulds from ………………………………………………… 18

Fig 3.11: shows opening of samples from moulds …………………………… 18

Fig3.12: shows samples kept in clean water for curing ………………………. 18

Fig3.13: shows samples kept for drying before testing ……………………… 18

Fig 3.17: shows sample capping …………………………………………………… 20

Fig 3.18: shows prepared samples …………………………………………………20
Fig 3.19: shows cylinders testing in U.T.M ……………………………………20
Fig 3.20: shows cylinders testing in U.T.M …………………………………….20
Fig 3.21: U.T.M ………………………………………………………………………….20
Fig 3.22: Data Logger ………………………………………………………………….20
Fig 3.23: calculation of stiffness strength and post peak deformation from
load deformation curve ………………………………………………………………..21
Fig 3.24: Shows crushing of concrete sample …………………………………21
Fig 3.25: Center point loading flexure strength ……………………………….23
Fig 4.1 Shows 7 days strength (normal sample)………………………25
Fig 4.2 Shows 7 days strength (0.5% steel fiber) …………………………….25
Fig 4.3 Shows 7 days strength (1% steel fiber) ……………………………….26
Fig 4.4 Shows 7 days strength (2% steel fiber) ……………………………….26
Fig 4.5 Shows 7 days strength (4% steel fiber) ……………………………….27
Fig 4.6 Shows comparison of 7 days strength (contains 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%
, 4% of steel fiber) ……………………………………………………………………..27
Fig 4.7 Shows 14 days strength (0.5% steel fiber) …………………………28
Fig 4.8 shows 14 days strength (0.5% sample) ………………………………29
Fig 4.9 shows 14 days strength (1% sample) …………………………………29
Fig 4.10 shows 14 days strength (2%1 sample) ……………………………..30
Fig 4.11 shows 14 days strength (4%1 sample) ……………………………..30
Fig 4.12 Shows comparison of 14 days strength (contains 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% ,
4% of steel fiber) ……………………………………………………………………….31
Fig 4.13 Shows 28 days strength (normal sample) ………………………….32
Fig 4.14 shows 28 days strength (0.5% sample) …………………………….32
Fig 4.15 shows 28 days strength (1% sample) ……………………………….33
Fig 4.16 shows 28 days strength (2% sample) ……………………………….33
Fig 4.17 -28 days strength (4% sample) ………………………………………..34
Fig 4.18 Shows comparison of 28 days strength (contains 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% ,
4% of steel fiber) ……………………………………………………………………….34
Fig 4.19 Shows comparison of 7, 14; 28 days strength …………………..35
Fig 4.26 Shows 14 days strength(normal sample) ……………………………40

Fig 4.27 Shows 14 days strength(0.5% sample) ………………………………40
Fig 4.28 Shows 14 days strength(1% sample) …………………………………41
Fig 4.29 Shows 14 days strength(2% sample) …………………………………41
Fig 4.30 Shows 14 days strength(4%sample) ………………………………….42
Fig 4.31 shows Comparison of 14 days strength contains 0%,0.5%,1%,
2%, 4% of steel fiber ……………………………………………………………………42
Fig 4.32 Shows 28 days strength(normal sample) ……………………………43
Fig 4.33 Shows 28 days strength(0.5%sample) ……………………………….44
Fig 4.34 Shows 28 days strength(1% sample) ………………………………..44
Fig 4.35 Shows 28days strength(2% sample) …………………………………45
Fig 4.36 Shows 28 days strength(4% sample) ………………………………..45
Fig 4.37 Shows Comparison of 28 days strength contains 0%,0.5%,1%,
2%, 4% of steel fiber ……………………………………………………………………46
Fig 4.38 shows Comparison of 7, 14 ; 28 day’s strength …………………. 46

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1: Table showing no. of samples for different dosage of fibers .17
Table 4.4 Shows results of compression test after 7 days ………………….. 24

Table 4.5 Shows results of compression test after 14 days ………………… 28

Table 4.6 Shows results of compression test after 28 days ………………… 31

Table 4.7 Shows results of tensile test after 7 days ……………………………. 36

Table 4.8 Shows results of tensile test after 14 days …………………………….39

Table 4.9 Shows results of tensile test after 28 days …………………………….43

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND

Concrete Fiber (FRC) is a concrete containing fiber material that
enhances its structural integrity. This includes irregular, irregularly oriented
cutting fibers. The fibers include steel fibers, glass fibers, synthetic fibers
and natural fibers. Among these different fibers, the properties of fiber
concrete differ depending on the concrete, fiber, shape, distribution,
orientation and density.
Fiber is often used in concrete to control slits caused by plastic
shrinkage and dry shrinkage. It also reduces the permeability of concrete
water and reduces penetration. Some types of fibers cause greater impact,
wear and cracking of the concrete. Generally, the fibers do not increase the
flexural strength of the concrete, so do not replace the bending moment or
the reinforcement of the structural steel. In fact, some fibers effectively
reduce the strength of the concrete. The amount of fiber added to the
concrete mixture is expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the
compound (concrete and fiber) called volume fraction (Vf). V f varies
between 0.1 and 3%. The aspect ratio (l / d) is calculated by dividing the
fiber length (l) by diameter (d). The fibers with non-circular cross sections
calculate the aspect ratio using the equivalent diameter. If the fibers have a
higher form than the matrix (binder or concrete mortar), they help to transfer
the load and increase the tensile strength of the material. Increasing the
aspect ratio of the fibers generally divides the bending strength and the
hardness of the matrix. However, if the fiber is too long, there is a tendency
to rise to the problem of “dragged” vitality in the blend.
In recent years, microfibers used in traditional composite materials
have been introduced into concrete blends to increase their hardness or crack
growth resistance. FRC is more or less randomly distributed in cement
concrete cement Portland. In FRC, thousands of small fibers are randomly
dispersed in concrete

Mix to improve performance in all directions. The fibers help
improve peak impact resistance, pre-slit traction, fatigue resistance, shock
resistance, and temperature and withdrawal slits. Different types of artificial
fibers and natural fibers are incorporated into the concrete. The use of
natural fiber in concrete precedes the emergence of traditional reinforced
concrete under a historical background. However, the technical aspect of the
FRC system remains poorly developed. Since the reinforcement of concrete
fiber of the ’40s has been conducted a number of tests on various fiber
materials to determine the properties and practical benefits of each product.
Different types of fibers were used to reinforce cement-based substrates. The
choice of fibers is different from synthetic organic materials such as
polypropylene or carbon, inorganic synthetic compounds such as steel or
glass, natural organic materials such as cellulose or sisal or natural inorganic
asbestos. At present, commercial products are reinforced with steel, glass,
polyester, polypropylene fibers. Choosing the fiber type depends on the
properties of the fiber, such as diameter, specific gravity, Young’s modulus,
traction resistance, and the extent to which these fibers have on the
properties of the matrix.
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The concept of using fibers as reinforcement is an old one. Factually,
it is been observed that, horse hair was used in mortar and straw in mud
bricks. In the start of 19th century, asbestos fibers were used in concrete, and
in the mid of 19th the idea of composite materials came into being and fiber-
reinforced concrete was one of the main interested topic. There was a need to
find a alternative for the asbestos used in concrete and other building
materials. Once the health risks associated with the substance were
discovered. In 1960, steel, glass (GFRC), and synthetic fibers such as
polypropylene fibers were used in concrete, which motivated interest of
research and scientific work out on the new fiber- reinforced concretes now a
days.

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Portland cement concrete is considered to be a relatively brittle
material. When subjected to tensile stresses, non-reinforced concrete will
Crack and fail. Since in mid of 18th century, the use of steel reinforcing were
on the top priority to overcome this problem. As a complex system, the
reinforcing steel is supposed to be carrying out all tensile loads. Another
alternative is to substitute the bars in the steel with fibers to produce a fiber
reinforced concrete and this is called as FRC. Fundamentally, this process of
reinforcing the concrete substantially alters the properties of the non-
reinforced cement-based matrix which is brittle in nature, retains small
amount of tensile strength as compared to the intrinsic compressive strength.
The primary motive for incorporating fibers into a cement matrix is to
increase the durability and tensile strength, also to improve the cracking
deformation characteristics of the subsequent compound. In direction for
fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) to be a workable construction material, it
must be able to strive economically with existing reinforcing systems. Crack
and fail. Since in mid of 18th century, the use of steel reinforcing were on
the top priority to overcome this problem. As a complex system, the
reinforcing steel is supposed to be carrying out all tensile loads. Another
alternative is to substitute the bars in the steel with fibers to produce a fiber
reinforced concrete and this is called as FRC. Fundamentally, this process of
reinforcing the concrete substantially alters the properties of the non-
reinforced cement-based matrix which is brittle in nature, retains small
amount of tensile strength as compared to the intrinsic compressive strength.
The primary motive for incorporating fibers into a cement matrix is to
increase the durability and tensile strength, also to improve the cracking
deformation characteristics of the subsequent compound. In direction for
fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) to be a workable construction material, it
must be able to strive economically with existing reinforcing systems.

Crack and fail. Since in mid of 18th century, the use of steel reinforcing were
on the top priority to overcome this problem. As a complex system, the
reinforcing steel is supposed to be carrying out all tensile loads. Another
alternative is to substitute the bars in the steel with fibers to produce a fiber
reinforced concrete and this is called as FRC. Fundamentally, this process of
reinforcing the concrete substantially alters the properties of the non-
reinforced cement-based matrix which is brittle in nature, retains small
amount of tensile strength as compared to the intrinsic compressive strength.
The primary motive for incorporating fibers into a cement matrix is to
increase the durability and tensile strength, also to improve the cracking
deformation characteristics of the subsequent compound. In direction for
fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) to be a workable construction material, it
must be able to strive economically with existing reinforcing systems.
1.4 PROJECT SCOPE

There are various kind of fibers, which can be used for reinforcement
in concrete. Which mainly include steel fibers, glass fibers, synthetic fibers
and natural fibers. Each of the above procedure has many types and each
fiber has its own benefit and drawbacks, however, we have choose only one
fiber for our research work, such as steel fibers. Binding wire cutted into
1″ used as steel fibers which are available in the local market easily. It may
be in the form of structural panel or structural laminate which is merged into
the matrix whether in unbroken length or in discontinuous (chopped) length.
1.5 PROJECT OBJECTIVES

The purpose of this research is to investigate the properties of
reinforced fiber concrete, including strength, elasticity, flexibility, but
careful observation of physical sample load behavior. Then, compare these
features with regular samples.

1.6 ORGANIZATIONAL STUDY

Chapter 1: Introduction, Historical Perspective, Troubleshooting, Project
Scope, and Goals are explained here.
Chapter 2: This chapter deals with the literature on steel fiber.
Chapter 3 describes the methodology, the collection of steel fibers, the
preparation of samples and the fusion of these fibers in
concrete. This section explains the procedure for passing
compression strength and traction resistance to ultrasonic
testing.

Chapter 4: Discuss the study of these figures, comparing the intensity, and
calculating their properties.
Chapter 5: Conclusions and implications Here we discuss.

CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 FIBER-REINFORCED CONCRETE

Fiber reinforced concrete is a mixture of liquid cement and other
concrete reinforcement materials in concrete structures. These fibers help
improve the durability of concrete and its extreme temperature resistance.
Concrete water resistance also improves. There are four types of fiber
cement: steel fiber, glass fiber, synthetic fiber, natural fiber reinforced
concrete. Each type of concrete has several benefits and costs that affect all
uses in the workplace.
Fiber is often used in concrete to control slits caused by plastic
restriction and dry shrinkage. It also reduces the permeability of concrete
water and reduces penetration. Depending on the type of fiber, greater
impacts, wear and cracking of the concrete occur. Generally, the fibers do
not increase the flexural strength of the concrete, so do not replace the
bending moment or the reinforcement of the structural steel. In fact, some
fibers effectively reduce the strength of the concrete. The amount of fiber
added to the concrete mixture is expressed as a percentage of the total
volume of the compound (concrete and fiber) called volume fraction (Vf).
Typically, Vf varies between 0.1% and 3%. The aspect ratio (l / d) is
calculated by dividing the fiber length (l) by diameter (d). The fibers with
non-circular cross sections calculate the aspect ratio using the equivalent
diameter. If the fibers have a higher form than the matrix (binder or concrete
mortar), they help to transfer the load and increase the tensile strength of the
material. The increase in the fiber ratio generally divides the bending force
and the holding of the matrix. However, if fibers are too long, there is a
tendency for the “entrained” vivacity problem in the blend.
Some recent studies have shown that the use of concrete fibers has a
limited impact on material impact strength. This result is traditionally very
important as it is believed to increase the ductility of the concrete

Strengthen with fibers. This result also shows that the use of

microfibers provides better impact resistance than long fibers.
2.1.1 Advantages of Fiber Reinforced concrete

Steel Fiber:

• Improve structural tolerance

• Reduction of reinforcement forces Steel fiber blends are commonly
used to incorporate product advantages into construction projects.

2.2 TYPES OF FIBER REINFORCED C O N C R E T E

Following are different types of fibers namely steel fibers, glass
fibers, synthetic fibers and natural fibers.
2.2.1 Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

Steel reinforced concrete is basically a cheaper and easy-to-use steel
reinforced steel frame. The reinforced concrete using reinforced steel placed
in liquid cement requires much preparation, but the concrete is more
resistant. Steel fiber reinforced steel fiber reinforced with steel fibers. This
gives the concrete greater structural strength, reduces cracks and helps
prevent extreme cold. Steel fibers are often used with steel or other types of
fibers.
Concrete Fiber (FRC) is Portland cement incorporating discontinuous
discrete fibers can be defined as an aggregate, and composite materials.
Well, why add this fiber to the concrete? Smooth and non-reinforced
concrete is a fragile material with low tensile strength and low tensile
strength. The role of randomly distributed discontinuous fibers is to pass
through cracked cracks, resulting in “ductility” after cracking. If the fiber is
strong enough to bind with the material and the FRC exerts a remarkable
effort on the greater deformability in the post crack.

Of course there are other ways to increase the strength of the
concrete. The actual contribution of the fibers is to increase the concrete at
any load hardness (defined according to the area below the curve for the
deflection curve of the load). That is, fibers tend to increase the maximum
load voltage, tend to provide a large amount of front-end energy absorption

again on the load curve and deformation.
When fiber reinforcement is in the form of short discrete fibers, they
act effectively as rigid fences in the concrete matrix. Physically, because it is
of the same order of magnitude as polymeric inclusions, the steel bar and
pre-compressed structural element, which can be replaced by armature
reinforcement directly to vertical strips. However, the properties of the
intrinsic material of fibrinized concrete, it is possible to expect the presence
of concrete fiber or concrete coated concrete, cracks in the conventional
fibrorforced to provide deformation and strength improvement of the
structural elements of other conditions can be extended to.
Fibers if three-dimensionally distributed all structural elements,
further advantage of fiber-reinforced materials can be used that can be used
as a fiber-tightness and breaking resistance control. In addition, fiber
concrete can also be used as a more effective bidirectional fiber orientation
when used as an expandable lining for roller covering.
2.2.1.1 Tensile Strength

The fibers arranged in the direction of the pulling effort can greatly
increase the direct traction resistance up to 133% for smooth and smooth
fibers of 5%. However, for randomly distributed fibers, the applied force is
quite small, in some cases increased to 60%, many studies show intermediate
values. The concrete stress separation stress test showed similar results.
Therefore, it may not be useful to add the fiber directly to directly increase
traction resistance. However, as in the case of compression, steel fibers
significantly increase the composite behavior or hardness after the fracture.

2.2.1.2 Flexural Strength

In general, the combined effect of steel fiber on concrete flexural
strength is considered much greater than compression strength or tensile
strength exceeded 100%. The increase in bending strength is not only
sensitive to fiber volume, but also to the aspect ratio of the fiber, the greater
the aspect ratio, the greater the strength. The effect of the fiber is described
by the combination parameter W 1 / d, 1 / d is the aspect ratio and W is the
fiber weight percentage. It should be noted that for W 1 / D> 600, the
properties of the mixture tend to be unsatisfactory. Modified fibers show the
same type of increase in lower volume due to the best adhesion properties.
2.2.1.3 Application of SFRC

The use of China’s National Forestry Commission over the last 30
years is very diverse and difficult to classify. The most common applications
are flooring, tunnel lining, flooring and slab, concrete, and now there are
repairs of silica fumes, airport flooring, concrete bridge. In recent years,
experimental research has also been conducted on the reinforced RCC of
steel fibers. It is obvious that the list is infinite and only engineers’
intelligence is limited. Unfortunately, the fibers themselves are relatively
expensive; an increase of 1% of steel fibers almost doubles the cost of
concrete materials and often limits the use of SFRC in special applications.
Fig-2.1: steel fibers Fig-2.2: steel fibers

2.2.2 Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Fiberglass concrete uses glass fiber as well as fiberglass insulation to
reinforce the concrete. Glass fibers help separate the cement and make it
stronger. Glass fiber also helps to prevent cracking of concrete over time due
to mechanical or thermal stress. In addition, glass fibers do not interfere with
radio signals such as steel fiber reinforcement. Glass fiber reinforced plastic
(GFRC) consists of high strength glass fibers embedded in a cement matrix.
Therefore, fiber and matrix, while retaining their physical and chemical
identity, provide a synergistic identity: combination of properties cannot be
achieved with the individual effects of optional ingredients. Generally, fibers
are primary carriers, the surrounding matrix remains in the desired position
and orientation as a means of transferring the load between them, protecting
them from environmental damage. In fact, fibers provide matrix
reinforcement and other useful functions in fiber-reinforced composites.
long continuous fiber glass in voltage panel design GFRC or fiber
length that can be embedded in (cut), compression, base with estimated
bending and cutting behavior of secondary load as along the creep matrix,
heat and moisture I know the characteristic , the influence of movement.
There are some differences between structural metals and reinforced fiber
composites. For example, generally a metal featuring elastic and plastic
deformation, most fiber reinforced composite material, stress – to pull the
elastic deformation characteristics. However, the different properties of these
materials provide a high absorption energy mechanism at the microscope
scale comparable to the creep process. Depending on the external load of the
type and severity, composite laminate can reduce performance, often not
suffering catastrophic failure. The mechanism of destruction and growth of
metals and composite structures is also very different. Other important
properties of many fiber reinforced composites are their non-corrosive, high
attenuation behavior. Capacity and low coefficient of thermal expansion.
The GFRC panel is lightweight and reduces the structural load of building
components. The construction framework is becoming cheaper.

Fig 2.3: fiber glass

2.2.3 Synthetic Fibers

Concrete fiber synthetic fibers and nylon fibers to improve concrete
strength. In addition, synthetic fibers have many advantages over other
fibers. They are not as strong as steel, but they increase the capacity of
concrete pumps and prevent them from adhering to the pipes. Synthetic fiber
does not swell with heat and does not shrink in cold conditions, it helps to
prevent cracks. Finally, synthetic fibers help prevent concrete swelling by
impact or fire.

Fig 2.4: polypropylene Fig 2.5: polyester

2.2.4 Natural Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Historically, natural fibers used in fiber reinforced concrete use wires
and hair. These fibers contribute to the strength of the concrete, but
excessive use of the fiber can also weaken the strength of the concrete. Also,
when natural fibers disintegrate when mixed, the concrete continues to
collapse. This eventually caused the concrete to collapse from the inside, and
natural fibers were no longer used for construction.

Fig 2.6: bamboos Fig 2.7: bamboos

CHAPTER-3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 PROCUREMENT OF MATERIALS

Likewise, our boss proposes to use steel wire as steel fiber in the
local market. The bonding wire can be provided as a toroidal beam, where a
fiber 1 is prepared as shown in the following figure

Fig 3.1: binding wires(steel fiber) Fig 3.2: cutting of binding wires

Fig3.3: cutting of binding wires Fig 3.4: cutting of binding wires

3.2 MIXING OF FIBER REINFORCED C O N C R E T E

3.2.1 Mixing of Steel fiber

As with other types of concrete, the mixing ratio of reinforced
concrete, depending on the needs of a particular job such as resistance, etc.
can be used. There are several methods for prescribing SFRC blends that
underline the manageability of the resulting blends. However, there are some
specific considerations of the SFRC.
In general, they may not be fully applied to reinforced steel fiber
reinforced concrete fiber, a higher percentage of high and aggregate concrete
content concretes of normally concrete conventional concrete design
program has been armed. Generally, up to 35% of cement can be replaced
with flying ash to reduce the amount of cement used. Greater volume of
fibers, in order to improve the workability of the water-reducing agent
mixture, particularly the super fluidizing drainage, typically used in
combination with the air.
In the case of reinforced concrete different considerations apply, and
most of the design of the mixture is empirically derived.
Fiber, some types of fiber orientation, and the percentage of particles
aggregates larger than 5 mm, such as size and number, can be used to reduce
the mixture, the aggregate granulometry is less than 5 mm, the mixture has
little effect on compression characteristics.
The second factor that has an important influence on machinability is
the fiber ratio (l / d). By increasing proportions, it can be used to decrease, in
fact, if the ratio of size greater than about 100, it is very difficult to mix
uniformly implemented.
In general, the reinforced concrete bar can be manufactured using
conventional conventional methods, but there are clearly important
differences. The fundamental problem, proper mixing, positioning, and to
allow finishing, while maintaining sufficient freshness machinability, to
obtain homogeneous distribution of improved mechanical properties there is
a sufficient amount of introduction. Production of hardened concrete,

Improves the fiber matrix connection, aspect ratio will be higher. On

the other hand, the high aspect ratio has a negative effect on the
machinability of the fresh mixture. In general, increasing the length and
volume of fibers increases the problem of uniformity of workability and
distribution.
One of the main difficulties in obtaining a uniform fiber distribution
is the tendency for steel fibers to form balls or groups. Pooling can be caused
by several factors:
1. Too high a volume of fibers may be added.

2. The mixer itself may be too worn or inefficient to disperse the fibers.

3. The fibers may already be clumped together before they are added to
the mix; normal mixing action will not break down these clumps.
4. Fibers may be added too quickly to allow them to disperse in the
mixer.
In this project, the steel fiber is mixed with 1: 2: 4 normal concrete.
The above difficulties have been overcome as follows. Because fiber blends
are manually produced;
1. Too high a volume of fibers may be added.

We use steel fiber weights of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4% to solve this
problem, as the steel fiber used for concrete ranges from 6 to 67 kg / m 3.
2. Mixer itself may be too worn or inefficient to disperse the fibers

In this project we have tried to manually mix the fibers in the
concrete and disperse the fibers in the concrete evenly so that we do not use
a mixer to mix the steel fibers..

3. Fibers may be added too quickly to allow them to disperse in the
mixer.
To overcome this problem, the fibers are gradually added to the press
in a dry manner, then added and finely mixed; the cement is added and
mixed to uniformly distribute the fibers into the mixture.
4. The fibers may already be clumped together before they are added
to the mix; normal mixing action will not break down these
clumps.
Since the fibers have been separated and mixed in small quantities
before mixing, the fibers coagulation is avoided, as shown below.

Fig 3.5: Steel fibers mixing in concrete Fig 3.6: Steel fibers mixing in
Concrete

Fig 3.7: Preparing and mixing of steel
fibers in fresh concrete

3.3 SAMPLES PREPARATION

For traction and tensile strength tests, cylindrical samples with a
diameter of 6 “and a length of 12” are used. As shown, cylinder samples of 6
standard concrete and 6 cylinder samples were prepared for each percentage
of steel fibers in order to compare the results to obtain a total of 30 samples.

Fig 3.8: samples of FRC cylinder Fig 3.9: samples of FRC cylinder
Table 3.1: Table showing no. of samples for different dosage of fibers

3.4 CURING

Test samples were stored in the absence of vibration and maintained
at 27 ° C ± 2 ° C for 24 hours and water was added to the dry ingredients.
After this time, mark the sample, remove it from the mold, immerse it in
fresh, clean water immediately and stay there until it is removed before
testing. Dry sample

Armed concrete, antifreeze, too high or too low reinforced concrete
must follow the traditional method of concrete.

Fig3.10: shows filled molds from Fig 3.11: shows opening of
concrete samples from molds
Fig3.12: shows samples kept Fig3.13: shows samples kept
in clean water for curing for drying before testing

3.5 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTS

Compressive strength tests were conducted on cylinders in universal
testing machine with strain gauge wrapped around cylinders and attached to
data logger for determination of load deformation curve.
3.4.1 Importance of Test

From compressive strength test we can get load deformation curve
with the help of strain gauge wrapped around cylinders and connected to data
logger, and, from load deformation curve we can find the strength, elastic
stiffness and post peak deformation (ductility).
Formula to be used:

Stress (?) = load/cross sectional area of the cylinder
Where
Stress (?) =strength of sample in (MPa)
Load = (KN)
Area = cross sectional area of the cylinder in (sq. mm)

3.4.2 Test Apparatus

Universal testing machine, strain gauge, data logger, steel plates

3.4.3 Test Procedure

? Take sample of cylinder on which capping is done carefully because
without capping there may be a difference of strength up to 25%,
gypsum have been used for this purpose.
? Wrap strain gauge around it and connect it to data logger.

? Put it in UTM machine and put a steel plate on it for uniform
distribution of load.
? Apply UTM load gradually and data logger will record the load
deformation curve.

Fig 3.17: shows sample capping Fig 3.18: shows prepared samples

Fig 3.19: shows cylinders testing in Fig 3.20: shows cylinders
U.T.M testing in U.T.M

Fig 3.21: U.T.M Fig 3.22: Data Logger

3.4.4 Test Results Calculation

The scope of the experiment is to determine the different properties
(compression strength, traction resistance) of reinforced concrete. The
experiments consisted of smooth fibers 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4%.
3.4.5 Strength (fu)

The maximum load value in the deformation curve is divided by the
area of the cylinder section.
Fig 3.23: Calculation of stiffness and deformation resistance after peak
load curve curve

Fig 3.24: Shows crushing of concrete sample

3.5 TENSILE STRENGTH TEST

Importance of test

The flexural strength of the sample can be measured and the physical
change of the sample can be observed, that is, the crack appearance under
the final load of normal concrete and cement concrete..
Formula to use:

Stress (?) = load/cross sectional area of the cylinder
Where
Stress (?) = sample strength in (MPa)
Load = (KN)
Area = cross sectional area of the cylinder in (sq. mm)

3.7.1 Test apparatus

Universal testing machine, strain gauge, data logger, steel plates.

3.7.2 Test procedure

The test procedure is very simple as compared to compressive strength test

? Write two lines at a distance from the end point and mark the line at
the center of the two dots.
? • Place it on the UTM tool using two wires of the terminal block on
the return bar
?
? • Place the steel arm over the center line and secure the stitch load.
?
? • Apply the UTM load to the ball pen as shown

Fig 3.25: Center point loading tensile strength
test on cylinder
3.7.3 Strength (fu)

This is the maximum load value in the load deformation curve
divided by the cross section of the cylinder.

CHAPTER-4
RESULTS & DISCUSSION
4.1 RESULTS

Compressive strength test and tensile strength test on cylinders were
conducted and the results obtained are given as below in tabulated form and
also in graphical form. The results show 7, 14 and 28 days strength with
discussion at the end. The conclusion of the results obtained is given below.
Test results

Tests were conducted on cylinder samples and following results were
obtained.
4.2 RESULTS OF COMPRESSIVE TE ST

Results of the experimental work are shown below in tabular form.

Table 4.4 Shows results of compression test after 7 days

Days

Cylinder
Samples
Dimension
(mm)

Max Force
(KN)
Max Stress
(MPa)
7 days 0% Height 150 Ø, 300 80 2.830
– 0.5% – 106 3.75
– 1% – 119 4.21
– 2% – 127 4.49
– 4% – 137 4.84

Normal sample graphical result (0% of steel fiber) as follows

Fig 4.1 Shows 7 days strength (normal sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 0.5% of steel fiber as follows

Fig 4.2 Shows 7 days strength (0.5% steel fiber)

Graphical result of sample contains 1% of steel fiber as follows

Fig 4.3 Shows 7 days strength (1% steel fiber)

Graphical result of sample contains 2% of steel fiber as follows

Fig 4.4 shows 7 days strength (2% steel fiber)

Graphical result of sample contains 4% of steel fiber as follows

Fig 4.5 shows 7 days strength (4% steel fiber)

Graphical result of comparison of 7 days strength(contains 0%,0.5%,1%,
2%, 4% of steel fiber) as follows

Fig 4.6 Shows Comparison of 7 days strength (contains 0%, 0.5%, 1%,
2%, 4% of steel fiber)

Table 4.5 Shows results of compression test after 14 days

Days

Cylinder
Samples
Dimension in
(mm)
Max Force
(KN)
Max Stress
(MPa)
14 days 0% Height 150 Ø, 300 124 4.38
– 0.5% – 165 5.83
– 1% – 142 5.02
– 2% – 174 6.15
– 4% – 186 6.58

Graphical result of sample contains 0% of steel fiber strength as follows

Fig 4.7 Shows 14 days strength (normal sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 0.5% of steel fiber strength as follows

Fig 4.8 Shows 14 days strength (0.5% sample)

Graphica result of sample contains 1% of steel fiber strength as follows

Fig 4.9 Shows 14 days strength (1% sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 2% of steel fiber as follows

Fig 4.10 Shows 14 days strength (2%l sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 4% of steel fiber as follows
Fig 4.11 Shows 14 days strength (4% sample)

Graphical Comparison of 14 days strength contains 0%,0.5%,1%, 2% &
4% of steel fiber as follows

Fig 4.12 Shows Comparison of 14 days strength contains 0%, 0.5%, 1%,
2%, 4% of steel fiber

Table 4.6 Shows results of compression test after 28 days

Days

Cylinders
Samples
Dimension
(mm)
Max Force
(KN)
Max Stress
(MPa)
28 Days %0 Height 150 Ø, 300 183 6.47
_ 0.5% _ 187 6.61
_ 1% _ 222 7.85
_ 2% _ 243 8.59
_ 4% _ 267 9.44

Graphical result of sample contains 0% of steel fiber strength as follows

Fig 4.13 Shows 28 days strength (normal sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 0.5% of steel fiber strength as follows

Fig 4.14 Shows 28 days strength (0.5% sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 1% of steel fiber strength as follows
Fig 4.15 Shows 28 days strength (1% sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 2% of steel fiber strength as follows

Fig 4.16 – 28 days strength (2% sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 4% of steel fiber strength as follows

Fig 4.17 – 28 days strength(4% sample)

Graphical result comparison of 28 days strength as follows

Fig 4.18 Shows Comparison of 28 days strength contains 0%, 0.5%, 1%,
2%, 4% of steel fiber.

Combined graphical Comparison of 7, 14 & 28 days strength as follows

Fig 4.19 Shows Comparison of 7, 14 & 28 days strength
Discussion
Discuss graphics and results in the form of table below;

4.2.1 Compressive strength

When steel fiber is added, the compression strength for the controlled
sample increases, but because the amount of steel fibers increases the
compressive strength as shown in Tables 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6.
Due to the presence of fibers, the reduction in compression strength
can be due to the more trapped air.
Most studies agree that volume fractions up to about 1% do not
significantly affect compression strength.
4.3 RESULTS OF TENSILE TESTS

The results of the experimental work are shown in the form of a table.

7 days
4000

3500

3000

2500

2000
7 days
1500

1000

500

0%
% of steel fibers
Table 4.7 Shows results of tensile test after 7 days

Days

Cylinders
Sample
Dimension
(mm)
Max Force
(KN)
Max Stress
(MPa)
7 days 0% Height 150 Ø, 300 19 0.67
– 0.5% – 37 1.30
– 1% – 66 2.33
– 2% – 98 3.46
– 4% – 126 4.45

Graphical result of Normal Sample (0% steel fibers) as follows

Fig 4.20 – 7 days strength (normal sample)

7 days
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000

Graphical result of sample contains 0.5% Steel fibers as follows

Fig 4.21 – 7 days strength (0.5%l sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 1% Steel fibers as follows

Fig 4.22 – 7 days strength (1%sample)

7 days
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500

Graphical result of sample contains 2% Steel fibers as follows
Fig 4.23 – 7 days strength (2%sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 4% Steel fibers as follows

Fig 4.2- 7 days strength (4% sample)

Graphical comparison of the 7 days strength as follows
Fig 4.25 Comparison of 7 days strength contains 0%,0.5%,1%, 2%, 4%
of steel fiber

Table 4.8 Shows results of tensile test after 14 days

Days

Cylinders
Sample
Dimension
(mm)
Max Force
(KN)
Max Stress
(MPa)
14 Days 0 % Height 150 Ø, 300 56 1.98
_ 0.5% _ 78 2.76
_ 1% _ 64 2.26
_ 2% _ 137 4.84
_ 4% _ 154 5.44

Graphical result of normal Sample (0% steel fibers) as follows
Fig 4.26 – 14 days strength(normal sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 0.5% Steel fibers as follows

Fig 4.27 – 14 days strength (0.5% sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 1% Steel fiber as follows

Fig 4.28 – 14 days strength (1% sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 2% Steel fiber as follows
Fig 4.29 – 14 days strength (2% sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 4% Steel fiber as follows
Fig 4.30 – 14 days strength (4%sample)

Graphical comparison of the 14 days strength as follows

Fig 4.31 Comparison of 14 days strength contains 0%,0.5%,1%, 2%,
4% of steel fiber.
14 days
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500

14 days
0% 0.50% 1% 2% 4% Percentage of steel fibers

Table 4.9 Shows results of tensile test after 28 days

Days

Cylinders
Samples
Dimension
(mm)
Max Force
(KN)
Max Stress
(MPa)
28 days 0% Height 150 Ø, 300 67 2.37
_ 0.5% _ 98 3.46
_ 1% _ 115 4.06
_ 2% _ 141 4.98
_ 4% _ 189 6.68

Graphical result of sample contains 0% Steel fibers as follows

Fig 4.32 – 28 days strength (normal sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 0.5% Steel fibers as follows
Fig 4.33 – 28 days strength (0.5%sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 1% Steel fibers as follows
Fig 4.34 – 28 days strength (1% sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 2% Steel fibers as follows
Fig 4.35 – 28days strength (2% sample)

Graphical result of sample contains 4% Steel fiber as follows
Fig 4.36- 28 days strength (4% sample)

Graphical comparison of the graph of 28 days strength
Fig 4.37 Shows Comparison of 28 days strength contains 0%, 0.5%,1%,
2%, 4% of steel fiber.

Combined graphical comparison of 7, 14 & 28 days strength as follows
Fig 4.38 shows Comparison of 7, 14 & 28 day’s strength
Discussion
The discussion of charts and tabular results is as follows;

4.1.2 Tensile strength

Due to the addition of steel fibers, the tensile strength increases with
respect to the control sample and continues to increase when the steel load

increases.

The results and graphs of the fibers shown in Tables 5.7, 5.8 and 5.9
and their comparisons are also presented in Chapter 5 and analyzed.

CHAPTER-5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 CONCLUSION

? The addition of steel fibers to the concrete slightly increases the
compression strength of the concrete.
? The addition of steel fibers increases the tensile strength and
continues to grow with increasing steel fiber dosing.
? Increased dosing of steel fibers increases tensile strength.
? The proportion, types and shapes of fibers can be varied and studied.
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

? Steel fibers are recommended to improve ductility, strength and
break resistance.
? Due to increased tensile strength, hardness, ductility, and crack
resistance, it is recommended to use these fibers in particular for
possible projects listed below..

REFERENCES
1. Colin D. Johnston, Progress in Concrete Technology, Fibrin zed
Concrete , Vol. 3 – Gordon and Breach Science – Issued in 2001.
2. Perumalsamy N. Balaguru, Sarendra P. Shah, “Fiber Reinforced
Composites Cement”, Editions Mc Graw Hill International 1992.
3. Arnon Bentur and Sidney Mindess, “Fiber Reinforced Composites on
Concrete Base”, Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York,
1990.
4. ASTM C1018-89 on flexural and cracking strength of the first fibrous
reinforced concrete (used in step 3), ASTM standard, Section 04.02,
standard test methods for Philadelphia test material, pp. 507-513.
5. Mayer, Rayner M. (1993), drawing with reinforced plastic
(http://books.google.com).
6. ACI Committee, a report on ACI 554 IR-82 concrete fiber reinforced
state 1982 Mechigan, Detroit.
7. C. H. Henage Fiber Steel Shotcrete. Description of Country Specific
Artistic Status: Design and Construction 1981.
8. J.Enggington, D.J.Hannant ; R.I.T. Williams, “steel reinforcement
steel”. Current document CP 69/74 institute of research institute
Garston Watford 1974..
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