USRAH BUDI 1
Semester 2 Session 2017/2018
BRIBERY AND IT’S CONFLICTS
NAME : NAIEMI LUTFIAH BINTI AHMAD YANI
MATRIC NO. : 1710690
SECTION : 46
PROGRAMME : LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, KAED.
Based on ‘The Eradication of Corruption Criminal Action’, cited by Winarto (2014), bribery is constituted as “giving or promising something to civil servant or state caretaker in order to make this civil servant or state caretaker to do something or not to do something within their rank but may be assessed as being in violation of their duty”.
Bribery is commonly determined as one form of corruption. Although the words ‘bribery’ and ‘corruption’ clearly refer to transfers of resources that are in some sense of “bad”, many organizations still find it difficult to identify and describe “bribery” and “corruption”, especially in order to bring those terms from general characteristics to a more optional description.
Moreover, identified tolerance for different practices in different cultures as an excuse for bribery and other corrupt practices can present some implementation difficulties. For example, many organizations in different countries have utilized gift giving and entertainment in return for favors as culturally specific forms of economic transaction. Yet, there is little evidence is known about how to differentiate between practices that are acceptable or unacceptable. For example, in a Chinese business and cultural context, the failure to reciprocate or give-and-take can cause a loss in prestige and mutual trust.
Nonetheless, despite definitional differences, many businesses have made public commitments to define codes of conduct ‘as a bribery code if it mentions money transactions, political contributions, gift giving or entertainment’. Other scholars describe bribery as any action that includes an explicit request for reciprocity or “a favor for a favor”.
More serious types of bribery have also been investigated. For instance, the benefit of political backing and promotion for collusive unethical behavior can be seen by many employees as indicative of an organization culture of corruption. This, in turn, can discourage employees from reporting wrongdoings.
Moreover, employees who are ‘suitable’ to the culture will remain to work in the organization or will be newly recruited, while those who clash with the prevailing cultural norms may resign or have their employment terminated. For example, the whistle-blower who questioned of kickbacks ultimately pushed out of the organization due to his ‘questioning’.
A conflict of interest could be defined as a situation that occurs when a person or company acts in a manner to promote self-interests rather than the established best interest of the business or customer. A conflict of interest may cause a situation that is unethical, that violates current policy or the law.