CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION Rationale Employees are one of the most important assets of an organization as they contribute to its growth and success

Employees are one of the most important assets of an organization as they contribute to its growth and success (Danish and Usman, 2010). In the era characterized by rapid and continuous change, knowledge capital must be retained in order for the organizations to be productive and responsive to the needs of their stakeholders (Malik et al. 2010).
Similarly, organizations like an educational institution which is both a research and training institute need to interest, maintain and help in overall growth of the employees (Lew, 2009). Organizational learning has become increasingly important as a mechanism for strategic renewal ( HYPERLINK “” l “bib0090” Kang and Snell, 2009). Currently, growing competitiveness and rapid changes require firms to learn new guidelines in order to compete.

Over the past two decades, scholars and practitioners in the field of public administration have witnessed a number of reform initiatives aimed at enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of public management. Major changes have included increased focus on service performance and outcomes in organizations at the local levels of government, and the implications of these reform efforts for personnel policy have been significant. The HRM approach requires both organizational and cultural changes for the public entity and its managerial structure. Increased management discretion, increased flexibility and responsiveness, enhanced performance, and utilization of private sector tools have fueled this reinvention movement (Battaglio et al., 2009). As many public organizations shift toward a performance-oriented approach to the delivery of public services, HRM personnel are expected to provide valuable input into the decisions regarding staff management and core objective of the governmental entity. The changing nature of work in public sector organizations requires a new emphasis on human capital management to support and improve the public entities’ operational and strategic objectives (French, 2011; Goodman, 2012).

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Nwakaand Ofojebe (2010) stated that teachers are the critical resources for effective implementation and realization of the educational policies and objectives at the practical level of classroom. A manager, whether in private or public sector, who underrates the critical role and underplays the importance of people in goal achievement, can neither be effective nor efficient (Oduma, 2012). It is the teacher who ultimately interprets and implements policy as represented in the school curriculum, which is designed to actualize educational goals (Omojunwa, 2007).Maintaining and improving educational standards is only possible through teachers. Teachers therefore are the most indispensable entity in the school. They are the greatest aid to learning. The shortage or poor management of teachers reduces the extent to which the curriculum can be delivered effectively. It should be noted that the major premise of human resources management in education is that the end results of the educative process will be determined by the effectiveness of the teachers who facilitate learning for self-actualization and national development.

Theoretical Background
The study is anchored on several theories, these are as follows:
Katz ; Kahn (1978) proposed a Role Behavior Perspective Theory that focused on roles as the interdependent components that make up an organization system. Instead of using specific behaviors and job performances as the fundamental components, this perspective shifts the focus from individuals to social systems characterized by multiple roles, multiple role senders, and multiple role evaluators. Katz ; Kahn defined role behaviors as “the recurring actions of an individual, appropriately interrelated with the repetitive activities of others so as to yield a predictable outcome.” HRM is the organization’s primary means for sending role information through the organization, supporting desired behaviors, and evaluating role performances; it is effective, therefore, when it communicates internally consistent expectations and evaluates performances in ways that are congruent with the system’s behavioral.

A role theory perspective assumes individuals respond to normative pressures as they seek approval for their performance in socially defined roles. Similarly, institutional theory views organizations as social entities that seek approval for their performances in socially constructed environments.
Like institutional theory, resource dependence theory focuses on the relationship between an organization and its constituencies. However, resource dependence theory emphasizes resource exchanges as the central feature of these relationships, rather than concerns about social acceptability and legitimacy (Pfeffer ; Cohen 1984). According to this perspective, groups and organizations gain power over each other by controlling valued resources. Furthermore, HRM activities and processes are assumed to reflect the distribution of power within a system. For example, personnel departments acquire power over other departments to the extent they make others dependent upon them by controlling the flow of human resources into and through the organization .HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY
In the economics literature, human capital refers to the productive capabilities of people (Becker 1964). Skills, experience, and knowledge have economic value to organizations because they enable it to be productive and adaptable; thus, people constitute the organization’s human capital. Like other assets, human capital has value in the market place, but unlike other assets, the potential value of human capital can be fully realized only with the cooperation of the person. Therefore, all costs related to eliciting productive behaviors from employees-including those related to motivating, monitoring, and retaining them-constitute human capital investments made in anticipation of future returns (Flamholtz &Lacey 1981).

In human capital theory, contextual factors such as market conditions, unions, business strategies, and technology are important because they can affect the costs associated with alternative approaches to using HRM to increase the value of the organization’s human capital and the value of the anticipated returns, such as productivity gains. (Lepak ; Snell 1999).

Transaction cost economics assumes that business enterprises choose governance structures that economize transaction costs associated with establishing, monitoring, evaluating, and enforcing agreed upon exchanges (Williamson 1979, 1981). Predictions about the nature of the governance structure an enterprise will use incorporate two behavioral assumptions: bounded rationality and opportunism (i.e. the seeking of self-interest with guile). These assumptions mean that the central problem to be solved by organizations is how to design governance structures that take advantage of bounded rationality while safeguarding against opportunism. To solve this problem, implicit and explicit contracts are established, monitored, enforced, and revised. The theory has direct implications for understanding how HRM practices are used to achieve a governance structure for managing the myriad implicit and explicit contracts between employers and employees (Wright ; McMahan 1992).
Agency theory focuses attention on the contracts between a party (i.e. the principal) who delegates work to another (i.e. the agent) (Jensen ; Meckling 1976). Agency relations are problematic to the degree that (a) the principal and agent have conflicting goals and (b) it is difficult or expensive for the principal to monitor the agent’s performance (Eisenhardt 1989). Contracts are used to govern such relations. Efficient contracts align the goals of principals and agents at the lowest possible cost. Costs can arise from providing incentives and obtaining information (e.g. about the agent’s behavior and/or the agent’s performance outcomes). Agency theory appears to be particularly useful for understanding executive and managerial compensation practices, which are viewed as a means for aligning the interests of the owners of a firm (i.e. principals) with the managers in whom they vest control (i.e. agents). Agency and transaction costs theories share many similar assumptions about human behavior (Eisenhardt 1989) and may be most useful when combined. Their discussion suggests various reasons for predicting that the utility of HRM activities will vary with conditions in both the internal and external environments of organizations. Such conditions include the other human resource practices that are used by the organization, government regulations and their enforcement, technologies, union activities, and labor market conditions. These contextual factors can affect both the costs and potential gains associated with a particular human resource practice (e.g. a recruitment program, a selection test, or a training program).
Legal Bases
This research is anchored on the following legal bases of the country. In Section 7, Paragraph 3 of Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 states that superintendents, principals, subject area coordinators and other instructional school leaders shall likewise undergo workshops and training to enhance their skills on their role as academic, administrative and community leaders.

There are also some of the provisions which serve as the fundamental framework for ensuring that indeed education is rightly valued (Sergio, 2012).

The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions” (Section 4, Article 14).

The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment” (Section 5, Article 14).

Related Literature
School leadership has become a priority in education policy agendas internationally. It plays a key role in improving school outcomes by influencing the motivations and capacities of teachers, as well as the school climate and environment. Effective school leadership is essential to improve the efficiency and equity of schooling (Pont, Nusche, & Moorman 2008).

As countries are seeking to adapt their education systems to the needs of contemporary society, Pont, et al. (2008) stated that the expectations for schools and school leaders are also changing. Many countries have moved towards decentralization, making schools more autonomous in their decision making and holding them more accountable for results. At the same time, the requirement to improve overall student performance while serving more diverse student populations is putting schools under pressure to use more evidence-based teaching practices.

As a result of these trends, the function of school leadership across OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) countries is now increasingly defined by a demanding set of roles which include financial and human resource management and leadership for learning.

Human Resource Management is the managerial utilization of the efforts, knowledge, capabilities and committed behaviors which people contribute to an authoritatively co-ordinate human enterprise as part of an employment exchange (or more temporary contractual arrangement) to carry out work tasks in a way which enables the enterprise to continue into the future.

It is concerned with all aspects of how people are employed and managed in organizations. HRM covers strategic activities, human capital management, knowledge management, corporate social responsibility, organization development, resourcing (workforce planning, recruitment and selection and talent management), learning and development, performance and reward management, employee relations, employee well-being and the provision of employee services (Armstrong, 2014).

HRM practices influence employee skills through the acquisition and development of a firm’s human capital. Recruiting procedures that provide a large pool of qualified applicants, paired with a reliable and valid se-lection regimen, will have a substantial influence over the quality and type of skills new employees possess. Providing formal and informal training experiences, such as basic skills training, on-the-job experience, coaching, mentoring, and management development, can further influence employees’ development. The effectiveness of even highly skilled employees will be limited if they are not motivated to perform, however, and HRM practices can affect employee motivation by encouraging them to work both harder and smarter.
Examples of firm efforts to direct and motivate employee behavior include the use performance appraisals that assess individual or work group performance, linking these appraisals tightly with incentive compensation systems. It also stresses out the use of internal promotion systems that focus on employee merit, and other forms of incentives intended to align the interests gain-sharing plans.
Finally, Bailey (1993) noted that the contribution of even a highly skilled and motivated workforce will be limited if jobs are structured, or programmed, in such a way that employees, who presumably know their work better than anyone else, do not have the opportunity to use their skills and abilities to design new and better ways of performing their roles. Thus, HRM practices can also influence firm performance through provision of organizational structures that encourage participation among employees and allow them to improve how their jobs are performed. Cross-functional teams, job rotation, and quality circles are all examples of such structures (as cited by Armstrong, 2014).

Individual employee performance has implications for firm-level outcomes among academics and practitioners for many years. Interest in this area has recently intensified, which asserts that employees can also provide a unique source of competitive advantage that is difficult for its competitors to replicate through correct practice of human resources management (Huselid, 2013).

The best practices in human resource management are the hallmark of success in any progressive organization. However, according to Mugera (2008) the extent to which effective practices in human resource management have been employed in schools for quality education remains questionable.

This is the main objective of the present study, which centers on identifying the human resources management practices among public elementary school heads in the district of Candijay, Bohol for the school year 2018-2019. The practices focused on recruitment and selection system, talent management and leadership, performance appraisal system, trainings, employee development activities; compensation package, employee benefits, communication system, teamwork employee relation, job satisfaction, and use of technology.

Recruitment and Selection System
Educational leaders in the schools hold the challenge of confirming teacher recruitment and retention. The principals have the ability to directly impact the quality of teachers and the types of teachers employed at the school through their responsibilities for teacher recruitment and selection, professional development, supervision and evaluation (Arnold, Newman, Gaddy, & Dean, 2005; Collins, 1999; Smith & Ingersoll, 2004). It was clear from all cases that having the right teachers in the right classrooms was not a coincidence, but a result of good leaders setting clear standards and expectations, and providing direct guidance through frequent class observations and feedback (Masumoto, M., & Brown-Welty, S., 2009).

According to the Armstrong (2014), recruitment is the process of finding and engaging the people the organization needs. Selection is that part of the recruitment process concerned with deciding which applicants or candidates should be appointed to jobs.
In Finland, Sahlberg, P. (2011) states that successful candidates for teaching must have not only good scores and excellent interpersonal skills, but also a deep personal commitment to teach and work in schools. Accordingly, the selected, highly capable candidates then complete a rigorous teacher education program at government expense. Wages are not the main reason young people become teachers in Finland but more importantly are such factors like high social prestige, professional autonomy in schools, and the ethos of teaching as a service to society and the public good.

Talent Management and Leadership
Low, K. C. (2010) points out that talent or human capital is the primary driver of any successful company. Accordingly, better talents will definitely differentiate higher performance companies from the rest; and talent management is critical when it comes to business excellence and success. Even though talented people are crucial to society (organization), even more important is the person who knows how to find talented people.

Talent management refers to how the organization ensures that it has the talented people it needs to achieve success. It drives the attraction, retention and professional growth of a deep pool of diverse, talented employees.

Talent management strategy consists of a declaration of intent on how the talent management process of planning, auditing, resourcing, succession planning and development should mesh together to achieve an overall objective – to acquire and nurture talent wherever it is and wherever it is needed by using a number of interdependent policies and practices.

On the other hand, leadership can be defined as the process of influencing others to facilitate the attainment of organizational relevant goals and this definition is applicable to both formal and informal leadership position in order to exert leadership behavior. (Ivancevich et al.,2008; Low, K.C., 2010). Literature articles written on leadership styles have shown that effective leaders must be pro-active; must be able to accept change; leading and managing change (Low, 2010; 2010a & 2010b).

Low (2010) elaborates that leadership is the driving force of organizations and it has played an important role in every profit or nonprofit organization, society, and nation. Leaders’ capability and behavior may embody strong ethical values in organizational culture; they change organizational structures by exercising their influence over organizations; they create organizational culture; and they take the initiative for the alteration of organizations.

Further, leadership is not only a core factor for the execution of administration for management, but practically, it is also a significant part for the creation of new organizational culture. This means that leadership is regarded as an essential element or a core value in organizational culture. In this vein, leadership and organizational culture are inseparable (Low, 2010).

Performance Appraisal System
The focus on the skills and abilities of school principals and the quality of programs that prepare them has never been more intense, and it is for good reason. According to Davis, S. H., ; Darling-Hammond, L. (2012) as cited by Seashore Louis, Leithwood, Wahlstrom, ; Anderson (2010) from Creemers ; Reezigt (1996), among the many school related factors that influence student learning, the importance of principal leadership is second only to that of teachers and may explain as much as 25% of the variation in student learning that is attributed to school related factors. At both national and state policy levels, principals are being held accountable for the continuous growth in student achievement, closing achievement gaps, decreasing dropout rates, and increasing college or workplace readiness among disadvantaged students. And the stakes have never been higher.
The careers of principals who fail to perform effectively are literally on the line. For example, within the schedule of sanctions outlined in No Child Left Behind and in several state statutes, principals of persistently underperforming schools may be removed from their jobs (Davis et al., 2005; Davis, S. H., ; Darling-Hammond, L., 2012).

A way to help the principal in monitoring school improvement is to assess the performance of the teachers using the performance appraisal system. As defined by Aguinis (2005: 2) as cited by Armstrong (2014) ‘Performance management is a continuous process of identifying, measuring and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning performance with the strategic goals of the organization.’ Its five elements are agreement, measurement, feedback, positive reinforcement and dialogue.

The effect of evaluation on employee performance as highlighted by Taylor, E. S., ; Tyler, J. H. (2012) has been a long-standing interest shared by researchers, firms, and policymakers. Still, relatively little empirical attention has been given to the potential long-run effects of performance evaluations including employee skill development.

In Singapore, Schleicher, A. (2012) states that teachers’ performance is appraised annually by a number of people under 16 different competencies. Included in this Enhanced Performance Management System is teachers’ contribution to the academic and character development of the students in their charge, their collaboration with parents and community groups, and their contribution to their colleagues and the school as a whole. Teachers who do outstanding work receive a bonus from the school’s bonus pool. This individual appraisal system sits within the context of great attention to the school’s overall plan for educational excellence, since all students in Singapore have multiple teachers, even in primary school.

Policy makers can enhance the strategic financial and human resource management skills of school leadership teams by providing training to school leaders (Beatriz, P., Deborah, N., ; Hunter, M., 2008). 
Training are efficient ways to provide knowledge of background information, theory, philosophy, and values; introduce the components and rationales of key practices; and provide opportunities to practice new skills and receive feedback in a safe training environment (Fixsen, Blase, Naoom ; Wallace, 2009).

According to Schleicher, (2012) leadership preparation and training are the central and building networks of schools to stimulate and spread innovation and to develop diverse curricula, extended services and professional support can bring substantial benefits.

However, there is a different scenario happening in Kenya. Mutai, (2003) underscored that the appointment of principals in Kenya is based on years of service, rather than on having undergone training on their roles before taking up the post (cited by Chemutai Emily, 2015). The educator argued that the promotion of teachers to a position of responsibility should be pegged on having undergone a pre-service training on his/her new roles for effective school management. A manager has to undergo full training on management. The training of managers is a training which one undertakes for two to four years. The professional pre-service training of the principals is unsystematic and inadequate in content and coverage on management thus cannot empower one to manage with confident, instead it renders one to undergo so many challenges when carrying out the managerial roles.

Consequently, in Kenya, this put the principals in an awkward situation of handling roles they have not trained on. It is challenging for instance to carry out the roles of HR managers among others before undergoing the training of HR managers. It is difficult to handle individuals working in an organization without the required skills. This is the reason which makes the management of the school not fully delegated to the principal. There is Board of Governors (BOG) which carries out most of the management roles in schools. This calls for the need of training head teachers before they assume their new roles so as to be in opposition to handle different situation and escape the challenges they encounter in their day to day activities (NCSL, 2007).

It is therefore important according to Emily that training needs for school heads are addressed immediately one is appointed. This would render them effective in overcoming managerial challenges as human resource managers in schools. Principals have no formal training beyond that of teachers. On the other hand, it is clear that principals have an important role to play in assuring school effectiveness and success. Yet at the same time, most principals do not assume the leadership and management functions that are required to contribute to the improvements in learning and teaching that lead to the school’s success.

Employee Development Activities
Armstrong (2014) noted that career management involves the definition of career paths – the routes people can take to advance their careers within an organization. It uses all the information provided by the organization’s assessments of requirements, the assessments of performance and potential and management succession plans, and translates it into the form of individual career development programs and general arrangements for management development, career counseling and mentoring this also involves trainings, seminar and professional studies.

Throughout Singapore, identifying talent and nurturing it, is part of teacher career development. Schleicher, (2012) states that after three years of teaching, teachers are assessed annually to see which of three career paths would best suit them – master teacher, specialist in curriculum or research or school leader. Each path has salary increments. Teachers with potential as school leaders are moved to middle management teams and receive training to prepare them for their new roles. Middle managers’ performance is assessed for their potential to become vice principals, and later, principals. Each stage involves a range of experience and training to prepare candidates for school leadership and innovation.

Compensation Package
Competitive compensation and other incentives are important parts of strategies to attract the most talented teachers to the most challenging classrooms Schleicher, (2012).
According Huselid (2016) the effectiveness of even highly skilled employees will be limited if they are not motivated to perform, however, and HRM practices can affect employee motivation by encouraging them to work both harder and smarter. Examples of firm efforts to direct and motivate employee behavior include the use performance appraisals that assess individual or work group performance, linking these appraisals tightly with incentive com-sensation systems, the use of internal promotion systems that focus on employee merit, and other forms of incentives intended to align the interests of employees with those of shareholders (e.g., ESOPs and profit- and gain-sharing plans).

On Employee Benefits. Employee benefits program are typically financial in nature and must be at least at a baseline competitive level for companies to attract and retain talent. Competitors easily copy these programs, which typically fail to engage employees enough to stay with an organization. Learning and development programs and a flexible and fun work environment however, provide an opportunity for employers o better differentiate themselves from their competitors and enhance employee commitment to their organization.

On Communication System. Communication is one way of keeping good relationship between the teachers/employees and the manager. Keeping teachers/employees informed about matters affecting them is an excellent job. Using of online communication methods have improved communication and feedback system.
On Teamwork. Good relationship between the teachers/employees and the manager results to a teamwork. The teachers are willing to help each other, even if it means doing something outside their usual activities. The management and the teachers work together for the betterment of the school and the pupils.

On Employee Relation. The scope of employee relations covers, institutional relations, employee safety, health, employment security, working conditions and assistance with non-work problems. Government law regulates employee safety. Apart from fulfilling the obligations spelled out under law, employers organize safety awareness programs to stress upon the organization’s commitment to safety. The components of program are hazard identification, communication and education to those at risk and reinforcement of safe practices. Employee health is taken care by employee assistance programs and employee wellness programs. Disciplinary procedures, compressed workweek, flexi time, job sharing and part-time work full under the gamut of employment security and working conditions. To help the employees to manage their work and private life both, companies have started family friendly policies, which include childcare, elder care and family leave policy. The purpose of all these programs is to ensure the workforce’s economic and psychological well-being. These programs help in enhancing productivity, reducing turnover and making the organization more competitive. Employee relations are meant to cultivate a sense of belonging to and oneness with organization. Employee relations are associated with all the welfare measures of the organization taken in the interest of employees and maintenance of their good health at the work place and also involve giving a constructive feedback to the employees.

On Job Satisfaction.Organizational reward system has a significant impact on the level of employee’s job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is an employee’s general attitude about the job. The major components of job satisfaction are-attitude toward the work group; general working conditions; attitude toward the company; monetary benefits; and attitude toward supervision. Health, age, level of aspiration, social status, and political and social activities are other factors that contribute job satisfaction (Byars & Rue, 1994).

On Use of Technology.The use of technology is significant in human relations. It provides the opportunity to build close relationship between the teachers/employees and the manager. Through technology, we can easily connect and communicate each other. Technology is an important tool in increasing human resource effectiveness in the school/workplace.

Statement of the Problem
The present study was design to determine the Human Resources Management Practices among Public Elementary School Heads in the district of Candijay, Bohol for the school year 2018-2019. The findings of which served as basis for recommendations to address the phenomenon.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the School Heads in terms of:1.1 age;
1.2 sex;
1.3 Civil Status;
1.4 highest educational attainment;
1.5 number of years in teaching; and
1.6 school assignment?

2. What is the level of the Human Resource Management Practices of the school heads as perceived by the School Heads and their teachers on the following:2.1 recruitment and selection system;
2.2 talent management and leadership
2.3 performance appraisal system;
2.4 trainings;
2.5 employee development activities;
2.6 compensation package;
2.7 employee benefits;
2.8 communication system;
2.9 teamwork
2.10 employee relation;
2.11 job satisfaction; and
2.12 use of technology?
3. Is there a significant degree of difference in the perception of the School Heads and teachers in the level of Human Resource Management practices?
4. Is there a significant degree of variance on the 12 dimensions of human resources management practices?
Null Hypothesis
Ho1:There is no significant degree of difference in the perception of the School Heads and teachers in the level of Human Resource Management practices.

Ho2: There is no significant degree of variance on the 12 dimensions of human resources management practices.

Significance of the Study
School Heads. This study provides relevant information to practice human resource management. The results of the study allow them to determine what trainings are urgently needed to address their weaknesses as leaders, as to increase their strengths.
Teachers. This will help them to raise their level of commitment to the employment leadership of the school heads. Thus, helping the school to produce good students.

Public Schools District Supervisor. The result of the study will serve as a starting point to instigate development and improvement in the school he manages.

Future researchers. This study may serve as a resource material for future researchers who wish to conduct similar studies.

The study utilizes a quantitative research method using a normative-descriptive survey patterned from teacher-made tool. It employs simple-random sampling technique to select the respondents.

The study is conducted in the elementary schools of Candijay district of under the Department of Education, division of Bohol. Among them are the (NAmE of the schools.)
The municipality of Candijay is located on the eastern side of Bohol, 92 kilometers (57 mi) from Tagbilaran, a two-hour ride away.
Subjects and Respondents
Using purposive sampling, the researcher selected the said locality with the seventy-five percent (%) of teachers in the elementary school selected using simple random sampling. There are a total of 87 respondents, 84 female and 3 male.

The researcher used a teacher-made questionnaire designed to determine the level of the practices the school heads have in human resource management using the following interpretation:
Strongly AgreeSA4
Strongly DisagreeSD1
Data Gathering Procedure

The study follows the following phases:

Phase 1: Inquiry and Pre-Visit. The researcher inquired the total numbers of the respondents through conducting a pre-visitation and asking the respondents via social networking and phone calling.

Phase 2: Approval to Conduct Research. The researcher sent a permission letter to the, Public Schools District Supervisor of Candijay district to conduct the study in the elementary schools.

Phase 3: Gathering of Data. The researcher gathered the data from the selected and teachers of the elementary schools of Candijay district.

Phase 4: Treatment of Data, Analysis, and Interpretation. The researcher tallied the gathered data pertaining the respondents’ profile and their human resource management practices.

Statistical Treatment
Percentage. For the different collated data, computation of percentage was done by tallying frequencies and assigning weight values of the frequencies.
To measure the significant degree of difference between in the perception of the School Heads and teachers in the level of Human Resource Management practices, Wilcoxon Signed Ranked Test was employed. The Wilcoxon signed rank sum test is another example of a nonparametric or distribution-free test. As for the sign test, the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test is used is used to test the null hypothesis that the median of a distribution is equal to some value. It can be used a) in place of a one-sample t-test b) in place of a paired t-test or c) for ordered categorical data where a numerical scale is inappropriate but where it is possible to rank the observations.
To measure the significant degree of variance on the 12 dimensions of human resources management practices Kruskal-Wallis Test was used. To determine the difference the formula was used:
The following terms are operationally defined to put the reader of this research paper on the same framework.

Recruitment and Selection System
Encompasses the development of processes and procedures for managing the recruitment function to suit the organization’s needs including; building a database, advertising job openings, collecting information for prospective job applicants and the identification of sources for applicants.
Talent Management and Leadership
Defines talent management as a mission critical process that ensures organizations have the quantity and quality of people in place to meet their current and future business priorities. The process covers all key aspects of an employee’s “life cycle:” selection, development, succession and performance management.

Performance Appraisal System
The process by which a manager or consultant examines and evaluates an employee’s work behavior by comparing it with preset standards, documents the results of the comparison, and uses the results to provide feedback to the employee to show where improvements are needed.

A function of human resource management concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including “human resource development”, and “learning and development”.
Employee Development Activities
Encouraging employees to acquire new or advanced skills, knowledge, and viewpoints, by providing learning and training facilities, and avenues where such new ideas can be applied.
Compensation Package
Sum of direct benefits (such as salary, allowances, bonus, and commission) and indirect benefits (such as insurance, pension plans, vacations) that an employee receives from an employer.

Employee Benefits
In general, indirect and non-cash compensation paid to an employee. Some benefits are mandated by law (such as social security, unemployment compensation, and workers compensation), others vary from firm to firm or industry (such as health insurance, life insurance, medical plan, paid vacation, pension, and gratuity).

Communication System
A process by which activities of a society are collected and coordinated to reach the goals of both individuals and the collective group. It is a subfield of general communications studies and is often a component to effective management in a workplace environment.

The process of working collaboratively with a group of people in order to achieve a goal.

Employee Relation
Communications between management and employees concerning workplace decisions, grievances, conflicts, problem resolutions, unions, and issues of collective bargaining.

Job Satisfaction
Contentment (or lack of it) arising out of interplay of employee’s positive and negative feelings toward his or her work.

Use of Technology
The purposeful application of information in the design, production, and utilization of goods and services, and in the organization of human activities.