2. Understand how to involve learners and others in the assessment process
2.1 Explain why it is important to involve learners and others in the assessment process.
By arranging one to one discussions with students they will get a better understanding of the learning outcomes and on the other hand you as a teacher will understand what to modify in your teaching technique to fully fulfil the needs of the learners.
Giving the students opportunity to provide feedback to the teacher will increase their motivation and involvement as well.
Encouraging students to reflect on their Weaknesses, Aspirations, Interests, and Needs (SWAIN) in learning journals will help them measure their progress and achievements in relation to the assessment criteria.
Involving learners in the assessment process will also provide transparency, which means that the learner will understand the actual criteria, or standard, and how the assessment decisions are made. Once the learner is able to understand the assessment requirements, they can suggest and contribute in to planning the assessment: this will enhance student’s engagement and motivation even more. Learners will also have a greater confidence in the assessment method and the teacher’s judgment. Last but not least involving the student in the assessment allows learning through the process of re-examining their own work.
Other professional are involved as well in the assessment process to ensure quality and standards are met.
2.2 Explain the role and use of peer and self-assessment in the assessment process.
One of the key requirements to achieve efficient Self and Peer Assessment is that a safe and collaborative classroom environment is made available: learners need to feel safe to both give and receive feedback.
Self and Peer Assessment will enhance students motivation and active engagement with their studies, increase the amount of feedback students receive, augment learning as peer feedback invariably requires explanation and justification. Research has shown that learners make more progress when they are actively involved in their own learning and assessment.
It is important to ensure that ground rules are set and clear instructions are given when peer assessing (in example to ensure constructive feedback peer assessments could follow a set structure, which will note strengths as well as areas needing improvement).
Peer assessment could be achieved by verbal feedbacks, group discussions or anonymous written feedback: it does refer to a specific criteria and it can lead to a better self-assessment.
Self assessment could be achieved by learning journals and by assigning a grade (or percentage) to their own work. It is also very important that you help students identifying their own areas of improvement.
The focus is on providing opportunities for learners to be able to identify what constitutes a good piece of work rather than actually generating their own grades.
2.3 Identify sources of information that should be made available to learners and others involved in the assessment process.
The reason assessment takes place is the first thing that should be available to learners and those involved in the assessment process. Learners need also to know how they are progressing and what they have to do to be able to meet the course requirements.
Assessment criteria and standards are important to know for learners to be able to work towards meeting them and gaining the qualification/award/certificate.
Learners should be informed of the deadline as well so that they will know how long they have to complete the assigned tasks: this will help tasks not to be left until the last minute which could affect the standards of the work. Learners need to be also informed regarding to any assessments policies and the appeal process.
At times students or others(quality assurance, auditors) will need to access to documents: progress records, achievement records, completed work-books and feedback records. When dealing with confidential documents it is important to treat these as per the organizations confidentiality policy and data protection procedures.
In order that learners can achieve the final outcome it is important to give full co-operation whenever a request for data or for any source of information is made.
3. Understand the role and use of constructive feedback in the assessment process
3.1 Describe key features of constructive feedback.
It is your responsibility as a teacher to be respectful, fair, honest and non judgmental with all learners and to promote a positive environment. In order to be constructive, feedback must refer to VACSR model (Valid, Authentic, Current, Sufficient, Reliable) and SMART model (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound).
Constructive feedback should be: individual, timely delivered, performance specific, supportive, relevant, informative, accurate and understandable. It should highlight and strengthen good performance, delineate poor performance, provide remedial action plans and involve two parties; a two-way process improves the communication between teacher and learner, promotes discussion, so clarifying any unclear points and giving chance for negotiating goals and actions.
When giving feedback it is important to use the learner’s name as this make the feedback more personal.
It is very important to watch your own and the learner’s body language: when you are giving verbal feedback attention should be focused on aspects as movement, facial expression and tone of your voice. Observing the learners will give you an idea as if they have understood or not something (i.e. furrowed brow could express confusion).
3.2 Explain how constructive feedback contributes to the assessment process.
“Constructive feedback creates opportunities for clarification and discussion, and emphasises progress rather than failure. It helps improve confidence and motivation, and identifies further learning opportunities.” (Gravells, 2014)
When feedback is given in a constructive way learners are enabled to know what progress they have made, which requirements they have achieved, and any action that may be required. By ensuring everyone is aware of what has been achieved, and what might still need to be done, constructive feedback contributes to the assessment process.
Feedback (formal or informal) should always be delivered in a way that leaves students motivated and encouraged. Constructive feedback creates opportunities for building students confidence and motivation changing the way they might feel about the assessment process. It does help identify areas of improvement and creates focus on learning outcomes and objectives.
By asking first your learner how they feel they have done you give them a chance of telling themselves what mistakes they have done, providing they have realised they made them.
When giving constructive feedback it is important to be specific on what was accomplished, what can be still improved and to set goals. Always remember to allow your students to comment on the feedback received.
3.3 Explain ways to give constructive feedback to learners.
“Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative”. (Hattie, 1987)
Feedback could be given formally (in writing) or informally (verbally), should always go beyond a quick comment (i.e. well done). For feedback in order to be constructive it should include specific facts which relate to progress or to what to do to achieve progress.
Rather than being evaluative, feedback should be descriptive: learners have opportunities to make adjustments and improvements if you tell them what they have done, how they met the requirements and what they can actually do to improve further.
Feedback should never be just an evaluative statement like “well done, that’s great” as this doesn’t tell your learners what was well done.
To help deliver constructive feedback, different structure models have been developed:
Medal and Mission – Medal is information about what the learner has done well; Mission is information on about what the learner need to improve or correct. Clear goals needs to be given in relation to this approach to feedback.
Praise sandwich – Model developed to reduce any unpleasantness when giving someone negative feedback. This is done by praising the individual, then stating the criticism and ending with some compliments.
4. Understand the requirements for keeping records of assessment in education and training.
4.1 Explain the need to keep records of assessment of learning.
As you need to show an audit trail of your learners progress from start to completion, a record of the assessments must to be kept.
There are many reasons for keeping records of assessments and these can be summarized in three main categories:
– For quality assurance (internal or from external regulators or awarding bodies)
– For students benefit (he can examine progress made through recorded evidence, request a duplicate in case of loss)
– For tutors benefit (to examine students progress from start to finish throughout the course or in case of a student’s appeals an assessment)
Teachers and trainers are also able to monitor the learners progress, to set or review the Individual Learning Plan and to have a clear vision of what the group has achieved. The progress achieved by the learners is recorded in what is called RARPA (recognising and recording programme and achievement).
Records are kept usually for three years (or as per the requirement of the awarding body) in case they are needed. Records must be kept in a manner to maintain confidentiality and to follow relevant legislation (for example Data Protection Act 2018).
“Keeping full and accurate factual records is also necessary in case a learner appeals against an assessment decision or a dispute occurs” (Gravells, 2014).
4.2 Summarise the requirements for keeping records of assessment in an organisation.
Record of quality assurance help ensure the assessment process is fair, consistent, and reliable. A record of appeals, assessment policies, achievements statistics and progression data can prove what assessment activities have taken place and what have been achieved by individual learners.
Working in health & safety training we must adhere to the requirements set by the different awarding bodies (for example Opito, Irata, GWO and Ipaf). External quality auditors will visit organizations: they will need to see records of assessment and internal quality assurance activities. This is to ensure requirements are met and that assessment decisions have been made accurately and fairly.
When necessary risk assessments should be carried out as for the Health and Safety at work Act
(1974): these needs to be recorded as well in case there is an investigation by Health and Safety Executive (this can happen in case of a serious accident).
Records must be up to date, clear, factual, legible, accurate and need to be backed-up to prevent loss.
When recording information you must always follow the Confidentiality Policy set by your organisation, Data Protection Act 2018 and Freedom of Information Act (2000).