Logistics techniques represents in different forms and activities, such as Supply Chain Management, Reverse Logistics, Maritime Logistics, Land Logistics, Air Freight Logistics, and Express Delivery. Each of them affects the environment and activities hugely. For example, the Supply Chain Management minimizes the cost of goods production and stock. Reverse Logistics is a concept of sustainability development and a benefit to environment protection, which promotes the service quality for retailers, maximizes the resource usage. The selection of transportation methods affects the results of logistics activities dramatically. Only through a properly developed transport plan could minimize logistics costs for industries and simultaneously satisfy the requirements of customers. Additionally, a successfulfflogistics task still needs to consider the other factors, such as the goods characteristics, transport costs, travel time and availability. For instance, faster delivery results in higher transport fees but reduces the stock costs. On the other hand, slower conveyance method, might reduce transport cost but the delay punishment is far more expensive. In addition, a successful transport plan needs to balance both goods characters and total costs management.
The main techniques that have been involved in City Logistics are: Cooperative freight systems; Freight villages (terminals); Controlling transport load factors; New freight transport systems; Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS).
Transportation systems The transportation system occupies the greatest and most important proportion in logistics systems and activities. Without well-operated transportation systems, logistics could not bring its advantages into full play. That is to say, saving the cost from transportation could decrease the total costs and then improve the competitiveness hugely. The requirement of transportation system is in transition from reliable delivery to time and quality concerns, which include shorter travel time, pick-up/delivery within a particular time window and service quality. However, as the growing population and vehicles ownerships, the traffic condition is getting worse in most cities. Some logistics concepts, such as city logistics, could help to improve transport systems, and meanwhile the improved transport systems could benefit in saving of logistics costs. The cooperation of transportation and logistics brings the win-win situation for their further development
further developments Facing the worldwide competition, the improvement of logistics system should be advanced by both private companies and government. The government leads the research and the main direction of logistics system, and meanwhile the private industries optimise their internal logistics system. The trends of future logistics development are as the following: Government participation; Promotion of service quality and efficiency; Involvement with new facilities and techniques (RFID); Cooperation between companies and channels; Logistics specialization. The Role of Transportation in Logistics –