AWARENESS ABOUT VULNERABLE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION
Issue : Awareness about vulnerable effects of Air pollution on human being in Delhi, India
“Air pollution refers to the condition in which the existence of toxic substances in the atmosphere, generated by various human activities and natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, results in damaging effects on the welfare of human beings and the living environment” (Omasa 2002). As stated above that air pollution occurs by different kind of activities which could not be easily resolve.According to the World Health Organization (WHO), outdoor air pollution is classified into four main categories: particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Additionally, air pollution is further divided into primary and secondary pollutants. Primary pollutants are released directly into the atmosphere from a source, where secondary pollutants occur as a result of complex chemical reactions taking place from two pollutants reacting with each other (Kibble and Harrison 2005).
Airborne pollutants include acidifying compounds, greenhouse gases, substances that deplete ozone, substances that cause eutrophication, heavy metals, particles, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and radioactive substances. Air quality is defined by the amount of the different compounds in the air. (Hill, 2004)
Air pollution in India is a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. India is the world’s largest consumer of fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass for energy purposes. Traditional fuel (fuelwood, crop residue and dung cake) dominates domestic energy use in rural India and accounts for about 90% of the total. In urban areas, this traditional fuel constitutes about 24% of the total. Fuel wood, agriculture waste and biomass cake burning releases over 165 million tonnes of combustion products into India’s indoor and outdoor air every year. Vehicle emissions are another source of air pollution. Vehicle emissions are worsened by fuel adulteration and poor fuel combustion efficiencies from traffic congestion and low density of quality, high speed road network per 1000 people.
Goals and Objectives
Long term goal :
expand air quality monitoring network
conduct studies which measure the health impact of air pollution
set up air information systems
conduct bigger awareness campaigns.
Plantation of saplings
overall aim of the proposed implementation plan is to aware public and curb air pollution by formulating different measures and policies to maintain high air quality to preserve the healthy and pleasant residential environments and viable natural eco-system.
Bring about all round improvement in the quality of the environment in the State by effective implementation of the laws.
Control of pollution at source to the maximum extent possible with due regard to technological achievement and economic viability as well as sensitivity of the receiving environment. This objective is being fulfilled through laying down the disposal standards as well as gaseous emission standards.
Identifications of sites and development of procedures and methods for the max reuse, recycle and then disposal of hazardous wastes.
Minimisation of adverse effect of pollution by selecting suitable locations for the establishment of new industrial projects/estate.
Close co-ordination and rapport with educational institutions, non government organisations, Industries Associations, Government organisations, etc. to create environmental awareness and make ready the work force of tomorrow to handle the environmental load is the right manner.
Expanding the knowledge base about impacts of air pollution on health;
Monitoring and reporting on health trends and progress towards the air pollution-related targets of the Sustainable Development Goals;
Leveraging the health sector to raise awareness of health benefits from air pollution reduction measures;
Enhancing the health sector’s capacity to work with other sectors and at all levels – local, national, regional and global – to help address the adverse health effects of air pollution through training, guidelines and national action plans.
Communication strategies :
Presentation of complete and accurate pictures of problem in terms of that public can understand and use.
Current information on air pollution through mass media is effective way to education.
Issuing press release, holding press conference, sponsoring and participating in public meetings.
Publication of meaningful reports containing both factual information and interpretation of facts.
Involve the public. Invite input from the regulated community and others, including the general public when developing the control strategy. This early consultation reduces later challenges and can help streamline implementation.
Other strategies :
Emission Standards notified for Industries Vehicles (in-use; new), Gensets, etc.
Fuel quality improvements. (Coal, gasoline ; diesel).
Relocation of polluting industries, phasing out older polluting vehicles, introduction of mass rapid transportation, etc.
Road map for control of emissions from new and in-use vehicles
Use of Alternate fuel (CNG,LPG,Ethanol petrol, Bio-diesel, Hydrogen,etc.)
Controlling pollution at source.
Tackling of the polluted areas.
Establishing targets for renewable energy’s contribution to national energy.
Cleaner technologies for most polluting industries and sensors for industrial emission sources.
Expansion of use of clean cooking stoves.
Introduction of mass public transportation that is affordable and accessible.
Import duty for second vehicles.
Taxation on older vehicles.
Citizens in urban areas : Town occupants, Motorists and Public transport, Sporting people, Tourists, School children, Employees of industry companies, Shop owners.
People sensitive to air pollution : Elderly people, Parent’s of toddlers , baby’s and small children, Asthmatics, Patient association groups, Allergic people, cardiac patient.
Doctors / Health staff : General practitioner, Specialists, Public health service.
NGO’s : Consumer organization, Environmental groups, Scientist research institution, Consulting companies
Journalist / Media : National / Regional newspapers, Technical and medical journals, Target group-specific papers
Government / Decision makers : City council, R ; D institutions, Ministry of environment.
Age range : Children, Teenagers , Youngster, Elder people
Gender : All
Ethnic / Cultural Background : All
Occupation : Delhi pollution control committee, Central pollution control board, Quality control, WHO.
Where they live and work : Lives in Delhi and Works in Government offices, research and development department, Multinational companies, Quality control department.
Illiterate community doesn’t have knowledge regarding pollution or from which pollution is being spread.
Less development of mass media which is barrier for lack of information and its structure.
Not familiar with Global warming or Ozone depletion which would be occur due to air pollution.
Advertising campaigns across all media (TV, Print, Radio, In-cinema ads)
Theater & Street Plays
Events to prevent air pollution (Marathons, Concerts etc.)
On-ground awareness drives at Schools, Colleges, Corporate offices, Clubs etc.
Paintings and carvings
Holding environment day
” Go green to keep it clean”
Use the power of social network : issue can be endorse by famous celebrities or sport person.
Dispose of trash properly and Compost yard trainings
Use environment friendly products
Encourage purchase for recycled product
Organize function for giving rewards to community for their best activities towards cleanliness of street or area.
Public transportation free for twice within a week
Stages of behaviour change
Pre contemplation – not ready for change
Require 80,000 INR for brochure, pamphlets, catalogues, posters, media, celebrities, advertisements, workshops, seminars, documentary films, complimentary gifts etc.
2 year deadline for completion of awareness program in different streets and area of Delhi and educate community about importance of environment as well as harmfull impacts on health.
Science students : Easily educate them and help in campaign.
Science faculties : Easily understand roots and cause of awareness program and help others too.
Administrators of MNCs and Government companies : knowledge of how to manage the program and funding
Food and drug inspectors : Spread information about proper dispose of garbage or others items. Delhi pollution control committee :Aware and help public to stay free from pollution.
Central pollution control board : provide funding and subsidies to state for program.
A strong climate change agreement is a strong health agreement
Mitigating climate change can bring large and immediate benefits for health, and for the economy – climate change and human
“Don’t let our future Go up in smoke”
“Be fair Don’t pollute the air”
“Forming pollution is easy, but resolving the impact of it’s difficult”
“Green revolution The best solution to Arrest solution”
“Pollution destroys human population”
“Love is in the air but the air is highly polluted”
Air pollution affects 100% of the population from unborn babies to the very elderly.
A large proportion of Delhi’s population live in areas with unhealthy outdoor air.
Recent studies on childhood asthma have shown that the benefits of clean air have been underestimated in the past.
Short term increase in air pollution increase respiratory symptoms.
In the long term, air pollution can reduce life expectancy, affect lung development, increase asthma and lead to other lung and heart diseases.
Urgent action is needed to reduce air pollution levels in Delhi.
Use Public Transportation
Do Regular Car Check Up
Buy Energy Efficient Vehicles
Consider “going green”
Use Low-VOC or Water-based Paints
Make use of Solar Energy
Use a EPA Certified Woodstove
Always Use Recyclable Products
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Buy Items Made From Recycled Materials
Educate Your Companions
1.Crop Stubble Burning, Monitoring and interstate coordination : – Coordinated action to combat stubble burning in Punjab, Haryana and U.P.
– In collaboration with Secretary (DARE), Secretary (Agriculture) and Secretary (RD) implement roll out of the agreed plan for managing crop stubble.
– In collaboration with the Chief Secretaries of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh – monitor agreed enforcement will measure to reduce crop stubble burning.
– In collaboration with Department of Science & Technology – ensure that independent data on crop stubble burning is available in real time.
2. Pollution monitoring and source attribution: – In collaboration with Delhi Pollution Control Committee, ensure that Delhi/ NCR has an adequate network of air quality monitoring stations.
– Commission and validate source attribution studies for the National Capital Region (annually).
– Set up an anti-Pollution Help-Line in NCR Districts to register complaints of specific violations. A pollution app should also be prepared wherein citizens can take a picture of the violation and upload it for quick remedial action.
3. Reducing Pollution from Power Plants and other polluting industries : – NOx curtailment measures in all power plants in NCR region in a time bound manner by NTPC and other operators.
– MoEF to develop a Dashboard of all the Red Category polluting units in NCR.
Each of these units to install a certified pollution meter within their premises.
– Strict action should be taken regarding brick kilns operating in NCR especially in areas like Bagpat (UP), Jhajjar (Haryana) without environmental clearance.
– Enforce all brick-kilns to migrate to Zig- zag technology.
State and Municipal actions required to reduce air pollution.
4. Solid Waste Management: – MCDs to increase decentralized processing of bio-degradable waste, to fill the gap between waste collected and processed. DDA should provide full support to this exercise.
– An independent verification mechanism should be set up to check whether 100% solid waste is actually being collected – with specific focus on poor communities such as slums and JJ clusters.
5. Managing and Remediating Sanitary landfills : – Steps must be taken to ensure that there are no fires at sanitary landfills. Municipal Bodies must access special expertise to douse landfill fires.
– Remediation measures for the all three sanitary landfill sites should be initiated in 6 months.
6. Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste: – Large construction Agencies like NBCC and CPWD that are working in the National Capital Region should set up their own facilities for processing C&D waste and reuse the products in their own projects.
7. Mechanized Road Sweeping and managing road dust: – At present, it is reported that about 15% of road sweeping in Delhi is mechanized. This should increase to at least 40% in the next 4 months.
– Delhi PWD, Irrigation Department and MCDs to take up greening or green paving of central verges, roadside berms, sides of drains, etc. over the next one year with monitorable targets.
– Watering roadsides (pavement) and parking places by all the Municipal Corporations in Delhi to reduce dust as per agreed schedule.
– Ensure SoPs are followed at construction sites in terms of curtaining and sprinkling water to reduce dust.
– Municipal Corporations, UD Department have to implement a strong behaviour change campaign involving Resident Welfare Associations and Market Trader Associations on proper management of solid waste to improve air quality.
8. Improving Public Transport: – Procurement of additional buses and improvement of last mile connectivity.
– Increase number of metro coaches
– Journey Planner app integrating Metro, DIMTS and DTC services
– Integrated ticketing across DTC, Cluster and Metro in six months
– Ensure that non- destined trucks do not enter Delhi. Ensuring compliance of the Toll and Municipal charges for entering of trucks in Delhi.
9. Solid Waste Management in other NCR cities : – The respective Divisional Commissioners will assess the management of Municipal solid waste in their jurisdictions, and, within 15 days, prepare a plan to ensure 100% collection and processing. The plan must have monitorable timelines and an independent verification mechanism.
– Steps will be taken to combat road dust and dust arising from construction activities, broadly following the model set by Delhi.
10. Completion of Eastern and Western Peripheral Expressways within target dates.
11. Encouraging Electric Vehicles and promoting shared and connected mobility : – Policy support to encourage Electric Vehicles, prioritising the use of EVs for public transport and promoting shared and connected mobility.
12. Reducing Congestion: – In collaboration with the traffic police, identify choke points and take up projects to reduce congestion at these points; Similar exercise may be done in respect of Meerut, Rohtak and Gurugram divisions.
FUNCTIONS GOVERNMENT HEALTH OFFICIALS ADMINISTRATORS OF GOVERNMENT AND MNC MEDIA PROFESSORS ACTORS POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
Management R I, A C I C, I I C, I, A
Strategy R, A A C, I C I I R, A
Assessment R A A C C C C, I
Ethics and standards R A R R I I R
Communication I I I R, A R, A R R, C
Planning R, A A C C I, A I I, C
Awareness, education and training I R, A R, A I R R, I
And monitoring R, A A A I I, R
R – RESPONSIBLE
A – ACCOUNTABLE
C – CONSULTED
I – INFORMED
The Central Pollution Control Board has instituted the National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP). Under NAMP, three air pollutants viz., Sulphur Dioxide (SO2 ), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Particulate Matter size equal to or less than 10 micron (PM10), have been identified for regular monitoring at all the locations.
Monitoring system observing ambient air quality and historical trends with emphasis on peak value.
Dispersion and transformation process , driven by emissions, meterology and local topography, that translate emissions into the ambient concentration represented by air quality simulation models.
Impact assessment, which translates the ambient concentration into costs in a general sense. (e.g. public health and environmental damage)
Simple passive sampling techniques and highly sophisticated remote sensing device both are for varying pollutants measurements.
Air quality monitoring for extent of pollution.
Environment : factors such as equipment locations, ambient air quality conditions, adequate utilities , legal requirements, noise levels and the contribution of the control system as a pollutant
Engineering : factors such as contaminants characteristics, gas stream characteristics, performance characteristics of control system
Economic : factors such as capital cost, operating costs, equipment maintenance, lifetime of equipment
The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution. The already existing measures need to be strengthened and magnified to a larger scale. The governmental efforts alone are not enough. Participation of the community is crucial in order to make a palpable effect in the reduction of pollution. The use of public transport needs to be promoted. More frequent checking of Pollution Under Control Certificates needs to be undertaken by the civic authorities to ensure that vehicles are emitting gases within permissible norms. People need to be educated to switch-off their vehicles when waiting at traffic intersections. Moreover, the “upstream” factors responsible for pollution also need to be addressed. The ever-increasing influx of migrants can be reduced by developing and creating job opportunities in the peripheral and suburban areas, and thus prevent further congestion of the already-choked capital city of Delhi. Health, as we all know, is an all-pervasive subject, lying not only within the domains of the health department but with all those involved in human development. Therefore, all those who play a role in modifying the environment in any way, for whatever reason, need to contribute to safeguard people’s health by controlling all those factors which affect it.
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