The Chashma Nuclear Power Plant
Khadija Mehboob Dar
Syeda Andaleeb Rehman
Dr. Abid Hussain
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF MECHANICAL & AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
Thursday, July 05, 2018
Chashma Nuclear Power Plant
Khadija Mehboob Dar
Syeda Andaleeb Rehman
A semester project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course of
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF MECHANICAL & AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY TAXILA
5 July 2018
In this report we have studied the Chashma nuclear power plant in detail and have studied the operating units and the units that are under construction. Nuclear energy in Pakistan is basically provided by two power plants KANUPP and Chashma nuclear power plant but in this report, we have done complete case study of Chashma nuclear power plant. First, we have briefly discussed the history of power plant that what were the reasons that led to the inauguration As well as development and formation of Chashma nuclear power plant. Then we have discussed the basic working of nuclear power plant and then specifically of Chashma nuclear power plant and also, we have discussed the working and specifications of each operating units of power plants and energy they are adding to national grid. In the final chapter we have discussed the fuel cycle of nuclear power plant as well as the environmental and social impacts of nuclear power plant on environment and surroundings. All this information is supported by figures and tables making our arguments strong..Chashma nuclear power plant is basically operated by Pakistan Atomic energy commission and Pakistan nuclear regulatory authority enforces different laws for protection of environment from nuclear waste .Nuclear power is feasible alternative to fossil fuels that are currently used for the production of electricity and can meet the challenges of energy shortage currently with which Pakistan is dealing and their role in minimizing energy shortage cannot be neglected. Despite the International pressure on its nuclear assets Pakistan is successfully and steadily moving forward to achieve its target that is production of almost eighty eight hundered MW by the year 2030 However Pakistan has always assured that safety as well as security of environment and population will always be foremost priority of Pakistan nuclear programme
Nuclear power plant
Power producing Units
WE certify that project titled ” Chashma Power Plant” is my/our own work. The work has not been presented elsewhere for assessment. Where material has been used from other sources it has been properly acknowledged / referred.
Khadija Mehboob Dar
Syeda Andaleeb Rehman
This project report was partially supported by Miss Ammara Chaudhary our Senior of mechanical department. We thank our colleagues from National University of Sciences & Technology who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research, although they may not agree with all of the interpretations/conclusions of this paper.
We would also like to show our gratitude to Miss Shehzeen MS student NUST for sharing her precious wisdom with us during the course of this research, and we thank our MS teacher Miss Samina reviewer for her insights. We are also immensely grateful for her comments on an earlier version of the report, although any errors are our own and should not tarnish the reputations of these esteemed persons.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Figures 8
List of Tables 9
Chapter I: Introduction
1.1 History of Chashma Power Plant 11
1.2 Objectives 13
Chapter II: Chashma Power
2.1 Nuclear Energy………………………………………………………15
2.2 Operating units………………………………………………………16
2.3 CHASNUPP-1(C-1) …………………………………………………18
2.4 CHASNUPP-1(C-1) …………………………………………………19
2.5 Chasnupp Centre for nuclear training………………………………20
Chapter III: Human Resource Development
3.1 Pakistan Welding Institute……………………………………………22
3.2 Fuel Cycle………………………………………………………………24
3.3 Safety and Security of Nuclear Power Plants………………………….25
3.4 Population and population density…………………………………….26
3.5 Chashma core radionuclide inventory and possible release…………. 27
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 2.1 Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of Power Plant 16
Fig 2.2: CHASNUPP-1………………………………………………………18
Fig 2.3 Availability of CHUSNUPP-1 .20
Fig 2.4 Availability of CHUSNUPP-2 ….10
Fig 3.1 Open Fuel Cycle ….25
Fig 3.2 Closed Fuel Cycle……………………………………………………..26
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Use and percentage contribution (%) of different types of fuel for electricity
Generation in 2011…………………………………………………………………….16
Table 3.1: Estimated population density of the districts immediately around Chashma…23
Table 3.2: Fractions of total core inventory of some significant isotopes assumed released to atmosphere in the 1975 APS accident study and for Chashma and estimated for the 1986 Chernobyl accident……………………………………………………………………….27
Abbreviations should be placed at the end. Sample is given below:
KANUPP: Karachi Nuclear Power Complex
IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency
PAEC: Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority
PNRA: Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority
ESP: Energy Security Plan
CHASNUPP: Chashma Nuclear Power Complex
PWR: Pressurized Water Reactor
1.1 The Chashma Power Plant:
Nuclear power is producing electricity for public demand and distribution since 1954. On June 27, 1954, the Bornins Nuclear Power Plant becomes the world’s first nuclear power plant to generate electricity successfully produces produced around 5 megawatts of power. The nuclear power plants have been operating in 33 countries. In recent Scenario 30 countries operate 435 reactors, with a total capacity of 370 GW(e). A further total of 62 units, total of 59.2 GW(e), are constructing and is basically under construction so in 2011, nuclear power produced 2517 billion kWh amount of electricity. The industry now has more than 14700 reactor-years of experience. Nuclear energy basically produced 12.3 % of total energy in 2011 and 5.1 % of total primary energy. In 2011, the highest share of nuclear generated electricity was 25.7% in Western Europe. The Table 1 basically depicts different technologies that are used for production of electricity. And west totally west shares were 1.8% Nuclear power share has basically declined as it can be seen from results. Table 1 also shows the percentage contribution of generated electricity by different means in different countries. Pakistan produces most of its power from fossil fuels and trend is the same for rest of country
Pakistan had a total power and energy production capability of 21,000 MWh in 2011.The range was about 14000 to 16000 during year because of shortage of fuel and season of hydropower. The demand for power in Pakistan is basically growing at a per annual rate of eight percent. According to World Power energy statics for year two thousand eleven, researched and published by renown institution of (IEA), Pakistan per annual and per capita energy consumption is of one sixth of total world average electricity consumption that is per capita is basically is 2370 KW hours compared to Pakistan’s per capita and annual electricity consumption of four fifty-one-kilowatt hour. 40% of Pakistanis still have no electricity to use
In the year 2005, the Planning Commission of Pakistan collaborated with (PAEC) to formulate the (ESP) that is energy security plan. This plan accommodates, and addresses increasing demand of electricity and predicts future projects and steps that would be needed to meet those challenges. It mentions in its plan that in order to produce about 162590 Megawatt electron of energy by 2030 and out of this 8800 Megawatt electron of energy will be produced by nuclear power plants .Nuclear energy in Pakistan is basically produced by three power plants that are KANUPP,CHASNUPP-1 and CHASNUPP-2 that are basically licensed .The Pakistan atomic energy commission is basically running these power plants and Pakistan regularity authority formulates the rules, code of conducts and enforces these laws to assure safety and practices nuclear safety as well as protection from harmful radiations and emissions that are mandatory for the protection of humans as well as for other species. Pakistan is basically one of very few countries who initiated this technology of nuclear energy for production of electricity The KANUPP project was initiated somewhere in middle of 1967 and this project was completed in 1971. It basically was connected to national power grid of Pakistan on 18 October 1972 and thus it started working and Pakistan has an agreement with China that China is responsible for supplying fuel and other support to power plants. International Atomic energy is fully supporting Pakistan atomic energy commission as well as World association of nuclear operator is also supporting Pakistan in this regard for production of electricity from nuclear resources. Nuclear power plants in Pakistan are basically operating under Safeguard and protection rights exercised by Pakistan Atomic energy association.
The objectives of this project are as follows:
• To get complete information of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant
• Get to know the proper and complete working of Power Plant.
• To get to know complete information about power production capacity and capabaility of power plant its efficiency as well other very important parameter and functionality of power plant
• To gain knowledge about social and environmental effects of Chashma nuclear power plants
• To study the operating units of Chashma Power plants that are working and are also those units that are under construction
OPERATIOANL CHASHMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS:
2.1 Nuclear Energy:
Nuclear power was proclaimed in Pakistan in 1971 when KANUPP with 137 MW gross capacity was specially made. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) later erected its second nuclear power plant, CHASNUPP-1, with Chinese aid and having a gross capability of 325 MW. The current installed capability of nuclear power plants is 425 MW and represents only a small portion of the electricity created in the country. The work on CHASNUPP-2, a replica of CHASNUPP-1, is in development. The project will charge around US$ 900 million. The operations of CHASNUPP-2, like CHASNUPP-1, will be reliant on on the fuel supplied by China. This will further rise the country’s dependency on foreign fuel sources. Nuclear power plants incline to be capital-intensive and have long development periods. There are many security and safety fears attached to nuclear power plants in Pakistan. Due to limitations on the supply of nuclear knowhow to Pakistan by western countries, the reactor pressure vessel, coolant pumps and control system and other key systems of CHASNUPP1 were erected in China. The lack of involvement with setting safety requirements for such components and class control during manufacturing has increased the risk of structural failures and equipment failure. This risk has been compounded by the institutional experience of the PAEC which is restricted to one power reactor that is among the poorest-performing power reactors in the world. For the period 1989-1996, KANUPP’s capability factor, the ratio of electricity truly fed to the grid in a given time to what could have been produced in that time if the plant had operated at its intended power, was only 34 %. It has been shut down on average 1,243 hours (almost 52 days) each year during 1972-1997 because of equipment malfunctioning, and 83 hours (almost three and a half days) each year during the same period because of human error IAEA, 1998. In its Energy Security Action Plan (ESAP) the government plans to increase nuclear power capacity by another 8400 MW by 2025, which is a large increase in nuclear power production capacity. Seeing the country’s poor past record in nuclear power production, great capital investment, and high threat, partial access to western technology and accessibility of vast unmapped coal assets, nuclear energy may not be an suitable investment to meet future energy needs.
2.2 Operating Units:
By building a reactor at Chashma PAEC has expected that it has correctly understood the risks at the site and appropriately judged them to be acceptable. However, the probability that an earthquake may cause an chance at the reactor is also affected by the design of the particular nuclear power plant and the consistency of the components that have gone into it. There are queries about both. Chashma is a pressurised water reactor (PWR), a design initially developed in the mid-1950s by the Westinghouse Corporation from a reactor it had made to power submarines for the US navy. It is now the most public type of nuclear power plant around the world.90 In a pressurised water reactor,91 there is a core containing fuel made from Uranium which has been supplemented so that it has a few percent of the isotope Uranium-235, in its place of the 0.7% that occurs in nature. At Chashma, there are 36 tons of this fuel in the core, which has been supplemented to contain 3.4% Uranium-235; the core itself is about 3 m tall and 2.5 m across. The Uranium-235 endures fission; the nuclei of the atoms break into remains, that are themselves the nuclei of other, different, atoms along with neutrons and gamma radiation. The energy of the pieces becomes heat. To rise the chance of one of the neutrons that are created striking with alternative Uranium nucleus and encouraging another fission so generating further neutrons, the neutrons are slowed down by passing them through a moderator — which in a PWR is water. Chashma contains 57 tons of moderator. In a PWR, the water also helps another role. The temperature of the fuel extents hundreds of degrees centigrade, and this heat is aloof by pumping elevated pressure water as a coolant through the core- in this process the water is excited to about 300 degrees centigrade. The water is kept at very high pressure to avert it from boiling. To sustain the high pressure, the core is put inside a massive steel pressure container through which this water is unceasingly pumped. There are two big primary coolant pumps, which pump 24,000 tons of water per hour into the pressure container and through the core, at a pressure of 155 kg/sq. cm. This hot, extraordinary pressure water is dispersed through a chains of pipes in a steam generator, where it heats up water adjoining these pipes to yield steam in a distinct lower pressure water circuit. By giving up some of its heat to make the steam, the high pressure water chills and is then pumped back to the core. This cycle is the “primary system.”
2.2.1 Unit 1
The 325 MW unit 1 (CHASNUPP-I) is a pressurized water reactor that began marketable operation in May 2000. It is an CNP-300 nuclear reactor design like the other 3 units in the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant, and the initial Chinese export of a nuclear power plant.
2.2.2 Unit 2
The 325 MW unit 2, (CHASNUPP-II) is like CHASNUPP-I. Unit 2 was officially inaugurated on 10 May 2011 by previous Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani.
2.2.3 Unit 3
On 28 April 2009 a general engineering and project contract for CHASNUPP-3 and CHASNUPP-4 was sign up with Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI). The units will together have generation capability of 340 MW and a design life of 40 years.On 6 March 2013 the arena of the third reactor was raised into place.
The 340 MW Unit 3 (CHASNUPP-3) was officially initiated on 28 December 2016 by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
2.2.4 Unit 4
CHASHNUPP-4 has been associated to national grid on 29 June, 2017 . Formal induction is to be held on 08 September, 2017 by Prime Minister of Pakistan, Shahid Khaqan Abbasi.
The reactor type is also CNP-300.
2.2.5 Unit 5
On March 2013, Pakistan and China decided to build a fifth unit (CHASNUPP-5). It will be an ACP-1000. China National Nuclear Corporation and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission had contracted a collaboration agreement for the construction of a 1,100 MW ACP1000 (Hualong One) nuclear reactor at the Chashma nuclear power plant in Punjab province in Pakistan.
Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of Power Plant
2.3 CHASNUPP-1 (C-1)
CHASNUPP-1 is located at Chashma site in the Punjab Province. The place is located in the south of Mianwali, near the Chashma Barrage, and on the left bank of the Indus River. The CHASNUPP-1 is a single-unit using between 2.4-3 percent low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The unit is of 300 MWe and comprises a two loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) furnished by China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). The nuclear island and conformist island of the plant utilizes proven design, similar to that of the Qingshan Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP) in China. The systems and the major equipment of the nuclear island, including the NSSS, are designed by Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI), and the system of the conventional island is designed by East China Electric Power Design Institute (ECEPDI). The schematic diagram of CHASNUPP-1 is shown in
Figure 2: CHASNUPP-1
Manufacture of plant initiated in 1993 and was made operational in year 2000. Since then it has gone eight fuel changes. Availability factor and capacity factor of CHASNUPP-1 are offered in Figures 3 and 4, respectively. The life time obtainability and capacity factor are 75.2 % and 71.7 % respectively.
Health physics personnel regularly monitor the discharges of C-1 and examine them to confirm that they remain under the limits defined in the plant’s technical conditions. Gaseous waste treatment Radiation exposure of all plant workers were establish well below the prescribed at regulatory bounds. Doses to all workers endured below 1 mSv while maximum quantity received by a worker was 0.67 mSv. Monthly ambient radiation levels at C-1 are monitored unceasingly and associated with the natural background of surrounding cities. Radiation level was found to be generally at the same level as the natural background in the surrounding cities.
Figure 3:Availability of CHUSNUPP-1
Figure 4: Capacity Factor of CHUSNUPP-1
2.4 CHASNUPP-2 (C-2)
CHASNUPP-2 is located at Chashma spot in the Punjab Province. The place is located in the south of Mianwali, near the Chashma Barrage and on the left bank of the Indus River. The site is situated next to CHASNUPP-1, which has been laid into commercial operation since the mid of 2000. The CHASNUPP-2 is a single-unit plant. The unit is of 300 MWe and consist of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) furnished by China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). The nuclear island and conformist island of the plant use proven design, similar to that of CHASNUPP-1. The engineering and the main equipment of the nuclear island, comprising the NSSS, are designed by Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI), and the engineering of the conventional island is designed by East China Electric Power Design Institute (ECEPDI). The nuclear steam supply system is designed for a power output of 1002 MWt which includes 3.4 MWt from the reactor coolant pumps. The equivalent gross electric supply of the turbine generator is 325 MWe and the net output of the plant is around 300 MWe. The reactor containment is made of pre-stressed covered concrete structure in the shape of a vertical cylinder with a tori spherical dome and a flat base. The interior surface of the containment structure is covered completely by a leak-proof steel liner. CHASNUPP-2 was linked to national grid in May 2011. The life time accessibility and capacity factor are 87.7 % and 84.2 %, respectively.
2.4.1 Other Chashma Nuclear Power Plants:
Construction of a third nuclear power reactor at Pakistan’s Chashma site officially initiated on 5 August 2010. The Chashma Nuclear Power Plant unit 3 (CHASNUPP-3), is a a 340 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) being made by China. It is initiated commercial operation in December 2016. The construction of CHASNUPP-4, another 340 MWe PWR, begun in April 2011. The commercial operation of C-4 was be in October 2017. IAEA safeguards approval was obtained on 8 March 2011 for C-3 and C-4. The main construction contract for units 3 and 4, a project costing some $2.37 billion was signed in June 2010 by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and Shanghai.
2.5 Chasnupp Center for Nuclear Training (CHASCENT) at Chashma:
CHASCENT was established in 1996 and has been making trained human resource for CHASHMA Nuclear Power Plants as well as for other administrations of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) . More than 120 Engineers/Scientists and 429 Technicians have been skilled so far in Nuclear Power Plant Technology. CHASCENT is located head-to-head to Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP) at Chashma 32 km from Mianwali in Punjab province. Important program are:
• Post-Graduate and Post-Diploma programs
• Training for certifying of PWR Operations Shift Supervisors using a full range training simulator.
Human Resource Development
Accomplishment of nuclear power all-inclusive is mainly reliant on nominal examination and improvement program to certify the harmless process of NPPs. Such investigation has led to progress strategies and harmless and further trustworthy plant processes. Likewise, security investigation carried out by supervisory establishments has subsidized to enhanced protection and has set the grounds for accomplishments such as danger-informed parameter, plant lifespan extension, enhanced plant performance and innovative plant designs. Human Resource Development (HRD) Platform of PAEC happened with a trivial crew with post-graduate qualification who were skilled in Canada for the very first nuclear power plant (KANUPP). Now PAEC has training hubs to progress manpower in the several chastisements of nuclear power technology.
3.1 Pakistan Welding Institute (PWI) at Islamabad
The Pakistan Welding Institute is an organization especially dedicated to upholding and support of distinction in Welding Technology. PWI offers industry with technical maintenance through assistance ; information as well training and development consultancy and research. Its facilities and expertise basically provide shield all zones of welding and provide facilities of linking and welding technology and also make use of material engineering for linking metals and nonmetals alike.
3.2 School for nuclear and radiation safety:
The School for the Nuclear and the Radiation Safety was basically established with collaboration of PNRA, in order to train the fresh and newly a appointed officers in the nuclear as well as radiation safety. These courses basically enhanced overall efficiency as well as proficiency of its staff.
3.2 Fuel cycle:
The Atomic Energy Minerals Center which manages Pakistan’s uranium improvement efforts, houses a preliminary scale uranium mill in the Lahore Punjab province. The center was then established in 1961. A uranium milling place is the one that can produce at the most up to 30 MT per year of U3O8 (yellow cake) is located in the Dera Gazi Khan. The Baghalchar uranium mining site is located exactly 50 km the from the mill. Kundian is the site of the fuel fabrication facility which can can process 24 MT of the natural uranium per year. The facility which began operation in the 1979 manufactures fuels for KANUPP. Qabul Khel and Issa Khel mines are also operating with a more capacity of 1T U/year.
The PAEC has set a great target of manufacturing the 350 T U3O8 per year from 2015 to meet the one third of the anticipated necessities then then. Low-grade ore is known in the central Punjab at Bannu Basin and the Suleman Range. Enriched fuel specially for the PWRs is trade in from China. Figures number 5 and 6 give the schematic of nuclear fuel cycle operating in Pakistan. Pakistan have already 235U enrichment plant at Kahuta (capacity 5 T SWU/year), which is not under safeguards IAEA.
Figure:4 Open Fuel Cycle
3.3 Protection and Retreat of Nuclear Power Plants:
Following the chief earthquake in Japan, a 15-metre tsunami disabled badly the power supply and cooling of three Fukushima.The overflowing resulted in the unavailability of the emergency diesel generators that provide electricity for the pumps and the other systems required for the removal of heat from the reactor core. The then off-site powers sources were already badly damaged by the earthquakes and no off-site power was available. There have be located no demises or circumstances of radiation illness from the nuclear accident, but over 100,000 people had to be evacuated from their homes to ensure the safety. has been built in and designed according to a tsunami or an earthquake threat. The tsunami of 1945 which killed in fact more than 4,000 people was reflected during the design process. The tsunami of the 1945 was then generated as a result of an earthquake in Makran and the Gwadar area (about 350 to 400 km from Karachi) which also hits the coastal areas of the Karachi.
3.4 Population Density:
The key parameters in assessing the in large scale the health effects of the cloud of radioactivity that could be released from an accident at the Chashma is the populations density in the affect area.
The provisional results from the 1998 census of Pakistan, which have been disputed, give an official figure for the total population of Pakistan of about 130.5 million.This gives an average national population density of about 164 persons per square kilometer. However, there is massive topographical variation in the population density; the single largest province of Pakistan, Balochistan. Allowing it for this gives an effective population density for the rest of Pakistan of 276 persons per square kilometer. Conditional figures from the 1998 census are only currently available for some of the largest cities and the districts incorporating them.It can be seen that local population density, especially in the Punjab provinces in districts were within 100-300 km of Chashma is typically between 500-600 persons/km2. Provisional poll populations records are notavailable for most of the districts immediately bordering on Chashma. A rough sense of these figures was gained by then using the 1981 population and populations densities for then these districts and scaling them to give estimate populations and populations densities for 1998.
3.5 Chashma core radionuclide inventory and possible release:
It was probable to make that very simple preliminary estimate of then the consequences of a major loss of coolant accident in which the all core melts down, the repressions is ruptured then and a substantial fraction of the radioactive register of that core was unconfined to the atmosphere. The charge of radionuclide release and dispersion, and imaginable health effects will rely on the treatment developed in the 1975 report of the American Physical Society study group on light water receptacle safety.183 This independent study exposed some of the very very conservative assumptions used by the US nuclear in industry in evaluating the consequences of a such an accident. A great number of separation of the products were produced when nuclear reactions that take place. The detailed inventory of these were radionuclides varies depending on reactor design, fuel composition and the burn-up of the fuel. Since there was that composition, enrichment and design burn-up of the Chashma fuel is typical for a PWR, a simple and easy scaling that down of that inventory calculated for a reference 1000 MWe PWR.When an accident occurs, only a fraction that was of the total core inventory of radionuclides is released to the atmosphere. The fractions released varied for different isotopes. The same fractional release is assumed as previously was used in the American Physical Society study. It gives more the core inventory, the fraction assumed as released to the the atmosphere and the total amount of radionuclides presumed released from Chashma.. These radionuclides are then dispersed in the pressure vessel and coolant system and undergo complex condensation behavior on exposed surfaces and on pre-existing aerosols, as well as forming new aerosols, which in turn agglomerate. All these were processes occur in a rapidly changing in the atmosphere that includes vapors and aerosols produced from the heating of the core and other structural materials.There are no accurate models of many of these processes, while experimental data from laboratory experiments is limited and in some of the cases unavailable.186 The only real data on the massive release of radioactivity from a reactor core comes from the terrible accident on 26 April 1986, at the 950 MWe Chernobyl apparatus in Ukraine. This has been the only accident where there was a major fuel meltdown and an hysterical discharge of a large amount of radioactivity to the atmosphere. Examination of the data on deposited radionuclides combined with studies of the core debris and the deposited material within the reactor construction have provided the basis for an assessment of the actual release.187 However, regardless of these measurements and a decade of detailed study, the IAEA’s director of Radiation and the Waste Safety reports that “there is no complete consensus on the amount of radioactive material released by the Chernobyl accident. Rather than compare all 43 radionuclides, it is sufficient to focus on then those which most impact human health. These than are certain isotopes of Iodine, Cesium and Strontium. Iodine is readily absorbed by those the human body after that inhalation or ingestion was and is concentrated in the thyroid, with half lives was of about 30 years.
1 Pakistan’s Chashma Nuclear Power Plant A preliminary study of some safety issues and estimates of the consequences of a severe accident by Zia Mian and A.H. Nayyar 1999
2 Energy-poverty alleviation in Pakistan through use of indigenous energy resources
by Abdul Waheed Bhutto and Sadia Karim
3 Estimation of precursor density of a power reactor using uniform second order sliding
by Safder Hussain and Aamer Iqbal Bhatti