ASSESSMENT COVER PAGE Course Name

ASSESSMENT COVER PAGE
Course Name: Research Methods & Reflective Practice in Education Course Code: EDU 4003
Instructor Name: Dean VanvelzerTask Title: Report on the Preliminary Investigation
Due Date: May 11, 2016 Date Submitted: April, 27, 2017
Student Name: Rowdha Mohammad AshoorStudent ID: H00249144 Section: 1
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This assignment is entirely my own work except where I have duly acknowledged other sources in the text and listed those sources at the end of the assignment. I have not previously submitted this work to the HCT. I understand that I may be orally examined on my submission.

Action Research Report
Title: Using reward system to manage the student behavior
Student Name: Rowdha Mohammad
Student Number: H00249144

Instructor: Dean VanvelzerFor EDU 4003
Table of Contents
Page
1.0 Introduction1
Purpose 1
Rationale1
Research Questions1
Context2
2.0 Literature Review2
3.0 Research Methodology4
Action research 4
Ethical consecration5
Data collection tools 5
4.0 Findings7
Questionnaire 7
Structured observation8
Structured interview 8
5.0 Action Plan9
6.0 References11
7.0 Appendices12
1.0 Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this action research is to study about using reward system to manage the children’s behavior in UAE. This study was about implementing several kinds of reward system in the school to see what is the most effective strategy that can manage the children’s behavior during the school day also, it is about how we can improve the children’s behavior in the classroom.

Rationale
There are many reasons that I choose this study. I chose to talk about using reward system to find the best way to manage the children’s behavior in the UAE’s school especially in primary stage. Managing the children’s behavior is the most important thing in teaching the children in primary stage in the school. However, using reward system is not implementing as that much in the government schools, they don’t focus on using a positive language to manage the children’s behavior on the other hand, they are using punishment more that rewarding. This study is important to support the teachers and give them the right tips of how to use the reward system and the positive language to manage and improve the children’s behavior by giving them the best ways and strategies to use in the UAE government schools.

Research questions
How do teachers in the UAE currently use reward system to manage behavior in primary school?
How can rewards improve student behavior in the UAE?
Context
The research was implemented in a kindergarten government school in the UAE. The school have approximately 300 students and 25 teachers. The school grades are KG1 and KG2. The school is located in Al Rashdeya area in Dubai. The socio-economic status of the area are mixed of high, middle and low income and the school has students of mixed academic abilities.

2.0 Literature review
Many teachers have a hard decision making about using reward system in the classroom. Many educators have a big argue that reward in classroom has a short term for children’s encouragement. On the other hand, most of educators believe that rewarding children in the classroom build a positive classroom learning environment that can control the children’s behavior in the classroom for a long time. “When rewards are used to increase behavior that is incompatible with a particular inappropriate behavior, the child is often conditioned to think that he or she should get something for displaying socially appropriate behavior” Hall,(2009). That’s means that the children need a reward in the classroom to behave in an appropriate way. If they behave well in the classroom they will focus in their learning. “Most traditional behavior management programs have focused on teaching and rewarding appropriate student behaviors that typically occur in the classroom setting” Wheatley, (2009). This means the most way that the teacher used to manage the children’s behavior in the classroom is rewarding. In my view that rewarding system is used from long time to manage the children’s behavior and that system is going well and helping the children to be focused in their classroom although, the behavior will be controlled by the children.

Reward system in the classroom have several definition. One of them is The Praise Note system. According to Wheatley” chosen for this intervention was part of a school-wide effort to decrease problem behaviors and increase incompatible appropriate behaviors in the lunchroom” (2009, P.8). This system used to manage the children’s behavior during the lunch time in the school so, the children can eat their lunch in an appropriate way and respect the place there are in. The Praise Note system have two components: the first one is “providing students and faculty with clear expectations for lunchroom behavior” Wheatley, (2009). An explanation to that point is, this system used to control the children’s behavior in a lunchroom and it have many instructions for the children while they are in there also, they expect a good behavior from the children by applying this system in the school to the children. The second component is” implementing a Praise Note system to reward student behaviors meeting the expectations” Wheatley, (2009). Other definition of reward system is a token system, According to McClurg “They also proposed that use of tokens (as a tangible reward) could be valuable and cost-effective as a reward to shape behavior” (2014, P.3). For example, the using of token system encourage the children to have a positive behavior furthermore, it helps the teachers to shape the children’s behavior in the school.

How can reward system improve the student’s behavior?. There are several ways that children’s behavior can improved by rewarding them. Based on Bear “using praise and rewards wisely and strategically to recognize and acknowledge not only desired behaviors but also the cognitive and emotional processes and dispositions associated with self-discipline,” (2013, P.16). Reward system can motivate the children’s emotions and cognitive skills for example, the children will be focused and work well in the classroom moreover, they will like to go to the school because of positive rewarding. “Motivation, which we define here as the act of increasing the likelihood of desired behaviors, is closely related to reinforcement theory, which involves the use of rewards and punishments to shape behaviors” (McClurg, 2014). An explanation of this point, when the teacher are implemented the reward system for the children they will increase their good behaviors although, it is like reinforce children to motivate in a good way.

Rewarding children have many advantages on the other hand it has several disadvantages. The good outcomes of using the reward system are, children will show interests and higher their participation in the classroom and be focused in their tasks moreover, they will increase their self-confidence (Pros and Cons,2015). On the other hand, overusing reward system will lead the children to addiction so, they will not study without rewarding in the classroom. In addition, instead of understanding what do they took in the lesson, children will focus more on finishing their tasks to win a reward from the teacher. In my opinion, teacher can use rewarding although, overusing it will affect bad on the children’s learning.

3.0 Research Methodology
Action research
Action research is a disciplined process of inquiry conducted by and for those taking the action. The primary reason for engaging in action research is to assist the “actor” in improving and/or refining his or her actions (Ascd. (n.d.). Action research helps educators be more effective at what they care most about—their teaching and the development of their students (Ascd. (n.d.). 4086225226695000For the action research I used the model developed by Geoffrey Mills. This guy guide me to through the action research cycle. The first step was identify the area of focus which was using reward system to manage the student behavior in the UAE. The second step was collecting data, for improving my ideas about the research topic I wrote a literature review. Following that, I collected data by using survey, interviews and observation. Finally, I analyzed the data to develop the area of focus and to give some recommendation that can help me to complete the action research (Mills, G. E. (2018).
Ethical consideration
In the action research study there were some Ethical consideration to complete the report. I was careful to not misrepresent information and not use names and I was provide anonymity, this is important because of privacy and because not all people I took an information from the like to present their names to the others. Also, I tried not to be intrusive in my study and to be free and the school make it easy for us by allowing us to photograph the students and taking videos to help us in our data collection. Lastly, I complete my study in without interrupting the learning of the school and stakeholders. (Appendix 1)
Data collection tools
For my research I used a mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Quantitative research generates numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers such as graphs and tables. Qualitative Research on the other hand generates non-numerical data such as interviews, observations and reflections (Quantitative. (n.d). I used qualitative methods such as interviews and observations to collect my data because I need more detailed answers. Although, I used a survey as a quantitative method to gather an information about the most effective reward system used by teachers in government schools.

(Structured interview)
I used a structured interview as one of the qualitative methods to answer my questions. I used voice memos in the interview. (Appendix 2) and I interviewed three kindergarten teachers from the school. I used three teachers to make the research answers more reliable. There were five interview questions related to the most effective rewarding system used by teacher to manage the student behavior. Lastly, I collect the interviews to see what are the differences and similarities between the teacher’s answers. (Appendix 3)
(Structured Observations)
I used a structured observation as another qualitative method. I used three observation and I focused on the strategies or rewards that the teacher used during the lesson to manage the children’s behavior. The method was used to answer the first question of the research which was how do teachers in the UAE currently use reward system to manage behavior in primary school? (Appendix 4).

(Survey)
I collected quantitative data through a survey. The purpose of the survey is to develop the information about the rewards used by teachers to manage the student behavior in the government schools. I used Google form for the survey, the survey was done online to give me a numerical answers by a pie chart. (Appendix 5)
4.0 Findings
How do teachers in the UAE currently use reward system to manage behavior in primary school?
How can rewards improve student behavior in the UAE?
Questionnaire
After doing a survey for 8 teachers in the kindergarten. I used Google form to do the survey and I talked to the teachers and I’ve explain the survey topic with them then, I sent the survey to them waiting for responses. When I got the responses from the teachers, I figured out that most of teachers are rewarding their students in the classrooms to reduce the negative behaviors. 4448175000Moreover, most of the teachers are using tokens and stickers to reward their students in the classroom and some of them are using a candies and positive notes for rewarding. I found our that most of the teachers are rewarding the students weekly and generally they use it for the whole class. However, I asked the teachers about the negatives of rewarding the children to know their opinions about too much rewards will lead to what. All of the teachers agreed that there are some negavitves for reward system for example teacher A said ” students lose their motivation and interests while waiting for the teacher to reward them”. Other teacher said ” many children will be upset if the teacher didn’t reward them”. Doing a survey is helpful for the writer because it make it easy to us to collect tha data for example , “A broad range of data can be collected (e.g., attitudes, opinions, beliefs, values, behavior, factual)” (Wyse, S.2014). (Appendix 6)
Structured Observation
After observing three teachers, teacher A, B and C. I did this observation to see what reward system the teachers are the teacher using with the children in the classroom to manage their behaviors. I saw that all of the teachers are starting the lesson with reminding the children about the rules of the classroom and using a positive language to encourage the children to behave well and follow the rules. For motivating the children to be focused, teacher A and B were reminding them if they behave well, they will have a sticker. I think this is a good point for managing their behaviors. On the other hand, teacher C used a different strategy to manage the children’s behavior which is behavior chart, she was reminding them of leaving their names in the green space if they behave well, and that worked well with her during the lesson. Observing other teacher is main part of development “it improves teachers’ own self-awareness of their skills and also makes managers more effective at identifying areas for further growth”( Gore, J.2013) . (Appendix 7)
Structured Interview
Participants Teacher A Teacher B
What are your strategies for managing children’s behavior? Well, I like to use many strategies to manage the children but I prefer to use the behavior chart with them because I see that it affect more on their behaviors I don’t use many strategies to manage the children’s behavior, I used to use two strategies with them and they are stickers and time out chair and they are working well with me.

After interview two teachers, teacher A and B, and asking them some questions about rewarding the children in the classroom. I saw that they are using different strategies to manage the children’s behavior in their classrooms. While teacher A is using behavior chart to manage the student’s behavior, teacher B is using stickers and time out chair strategies.

I asked the teacher about what is the most reward that effect on the students, both teachers agreed that the most effective way to manage the children is using a sticker reward with them.
Participants Teacher A Teacher B
What rewards do students desire?
Most of the children are addicted to the stickers, but I don’t like to use with them a stickers rewards because I will have problems with most of them will be upset and crying because they don’t get a sticker. I think that children like to have a stickers all the time, if you want the children to behave good use a stickers with them and they will be a great children
Moreover, both of the teachers agreed that the rewarding the children can improved their behaviors so they will focus on their learning with less misbehavior. In addition teacher B said that there is a negative of using the reward system that can effect on the students, “But I try to not use it all the time so the children will be addicted on them and I will have many problems with them”. It is useful to interview some people who know about your topic to help you in your writing also, interviews “are useful to obtain detailed information about personal feelings, perceptions and opinions and they usually achieve a high response rate” (Machell, M.2006). (Appendix 8)
5.0 Action Plan
Topic and Purpose My topic was on rewards systems to motivate children. The purpose of the study was to learn how I can improve the children’s behavior in the classroom by using a reward system strategy to motivate the children in their learning in the classroom.

Research Questions Does reward system improve the student’s behavior?
How can you effectively implement a reward system with students? What are issues that you need to consider as a teacher?
Intervention I will implement one reward systems strategies in the classroom with two classes which is a token system. The implementation will be in the classroom and I will use this every day for 4 weeks. I want to implement it to see if it improves student behavior, how can it be done effectively, and what issues you need to consider to implement it effectively. I will evaluate it by using writing reflection notes, every lesson about the children’s behavior and see how it improve student learning. Also, I will interview some students to see what they liked about it and why so, I can know what are the weakness and the strength of the lesson and the strategies.

Participants The participant will be in the with Arabic and English teachers and two classrooms KG1 and KG2
Data Collection To collect the data I will use a mixed method to gather the information about reward system used by the teacher to improve the children’s behavior. I will use a survey and I will do it to the English and Arabic teachers in the school. Also, I will use a structured observation so, I will observe three teachers and write some notes about the strategies they used in the classroom. It will help me to answer my action research questions and give me some information about the teacher’s implementation of reward system in the classroom so I can have lots of information that will help me to answer my questions through this observation. Moreover, I will use an interview with three teachers in the school ad take the information about their strategies in the classroom and compare it with each other so I can come up with answers to my action research questions.

6.0 References
Ascd, A. (n.d.). Chapter 1. What Is Action Research? Retrieved April 16, 2017, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/100047/chapters/What-Is-Action-Research%C2%A2.aspx
Bear, G. G. (2013). Teacher Resistance to Frequent Rewards and Praise: Lack of Skill or a Wise Decision?. Journal Of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 23(4), 318-340. doi:10.1080/10474412.2013.845495
Gore, J. (2013, April 25). How observing other teachers can improve your teaching. Retrieved April 26, 2017, from https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/how-observing-other-teachers-can-improve-your-teaching
Hall, P. S. (2009). Beyond rewards. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 18(3), 49-53. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/852769141?accountid=1215
Machell, M. (2006). An evaluation toolkit for e-library developments. Retrieved April 26, 2017, from http://www.evalued.bcu.ac.uk/tutorial/4c.htm
McClurg, L., & Morris, R. (2014). Shaping student behaviors through reward systems: Lessons from beaver trapping? Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 14(2), 89-102. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1547943955?accountid=1215
Mills, G. E. (2018). Action research: a guide for the teacher researcher. NY, NY: Pearson.

Pros and Cons of Reward Systems for Primary Schools Infographic. (2015, November 16). Retrieved February 10, 2017, from http://elearninginfographics.com/pros-cons-reward-systems-primary-schools-infographic/
Quantitative and Qualitative Research – Objective or Subjective? (n.d.). Retrieved April 16, 2017, from https://explorable.com/quantitative-and-qualitative-research
Wheatley, R. K. & West, R. P. & Charlton, C. T. & Sanders, R. B. & Smith, T. G. & Taylor, M. J. (2009). Improving Behavior through Differential Reinforcement: A Praise Note System for Elementary School Students. Education and Treatment of Children 32(4), 551-571. West Virginia University Press. Retrieved January 17, 2017, from Project MUSE database.

Wyse, S. (2014, September 29). Advantages and Disadvantages of Surveys. Retrieved April 26, 2017, from https://www.snapsurveys.com/blog/advantages-disadvantages-surveys/
7.0 appendices
Appendix 1: Ethical consideration
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Appendix 2: Voice Memos Recordings
left288290
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Appendix 3: interview questions
-304800116205What are your strategies for managing children’s behavior?
How do teachers in the UAE currently use reward system to manage the children’s behavior?
What rewards do students desire?
Is this for motivational purposes, or classroom management?
How can reward improve the student’s behavior?
0What are your strategies for managing children’s behavior?
How do teachers in the UAE currently use reward system to manage the children’s behavior?
What rewards do students desire?
Is this for motivational purposes, or classroom management?
How can reward improve the student’s behavior?

Appendix 4: observations field notes
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Appendix 5: Survey questions
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Appendix 6: Questionnaire

-141889490943Appendix 7: Structured Observation notes

-200025352425Appendix 8: Teacher’s Interviews