1. Alexander the Great was born in 356 BC. e. in the ancient Greek town of Pela. The exact date of birth of the great commander is unknown. Known only a year. But with the numbers and months there was confusion. Some believe that he was born between October 6 and 10 (from the evidence of Aristobulus, recorded by Arrian). But the whole world thinks more that Great Alexander was born between the 20th and the 26th of July and not without reason. After all, according to legend, on the night of July 21, 356 BC. Herostratus, set fire to the temple of Artemis of Ephesus. So there is a theory that while we were discussing this event, Alexander was born. And to be sure, do not forget, they linked the two events together. Especially as clever people and elders spoke, the birth of the Great, is always marked by some event, even a grandiose fire.
2. Alexander was a disciple of Aristotle. Father Alexander Philip II of Macedon invited to bring up a 13-year-old son, heir to the throne, Aristotle, the greatest of all philosophers in history. Little is known about the three years spent by the future commander under the tutelage of the scientist. It is only known that Aristotle taught him medicine, morality, logic and, of course, philosophy, and also instilled in him a love of literature and taught him to respect philosophers.
3. In addition to high-quality education, Alexander’s father, Philip II of Macedonia, laid a good military base for his son’s future victories. A powerful and large army was formed and the Corinthian Union, in which all the largest Greek city-states united.
4. Sometimes, being a 16-year-old teenager, Alexander, remained to replace his father on the throne when he left on state affairs. In one of such departures of Philip, there was an uprising of the Thracian tribe of honey. Alexander III of Macedon, being the son of his father-soldier, suppressed the insurrection, and to create a tradition – to call the city by his name – called the former Thracian settlement – Alexandropol, and later founded the city itself.
5. The first victory was won by him when he was 18 years old. Having ascended the throne in 334 BC. E., Macedonian crossed into Asia (now it is the territory of Turkey), where he won the battle with the Persian troops under the leadership of Darius III.
6. Being the heir of Philip II, Alexander of Macedon reigned for 13 years, ruled the Empire, which he himself created. He was one of those kings who themselves went into battle with their army and knew the soldiers by name. He was an ingenious strategist, warrior-commander, who won in the first battle.
7. Father Alexander, King Philip of Macedon was killed when he was 20 years old. Given the youth of Alexander, his success in creating one of the greatest empires of the world is universally admired.
8. In addition to Aristotle, Alexander maintained contact with other well-known philosophers of the time. One day he approached Diogenes in the town square and asked: “Can I do something for you?”. “Yes,” Diogenes answered, “step aside. You are blocking the sun. ” Alexander was delighted with the answer of the great ascetic, he was fascinated and impressed with Diogenes’ refusal and said: “If I were not born Alexander, I would be Diogenes.”
9. He did not lose a single battle. Alexander the Great is known to this day as one of the greatest military strategists of all time. He for 15 years led a successful military campaign, conquering many countries, including Turkey and Iran.
10. In 336 BC. E., came to power, Alexander of Macedon killed all possible pretenders to the throne. In living he left only his feeble-minded brother, whose name was Arridei. After Alexander’s death, in 323 Arriday became ruler and took the name of Philip III Arridei.
11. Alexander had three wives: Roxana, Parisathida and Statira. Historians say that Roxanne was one of the most beautiful women in Asia. Alexander took her as his wife for love.
12. The future wife of Macedon was a captive, in which he fell in love at first sight. 327 BC. e. It was marked for Macedon by the grandiose capture of Sogdian Rock. Until then, Sogdian Rock was considered an invincible mountain fortress. Thousands of people were captured by the general. Once Alexander walked around, examining his captives. Among them he saw a very young girl. Her name was Roxanne. She was the daughter of a nobleman from Bactria. According to Alexander’s decision, soon it was decided to play a wedding. Roxanne became the wife of Macedon. A few months after the death of Alexander, she bore him a son, named after his father Alexander IV.
13. More than 70 cities Alexander named after himself. According to custom, in the memory of his conquests in the area of ??former military forts, Alexander built cities, named them “Alexandria”. The largest city was founded at the mouth of the Nile River in 331 BC. Today the northern capital is the second largest city in Egypt. By cities with the name “Alexandria” you can trace the whole path of the conquests of Macedon – through modern Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan.
14. Six years of incursions into the Persian empire yielded results – Persepolis was captured, the empire conquered. Alexander had to retain power over her. To this end, in 324 BC. e. Macedonian decided to conduct mass rituals of weddings, while forcing 92 respected Macedonians to marry Persian women. The commander himself married the eldest daughter of King Darius, as well as the daughter of King Artaxerxes. Moreover, after this, Alexander began wearing a striped tunic, belt and diadem, inherent in Persian royal clothes.
15. To all other things, Alexander the Great was a subtle psychologist, he allowed his warriors correspondence with relatives, this he found weak links in his troops. In fact, he was the first military censor.
16. 15 years of military activity did not disappoint Alexander with a single failure. His unique military strategy and tactics, which prevented a single miss, is still being studied in military academies and colleges. Invariably, Alexander always led troops with awesome speed, while at the same time allowing them to expend a minimum of force to reach and smash enemy lines before the enemies could react, that is, enemies were destroyed by them before they could prepare for the battle.
17. Alexander the Great smelled good. According to historical documents, the great commander was known for his love of cleanliness and always carefully observed personal hygiene. He also used incense for the body, so the body of Macedon exuded a pleasant aroma. 400 years after the death of the Tsar Plutarch, the work “The Life of Noble Romans” was created. It says that the skin of King Alexander of Macedon smelled of pleasant incense, the breath was always fresh, and his body was generally saturated with fresh fragrances. In many ways, the “olfactory detail” was an attribute of tradition, according to which the all-conquering king had a divine origin and, accordingly, signs (fragrant body). The general himself repeatedly declared to the public that he was the son of Zeus.
18. Alexander’s Coney was called Bucephalus. There was at the court of Philip II, a horse of unparalleled beauty, and the disposition was much too violent. After Philip tried Buzefal himself to reason-saddle, and failed, he began to offer all his acquaintances, to try to calm this horse too. It is clear that since the very Philip II himself did not get a horse to ride, what else to climb? But not to Alexander! As a 10-year-old boy, he managed to mount a great saddle. Everyone was surprised, and Philip gave the horse to Alexander and gave it, he deserved. Subsequently Alexander took the horse on all tours, but in the battles the horse did not participate.
19. But one day Bucephalus was still mortally wounded in a military campaign. Near the river Hidaspes, where the most difficult victory was won during the Indian campaign, the city of Busefal was formed, named after Alexander his favorite horse.
20. Only once did Alexander the Great leave without a fight, without a victory. Once Macedonian decided to capture the city of Lampsaka. And now, when the guests were before the gates of the city, ready to strike, Anaximenes came out from behind the walls of the city, one of Alexander’s favorite teachers, who taught rhetoric to the young conqueror. In hopes of saving the city, Anaximen opened his mouth to get more air and say … But, full of respect for his teacher, Alexander did not let that open his mouth, and shouted: “Anaximen! Whatever you ask now, it will not happen. I will not fulfill any of your requests, I swear! But Anaximenes was cunning … He knew how to deceive the student: – And he says – nothing is needed. I ask only – plunder, conquer, but set this city on fire, right now I strongly ask! A Macedonian, then, swore not to comply with the requests of the teacher … And, I had to retreat.
21.Onday Alexander the Great entered into an unequal battle and emerged victorious from it. This fact once again proves that Alexander the Great, the greatest warrior of all time. One of the battles showed that everything depends on the person leading the army to victory. In the decisive battle in the war with Persia, on October 1, 331, Macedonian entered with an army several times smaller than the enemy’s army. At the disposal of Alexander, there were 7,000 mounted warriors, and 40,000 foot soldiers. When calculating losses, Alexander did not count about 1,000 of his soldiers. Corpses of the Persians, counted 30,000. Naturally, the battle was won by the Macedonian.
22. One day Alexander the Great hosted a contest in honor of the sage Kalan, who, according to one known conviction, burned himself. Competed in music, chariot racing, various all-round events and, of course, in wine drinking. The most interesting thing is that in winemaking, a man named Promach won. 23. To the 13th anniversary of his reign, the legendary warrior united the lands of the East and the West due to a certain technique of fighting and cultural exchange. By the time of Alexander the Great’s death at age 33, his reputation had reached such a peak that he was ranked as a saint.
24. Thanks to his education, Alexander was able to easily conquer the lands. He reasoned as a philosopher and studied the basics of medicine, he knew which organ to beat the enemy, that was for certain. Probably, he taught this and all his army.
25. His death remains a mystery to this day. In 323 BC. e. Alexander was 32 years old. In the same year, unexpected illness suddenly knocked him down. The illustrious ruler fell ill after drinking wine at a feast. A few days later Macedonian died. Given that his father was killed by his own assistant, among the suspects was a close entourage of the king, especially the wife of Antipater and the son of her – Cassandra. Some biographers of antiquity even suggested that the whole family of Antipater became the organizers. And by order of Cassandra, Alexander’s son and his widow were subsequently killed. Researchers in the biography of Alexander of Macedon indicate that Aristotle himself could have been involved in his murder, since he was an approximate of the Cassandra family. Historians suggest different versions of the cause of his death – from infectious disease to murder by poisoning. Most likely, we still do not know what destroyed the famous commander.
26. Many bibliographers of our time do not exclude that the cause of Alexander’s death could be one of the diseases – malaria, lung infection, typhoid fever or hepatic insufficiency.
27. Plutarch reports that the body of Macedon was first sent to Babylon to the Egyptian embalmers. However, the leading Egyptologist A. Wallis Budge suggested that the remains of a warrior of Ancient Egypt were immersed in honey to prevent decay. In a year or two it was returned to Macedonia, but it was intercepted by Ptolemy I, one of the former generals. Therefore, knowing the location of the body of Macedon, Ptolemy received the status of successor to the great empire.
28. The body of the great commander was buried in Alexandria, many famous personalities visited his grave. It is known that Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, Octavian (the future Augustus Caesar), the Roman emperor Caracall, visited the grave of Alexander. This chronicles described how Julius Caesar, Marcus Anthony and the future Roman Emperor Octavin (Augustus Caesar) made a pilgrimage to the tomb of Macedon in Alexandria (Egypt). In 30 BC. Octavian viewed the 300-year-old mummy of Macedon and laid a wreath at her. And the last record of a visit to the grave by the Roman emperor of Karakal dates back to 215 BC. e. Subsequently, the tomb was destroyed, and its location was forgotten due to political upheavals and the beginning of the Roman era.
29. Alexander was ambitious and did not pay attention to public opinion. Therefore, he was friends with Thais, the famous hetter, and married Roxane’s captive for love.
30. He had 2 sons killed by children.
In his army, the lightest and most durable armor made of linen was used.
32 Alexander always went ahead of the army and knew every soldier in his face.
33. He was a cunning and far-sighted politician, his “divide and conquer”, alive to this day. The rulers of the conquered territories were nominated by the people of these lands.
34.Alexander was very cruel, he at the age of 16 was able to suppress the uprising, killing all the inhabitants of the insurgent city.
35. Thanks to the Macedonian, Alexander’s name is popular all over the world.
36. He firmly adhered to the principle – betrayed one day, betrayed yet, and therefore executed defectors.
37. After his sudden death, all his blood relatives were killed. The genus of the great Alexander was interrupted.
38. The profile of the great commander and ruler was the first, minted on coins.
39. Alexander the Great is a man who conquered half the world, but who fell victim to his own ambitions.
40. The saddest fact of the biography of Alexander the Great is that the place of the grave of such a famous historical figure was lost. It’s sad that the exact date of his birth was not recorded, and the burial place was lost.