In molecular biology

In molecular biology, the extraction of biomolecules (DNA, RNA, and protein) is the central procedure (Wink, 2006). It is the preliminary step for downstream processes and product development including diagnostic kits. DNA, RNA, and protein can be isolated from any organic material such as living or conserved tissues, cells, virus particles, or other samples for diagnostic or preparative purposes (Wink, 2006). DNA can be purified by either isolating recombinant DNA from plasmids or bacteriophage, or by isolating chromosomal or genomic DNA from prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms (Doyle, 1996). For the most part, successful nucleic acid purification requires four essential steps: effective disruption of cells or tissue; denaturation of nucleoprotein complexes; inactivation of nucleases, for instance, RNase for RNA extraction and DNase for DNA extraction; purify nucleic acid target away from contamination (Doyle, 1996). The target nucleic acid should be free of impurities including protein, carbohydrate, lipids, or other nucleic acid (Buckingham & Flaws, 2007). Quality and also integrity of the isolated nucleic acid will directly affect the results of all succeeding scientific research (Cseke et al., 2004).
Fungi are filamentous or unicellular heterotrophs, most of which absorb their food in solution through their cell walls. Some are saprobes (organisms that live on dead organic matter); others are parasitic decomposers; still others (mycorrhizal fungi) have a mutualistic relationship with plants (Stern et al., 2006). They possess filamentous structures known as hyphae and exhibit mycelial growth in addition to both sexual and asexual reproduction. Fungi have three reproductive structures for asexual and sexual reproduction: the sporangia and the conidiophore which form spores and conidia respectively and gametangia which form gametes (Wiley et al., 2008).
Fungi make an enormous contribution to our life. The role of yeast in the production of alcohol and bread is well characterized. We consume fungi directly in the form of edible mushrooms and in ‘blue cheeses’ which get their characteristic flavor and aroma from the presence of fungi. Fungi are also used for the production of antibiotics, such as penicillin, and enzymes for use in the food industry (Kavanagh, ). Over the last three decades fungi have been utilized for the production of recombinant proteins, some of which have great therapeutic potential. Although rarely recognized as important decomposers of organic detritus, fungi play a significant role in degrading biological matter, such as fallen leaves. On a more negative note some fungi (for example members of the genus Candida or Aspergillus) are capable of causing serious life-threatening infections in immuno-compromised patients, and other fungi can be serious environmental contaminants. (Kavanagh)
It is therefore evident that fungi are vital organisms for the humanity’s health and well-being and that studies of fungal physiology are relevant to our understanding, control and exploitation of this group of microorganisms. As such in this experiment, a fungal colony was isolated, its DNA extracted and run on a gel. The isolated DNA was then subjected to