Artikel Ulasan/Review Article
Student’s Intrinsic Motivation in Mathematics Learning: A Critical Review
Motivasi Intrinsik Murid dalam Pembelajaran Matematik: Satu Tinjauan KritikalZAININA BINTI ZULKIFLI
The importance of intrinsic motivation among students in mathematics learning is gaining widespread recognition as an essential element to increase self-efficacy, create a fun, natural and productive learning environment and making the learning process as an effort that begins from the students. Teachers should allow their students to have more control in their learning experience versus controlling the environment in their classrooms. As such, the aims of the review are to 1) examine current practices regarding intrinsic motivation in learning; 2) evaluate the up to date evidence on the effects of intrinsic motivation towards students learning and achievement; and 3) identify factors of intrinsic motivation among students. After the papers were thoroughly analysed, the findings showed that intrinsic motivation among students brings a long-term positive impact on their learning. The conclusions of this review are 1) there are various current practices about the positive effects of intrinsic motivation in mathematics; 2) there is various evidence about the positive effects of intrinsic motivation in mathematics and 3) factors that had been identified that affect student’s intrinsic motivation. Those factors are gender, social factor, emotional support by family and teachers, individual’s positive reaction to the task, incentives and age.
Keywords: Intrinsic motivation; mathematics learning
Kepentingan motivasi intrinsik dalam kalangan pelajar dalam pembelajaran matematik mendapat pengiktirafan yang meluas sebagai elemen penting untuk meningkatkan efikasi diri, mewujudkan persekitaran pembelajaran yang menyeronokkan, semula jadi dan produktif dan menjadikan proses pembelajaran sebagai usaha yang bermula dari pelajar. Guru harus membenarkan pelajar mereka mempunyai lebih banyak kawalan dalam pengalaman pembelajaran mereka berbanding mengawal alam sekitar di bilik darjah mereka. Oleh itu, matlamat ulasan adalah untuk 1) mengkaji amalan semasa mengenai motivasi intrinsik dalam pembelajaran; 2) menilai bukti terkini mengenai kesan motivasi intrinsik ke arah pembelajaran dan pencapaian pelajar; dan 3) mengenal pasti faktor motivasi intrinsik di kalangan pelajar. Selepas kertas dianalisis dengan teliti, penemuan menunjukkan bahawa motivasi intrinsik di kalangan pelajar membawa kesan positif jangka panjang ke atas pembelajaran mereka. Kesimpulan kajian ini adalah 1) terdapat pelbagai amalan semasa tentang kesan positif motivasi intrinsik dalam matematik; 2) terdapat pelbagai bukti tentang kesan positif motivasi intrinsik dalam matematik dan 3) faktor yang telah dikenalpasti yang mempengaruhi motivasi intrinsik pelajar. Faktor-faktor tersebut adalah jantina, faktor sosial, sokongan emosi oleh keluarga dan guru, reaksi positif individu terhadap tugas, insentif dan umur.
Kata Kunci: Motivasi intrinsik; pembelajaran matematikINTRODUCTION
The range of literature on motivation is vast although they varies in language and, depending on whether one’s professional discipline is, for example, psychology, bioscience, education or business, motivation will be represented in quite different ways. While a number of those perspectives will be touched upon here, the focus and emphasis will be on motivation in a higher education, student context. Motivation is a fundamental component of any credible model of human performance (Cerasoli, Nicklin & Ford. 2014). The concept of motivation can be related to the edges of other constructs such as, self-efficacy, locus of control and student engagement, as they all share similar cognitive, affective and behavioural roots. In the field of mathematical education, educational researchers and practitioners recognize that school motivation is vital for academic achievement and persistence (Guay, Chanal, Rattelle, Marsh, Larose & Boivin. 2010). This has opened the way to a recent series of intervention programmes specifically designed to improve student motivation at school. When examining the role of student motivation, we may consider it as either a general construct (i.e., student motivation towards school in general) or specific to school subjects (i.e., student motivation towards maths). Both foci are important to consider in understanding general as well as specific academic outcomes (Guay, Chanal, Rattelle, Marsh, Larose & Boivin. 2010). Here, we focus our attention on intrinsic motivations.
As such, the aims of the review are to 1) examine current practices regarding intrinsic motivation in learning; and 2) evaluate the up to date evidence on the effects of intrinsic motivation towards students learning and achievement.
DEFINITION OF INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Motivation is defined as the reasons that underlie behaviour. Applied to education, it refers to the reasons that students engage in different school activities (Guay, et al. 2010). There are different types of motivation, which vary in terms of self-determination (i.e., the extent to which behaviour originates from the self). although not the first to talk about the multi-faceted nature of motivation more specifically about ‘internal-external’ dimensions, are the most well-known (Nukpe. 2012).
In regards to the field of this review, intrinsic motivation is taken as the focus. Nukpe (2012) also had listed some definitions and perspectives about motivation as follows;
motivation as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal oriented behaviours,
believes motivation to be the level of effort an individual is willing to expend toward the achievement of a certain goal, and
describes motivation simply as reasons underlying behaviour.
In definition, intrinsic motivation refers to engaging in an activity for its own sake, for the pleasure and satisfaction derived from participating in it (Guay, Chanal, Rattelle, Marsh, Larose & Boivin. 2010). On the other hand, Federici and Skaalvik (2014) defined intrinsic motivation as the inherent pleasure and satisfaction derived from engaging in an activity. The most basic distinction is between intrinsic motivation, which refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable, and extrinsic motivation, which refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome (Nukpe. 2012). Similarly, Tu Yidong and Lu Xinxin (2013) states that individual intrinsic motivation indicates the degree to which one perform specific task for the sake of the work itself, while group intrinsic motivation defines the collective belief, perception, and experience that the group members work for the internal interest, challenge, and satisfaction regardless of the external rewards. Whereas, Murayama, Pekrun, Lichtenfeld and vom Hofe(2012) defined intrinsic motivation as motivation to engage in a task for the sake of interest in the task itself and the inherent pleasure and satisfaction derived from the task.
On a different perspective, Martin and Olson (2015) described the word intrinsic is sometimes used synonymously with altruistic or selfless—driven by an internal desire to do good—but can also be used to mean simply not driven by deliberate social reinforcement. In the last sense, prosocial behaviour could be both intrinsic and strategic, for instance, if a child’s goal was to affiliate with the recipient.
LITERATURE SEARCH STRATEGIES AND DATA SOURCES
A systematic review of research literature had been conducted through the consultation of a few educational international electronic databases, namely, ERIC, SAGE, Elsevier, Science Direct, and Research Gate. Search terms were intrinsic motivation and mathematics learning, limiting the search to articles published from the year of 2013 until 2018. The search started on 26th March 2018 and was finalised on 29th May 2018 retrieving 37 papers on student’s intrinsic motivation in mathematics learning.
QUALITY OF STUDIES
Papers were quality assessed according to the 5 criteria used by Boyle, Connolly, Hainey, & Boyle (2012). Those criteria are high quality of research design for answering the question, appropriate methods & analysis, generalisation of findings, relevance of the focus of the study (including conceptual focus, context, sample and measures) for addressing the research question and trustworthiness of findings.
The keyword search yielded 109 articles from three different databases. After removing 21 duplicated articles, 88 articles remained. Their titles and abstracts were screened according to the criteria for considering studies as mentioned above, and 54 articles were excluded. The remaining 14 articles were retrieved for detailed examination. Six articles were excluded following thorough assessment whereby three papers were not specifically about intrinsic motivation. After considering the year of publishing, 30 articles were included finalised this review. The details of the selection process are presented in the PRISMA flow chart (Figure 1).
RESULTS OF THE REVIEW
We have seen that there are a variety of approaches to both motivation generally and the learning and teaching aspects of motivation, however, to tease out implications for practice will requires more specific reading of the literature. The notion of intrinsic motivation is something that is of great interest to both business and educational psychologists since it implies that there are already predispositions within an individual’s psychological make-up that may be triggered by particular influences (Nukpe. 2012). A student`s intrinsic motivation, it is suggested (Nukpe. 2012), can be initiated by either the individual`s natural self, the home or family setting, social or peer pressure and or a combination of two or all of the afore mentioned. An intrinsically motivated student will be very focused on details and processes while the extrinsically motivated student will focus on results and rewards for achievement. When students’ level of motivation and interest to learn is increased through various motivational activities, there is the probability that they will invest all their time and effort to attain their set goals (Nukpe. 2012). Therefore, making sure students’ goals and values are in sync with the mission and vision of education (e.g. in enabling their attainment of academic literacy) is important for generating and sustaining a high level of student motivation. This in turn lead to self-efficacy, self-confidence, improved quality of work and higher future job prospects – or general ‘competence’ as presaged by White (1959 – op cit) in Nukpe (2012).
Self-determination Theory and Intrinsic Motivation
The theory that is closely related with intrinsic motivation is self-determination theory that provides a starting point by explaining how intrinsic motivation fuels the direction, intensity, and persistence of motivated behaviour (Cerasoli, Nicklin and Ford. 2014). Self-determination theory is the investigation of people’s innate psychological needs that are a basis for their self-motivation and personality integration as well as for the conditions that foster this positive process (Trevino & DeFreitas. 2014). Self-determination theory centers on research that explains conditions which nurture or undermine positive potential within individuals (Ryan and Deci 2000). These conditions include performances in the academic setting. According to self-determination theory, extrinsic motivation can thwart the promotion of intrinsic motivation which affects academic achievement (Trevino & DeFreitas. 2014).
First, a relation exists between choice of direction and intrinsic motivation. When individuals find a particular task enjoyable or identifiable with the self, they are more likely to fully endorse and participate in the task (Cerasoli et al. 2014). Similarly, intrinsically motivated students have been found to more actively engage in learning and teaching, while extrinsically motivated individuals instead choose to be more passive (Cerasoli, et al. 2014). Second, students who find a task more intrinsically motivating will expend a higher degree of intensity or effort in its production. For example, the enjoyment of learning new material and updating skills has been linked to the level of effort nurses expend under complex learning situations. Finally, levels of intrinsic motivation should also be linked to performance through their impact on motivational persistence. When individuals find a task enjoyable or interesting, they should engage the task for longer periods of time, persisting beyond the point at which they are rewarded. For example, intrinsically motivated individuals tend to persist longer on a task, which yields better academic achievement, task performance, and test performance, among others.
Academic Engagement and Positive Emotional Support
Student motivation is about goals, energy, drive and direction and having a reason to do what they do and do it to the best of their ability. Through increased levels of motivation, the student is able to believe he/she has the confidence and capacity to achieve (self-efficacy) and has the learning process under control (Nukpe. 2012). Nukpe (2012) explained that explained that, some of the conditions and importance of student motivation are the creating of appropriate teacher behaviour and good teacher-student rapport, pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere and a cohesive learner group characterised by appropriate group norms. Nukpe (2012) also suggests that strengthening the degree of intrinsic motivation students feel for learning is the most important thing any teacher can do.
Often, student motivation is constrained by a host of factors that need mentioning in this research. In no particular order, Institutional culture becomes a barrier to promote and sustain motivation. A lot of researches suggest that institutions with healthy and robust culture may provide various benefits of which motivation is one. Institutional culture can also to be referred to as the personality of institution. Peterson & Spencer (1991) used phrases such as patterns of organizational behaviour, shared values, assumptions, beliefs, or ideologies to define institutional culture. When these phrases that define what institutional culture is come into conflict with the student’s beliefs and expectations, their motivation to study is adversely affected.
The role that positive relationships play in enhancing intrinsic motivation has been clearly identified by Nukpe (2012). This has implications not only for the kind of experience the teachers create for their students but also, the extent to which we feel able to engage with them at the affective level, not just at the cognitive and behavioural levels. This persistence criteria is also agreed by Murayama et al (2012) who implied that intrinsic motivation seems ideally suited to benefit enduring, long-term learning.
The education community is able to offer a social environment that allows students to integrate and function to the best of their ability. This is always not the case as social integration comes with competition to maintain ones social membership, how approachable one is, being able to defend ones sense of belonging and demonstrate the ability to connect, interact, and validate ones ‘legitimacy’ within the community. Thus, the creation of a challenging but supportive academic environment is also highly important.
Federici and Skaalvik (2014) states that there are many findings consistently indicate that positive perceptions of teachers as emotionally supportive are associated with positive educational outcomes. For instance, previous research reveals positive associations with students’ engagement (Patrick, Ryan, & Kaplan, 2007), academic initiative (Danielsen, Wiium, Wilhelmsen, & Wold, 2010), intrinsic motivation (E. Skaalvik & S. Skaalvik, 2013; Wentzel et al., 2010), and higher self-esteem and lower levels of anxiety (De Wit et al., 2011). Moreover, students who feel emotionally supported are more likely to expend effort (Goodenow & Grady, 1993; Wentzel, 1994), ask for help (Newman & Schwager, 1993), and use self-regulated learning strategies (Ryan & Patrick, 2001). Studies of belonging and relatedness also show positive associations with students’ engagement (Furrer ; Skinner, 2003) and help-seeking behavior (Marchand ; Skinner (2007). Moreover, research indicates that students who perceive a positive school environment and share positive relationships with their teachers tend to have higher grades (Crosnoe, Johnson, ; Elder, 2004; Roeser, Midgley, ; Urdan, 1996).
Factors of Intrinsic Motivation
One of the factors of intrinsic motivation among students is gender. Gender is proved to affect intrinsic motivation among student to learn mathematics. Intrinsic motivation among boys towards mathematics learning differed from girls. This is supported by research done by Guay et al (2010) and (Federici ; Skaalvik. 2014). Guay et al (2010) states that boys are more intrinsically motivated towards maths than girls. In contrast, girls are more intrinsically motivated towards reading and writing and are more regulated by identification towards writing than boys (Guay et al, 2010). Federeci and Skalvik (2014) also revealed that boys show higher intrinsic motivation for mathematics than girls and that intrinsic motivation is positively related to effort, help-seeking behaviour, and performance and negatively related to state anxiety. A useful framework for understanding why students are intrinsically motivated in a particular domain, such as mathematics, is self-determination theory.
Another factor is social factors that promote intrinsic motivation via satisfaction of individuals’ fundamental needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Federici & Skaalvik. 2014). Teachers may stimulate these needs in a variety of ways. For instance, teachers’ emotional support may stimulate the students’ need for relatedness, thus increasing their intrinsic motivation. Moreover, teachers’ instrumental support may stimulate both the need for competence and autonomy (Federici ; Skaalvik. 2014). Thus, both emotional and instrumental support to predict intrinsic motivation, both directly and indirectly through reduced math anxiety.
Moreover, teachers who provide both emotional and instrumental support likely make students feel that they are valued and respected, which in turn improves effort, academic values, and achievement. Especially for instrumental support, social cognitive theory notes that people who are socially persuaded to believe in their ability to produce greater effort on tasks than those who are not convinced about their ability to master difficult situations. Positive perceptions of emotional and instrumental support should therefore lead to increased effort. In addition, instrumental support was indirectly related to intrinsic motivation through math anxiety and to effort through intrinsic motivation (Federecci ; Skaalvik. 2014). Moreover, instrumental support was also indirectly related to help seeking behaviour through both math anxiety and intrinsic motivation (Federecci ; Skaalvik. 2014).
Intrinsic motivation often arises from the individual’s positive reaction to the task itself, such as interest, involvement, curiosity, satisfaction, or positive challenge (Tu Yidong & Lu Xinxin. 2013), which serves as a type of reward for completed tasks. Besides that, teachers are also expected to support students’ effort positively, both directly and indirectly through intrinsic motivation (Federecci ; Skaalvik. 2014). For instance, students who are motivated to learn should be willing to expand effort to succeed.
The effect of intrinsic motivation towards performance remained in place whether incentives were presented (Federecci ; Skaalvik. 2014). This is supported by another paper by Martin and Olson (2015) who implied rewards may have negative influence because they undermine an intrinsic desire, as in the classic over justification effect. In addition, incentive salience influenced the predictive validity of intrinsic motivation for performance: In a “crowding out” fashion, intrinsic motivation was less important to performance when incentives were directly tied to performance and was more important when incentives were indirectly tied to performance. Considered simultaneously through meta-analytic regression, intrinsic motivation predicted more unique variance in quality of performance, whereas incentives were a better predictor of quantity of performance.
Through the review, there are various opinions on how age affects intrinsic motivation in learning. the continuum becomes clearer with age, which has implications for researchers studying motivation types in young children (Guay, Chanal, Rattelle, Marsh, Larose ; Boivin. 2010). In Grade 1, children may not have fully developed their capacities for mastering external demands and identifying with them, and may therefore be unable to distinguish between what they truly like to do and what they do because others ask them to, whether in reading or in mathematics. Because this ability to self-reflect on their different motivations is in development, the differentiation and predictive validity of school motivations might also improve as students become more experienced with school subjects that involve reading and their demands (Guay et al. 2010). This interpretation is consistent with Guay et al (2010) suggestion that greater differentiation among self-perceptions occurs around eight years old.
However, there is a paper that contradicts with the fact that age is a factor of intrinsic motivation. Nuutila, Tuominen, Tapola, Vainikkainen and Niemivirta (2018) stated that age does not have a significant effect on intrinsic motivation. In these studies, the effects of age have often been relatively small or even non-existent (Nuutila et al. 2018). Task interest has, however, been found to be predictive of students’ achievement-related behaviour and indirectly also achievement but these mediating effects have been examined within a short time span (Nuutila et al. 2018). Furthermore, geography also proved to affect intrinsic motivation among students towards learning. ?he students of schools from semi-urban areas proved to have the higher score on the factor of effort and motivation compared to schools from urban areas (Bekiari & Petanidis. 2016).
Effects of Intrinsic Motivation on Student’s Performance
Previous research in the academic domain has found intrinsic motivation to be an important factor in academic achievement for various ethnic groups and nationalities including: Indian (Areepattamannil. 2012), Canadian (Areepattamannil. 2012) and Asian (Núñez, Sparks ; Hernandez. 2011). Cerasoli, Nicklin and Ford (2014) stated that performance is achievement-related behaviour, with some evaluative component. For example, performance in academic settings may be in terms of grades and scores. Formally defined, incentives are plans that have predetermined criteria and standards, as well as understood policies for determining and allocating rewards. Thus, grades, awards, health benefits, praise, and recognition are all incentives (Cerasoli, et al. 2014). Intrinsic motivation has a positive influence in academic settings while extrinsic motivation often has negative influences on academic. These factors have a long term positive effect on their academic achievement Promoting intrinsic motivation therefore can have a significant positive influence on the educational domain.
On the other hand, behaviour can also be motivated for intrinsic reasons. According to Pinder (2011), rather than being instrumental toward some other object of value, intrinsically motivated behaviours are themselves enjoyable, purposive, and provide sufficient reason to persist (Cerasoli et al 2014). This is supported by Murayama, Pekrun, Lichtenfeld and vom Hofe (2012) who implied that students with high intrinsic motivation are less concerned about how well they perform on upcoming achievement tests. Accordingly, although intrinsic motivation should provide long-term benefits, such a noninstrumental approach to learning may not add much to current performance. This is supported by Nuutila, Tuominen, Tapola, Vainikkainen and Niemivirta (2018), who reasoned that intrinsic value (i.e., perceived importance of and the interest towards a domain) and self-concept (i.e., individuals’ perception about their own abilities and competences) represent those ‘want’ and ‘can’ aspects of domain-specific motivation that have been consistently found to promote achievement and other educational outcomes.
Given that most research supporting the undermining argument is derived from tasks that are intrinsically enjoyable from the outset, it is important to expand this line of research because many tasks in field settings, such as organizations and schools, are not necessarily fun from the outset. Some scholars have proved the mediating role of intrinsic motivation in the relationship between leadership and innovation, creativity and innovative work behaviour (Tu Yidong & Lu Xinxin. 2013). Likewise, paper written by Pulfrey and Darnon(2013) also states that research found that, in comparing high and low performance, the high grades associated with successful task performance generated higher levels of task interest as long as future tasks of the same sort were deemed to be impending. However, once no more grades were anticipated, there was a significant drop in task interest compared with baseline and previous measures of it (Pulfrey & Darnon. 2013).
Increasing Intrinsic Motivation
The educational system has a substantial and important role in promoting intrinsic motivation and increasing academic achievement for students (Trevino & DeFreitas. 2013). The responsibility of schools and administrators, starts when students are at the elementary level, should be to prepare students for pursuing higher education and providing quality education. Educators should not bare this responsibility alone. Educators and schools need to get the parents and families involved in their students’ education by creating activities and programmes suitable for families.
Intrinsic motivation can be cultivated in many ways by professors, parents and by the individuals themselves. Teachers who provide positive feedback and verbal rewards can enhance intrinsic motivation (Trevino ; DeFreitas. 2013). College students who received verbal rewards from their professors foster higher levels on intrinsic motivation (Trevino ; DeFreitas. 2013). Furthermore, greater levels of intrinsic motivation were found in students whose teachers were considered warm, caring, and had a high level of relatedness. Field studies have further supported that teachers who are more autonomously supportive, encouraged the increase of intrinsic motivation in their students by increasing curiosity and a desire for a challenge (Trevino ; DeFreitas. 2013). Not only does offering encouragement and support build intrinsic motivation, but when teachers allow their students to have more control in their learning experience versus controlling the environment in their classrooms, this increases student motivation in addition to learning more as well as developing a deeper conceptual and creative processing level (Trevino ; DeFreitas. 2013).
Parents can encourage intrinsic motivation when their children are young and it can carry them through the college years. Research has found that students who have high levels of familism—a cultural value that includes loyalty and dedication to one’s family— were more likely to have higher levels of intrinsic motivation. In contrast, those who did not have strong familism had extrinsic motivation which decreases positive academic outcomes (Trevino & DeFreitas. 2013). Furthermore, a study noted that familism predicted parental encouragement concerning college which in turn was related to greater college persistence (Trevino & DeFreitas. 2013). Taken together, these findings suggest that having the support of parents may be particularly important for students. A recent study examined parental involvement and its influence on school motivation which examined factors such as self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation (Trevino & DeFreitas. 2013). Students that students whose parents were more involved in their child’s learning process had higher achievement in math and reading while also showing greater intrinsic motivation, higher grade point averages, better performance on standardized tests, fewer behaviour problems and more positive attitudes toward school (Trevino ; DeFreitas. 2013). Furthermore, parental advising was positively related to school motivation, self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation for the ethnically diverse sample. Students tended to have higher intrinsic motivation towards education and high academic self-efficacy when there was increased parent-school communication concerning issues such as school programs. This shows that parental involvement can have a profound impact on the intrinsic motivation starting when the students are young. It is likely that parental emotional support may have an indirect impact on academic achievement as the students’ stress level is lowered.
However, not all students have parents that are this involved in their children’s academic achievement. Students can increase their own intrinsic motivation when they do not have support systems to assist them in this process (Guay et al. 2010). This may be particularly refers students who are likely to navigate the their learning environment alone, since they do not often have parents or to assist them (Trevino ; DeFreitas. 2013). Individuals who have an internal desire to succeed will excel in quality and quantity of task performance on their coursework. Those who wish to increase intrinsic motivation should not focus on external rewards such as rewards or presents which are fleeting. Students who want lasting positive outcomes on academic achievement should focus on the satisfaction and pleasure of education. Students should also have more faith in their academic capabilities not just for a temporary phase but for their whole academic career (Guay et al. 2010). In addition, high levels of openness to the whole college experience have been shown to influence the internal drive and motivation of individuals (Guay et al. 2010). By being open to learning not just in the classroom but exposing oneself to all that school has to offer such as learning outside of class, joining organizations and attending social events—students may increase their internal motivation for college (Guay et al. 2010). Self-efficacy is another important factor that influences intrinsic motivation (Trevino ; DeFreitas. 2013). When a student has high self-efficacy, they have high belief in their capabilities to achieve, to influence their own motivation.
The study of motivation in its variety of forms is something of an academic field in itself and is very vast. However, there are some pathways into that vast field and for those of us interested in its application to pedagogy especially in mathematics, the pathways lead to some discrete, but not exclusive, destinations.
Intrinsic motivation is an energizing of behavior that comes from within an individual, out of will and interest for the activity at hand. No external rewards are required to incite the intrinsically motivated person into action. The reward is the behaviour itself. Schools are of particular interest when it comes to intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation, particularly because of the different outcomes that researchers have shown to result from intrinsic motivation: more interest, excitement, confidence, enhanced performance, persistence, creativity, self-esteem and general well-being.
IMPLICATIONS TO PRACTICE
With respect to performance, incentives and intrinsic motivation are not necessarily antagonistic and are best considered simultaneously. Cerasoli, et al (2014) suggested that future research should consider examining the effects non-performance criteria (i.e., well-being) towards intrinsic motivation. As students, they should be aware and understand how such an activity can be valuable and important as a means of personal growth and skill enhancement (i.e., this will help me to understand deeper concepts, this is a first step in that career that I want). Despite his lack of interest, a person can still be self-determined if he can integrate the activity into his sense of self. Therefore, will internalise the motivation to study harder. On the other hand, teachers should explain the reasons behind the activity’s importance, demonstrate how the activity relates to the students’ lives, and ensure that pupils have the necessary skills to succeed. Furthermore, the learning environment in general, should contain any mix of elements that could be defined as autonomy supportive, controlling or motivating.
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