Abstract and References
Transactions on Science and Technology Vol. 4, No. 4, 466 - 475, 2017

Tropical Climate Constructed Wetlands as an Urban Stormwater Quality Improvement

Nur Asmaliza Mohd Noor , Lariyah Mohd Sidek, Kamisah Ariffin

ABSTRACT
The rapid development in an urban area can drastically change the land use and deteriorate the quality of source water. The contribution of higher intensity of rainfall will also worsen the problem and affect the quality of water. Constructed wetland is an essential component in improving the quality of stormwater and as an alternative method to reduce flood in urban area. It has been widely used in developed countries and temperate climate for the stormwater quality improvement. However, in Malaysia it can be considered as a new innovation and has not been widely implemented nationwide. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the function of constructed wetland in tropical climate as stormwater quality improvement with the experience from three constructed wetlands situated in Penang, Selangor and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. The data collected from these wetland systems used to treat stormwater runoff or runoff-impacted surface waters were examined and compared in order to identify any obvious trends that may aid future stormwater treatment wetland design efforts. The parameters measured and discussed in this paper are Total Phosphorus (TP), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The results indicate that the mean pollutant removal for BOD ranged from 8.73% to 39.03%, COD ranged from 11.74% to 27.66%, TSS ranged from -72.70% to 73.64%, TP ranged from 1.32% to 57.69% and TN ranged from 3.50% to 70.56%. The findings also indicate that the mean outlet concentrations for BOD, COD and TSS comply with the Water Quality Index Class II, thus far, partially fulfil the government’s policies. Findings from this study can be used significantly to enhance the knowledge in constructed wetland under tropical climate where it can serve effectively for managing urban runoff using control at source approach.


KEYWORDS: Constructed wetland; Water quality; Tropical climate; stormwater; urban runoff

Download Full Text PDF

REFERENCES

Ansola, G., González, J. M., Cortijo, R. & de Luis, E. (2003). Experimental and Full-Scale Pilot Plant Constructed Wetland for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Ecological Engineering 21, 43-52.

Asmaliza, M. N. N, Lariyah, M. S., Rozi, A. & Aminuddin, A. G. (2013). Performance of Artificial Wetland in Removing Contaminants from Stormwater Under Tropical Climate. IAHS Publication 357, 208-216.

Babatunde, A. O., Zhoa, Y. Q., Neill, M. O. & Sulivan, B. O. (2008). Constructed Wetland for Environment Pollution Control: A Review of Development, Research and Practice in Ireland. Environment International, 34, 116-126.

Babatunde, A. O., Zhao, Y. Q., Doyle, R. J.; Rackard, S. M., Kumar, J. L. G. & Hu, Y. S. (2011). On the fit of statistical and K-C* models to projecting treatment performance in a constructed wetland system. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 46 (5), 490-499.

Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia (DID). (2000). Stormwater Managemet Manual for Malaysia. Percetakan Nasional Berhad: Kuala Lumpur.

Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia (DID). (2012). Stormwater Managemet Manual for Malaysia 2nd Edition. Available at http://water.gov.my. Retrieved on August 2016.

Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE). (2006). Development of Water Quality Criteria and Standards for Malaysia. Available at http://doe.gov.my. Retrieved on August 2016.

Donald, M.K.,Debusk,T.A. & Debusk, W. F. (2000). Applied Wetlands and Science and Technology 2nd  Edition, CRC Press.

Dong, Y., Wilinski, P.R., Dzakpasu, M. & Scholz, M. (2011). Impact of Hydraulic Loading Rate and Season on Water Contaminant Reductions within Integrated Constructed Wetlands. Wetlands 31(3), 499-509.

ElSheikh, M.A., Saleh, H.I., El-Quosy, D.E. & Mahmoud, A.A. (2010). Improving water quality in polluted drains with free water surface constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering 36, 1478-1484.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2000). Guidelines for Using Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland to Treat Municipal Sewage. Available at http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NR/MRL. Retrieved on August 2016.

Greenway, M. & Woolley, A. (1999). Construction Wetland In Queensland: Performance Efficiency And Nutrient Bioaccumulation. Ecological Engineering 12, 39-55.

Jadhav, R.S. & Buchberger, S.G. (1995). Effect of Vegetation on Flow Through Free Water Surface Wetland. Ecological Engineering 5, 481-496.

Jing, S. R., Lin, Y.F., Shih, K.C. & Lu, H.W. (2008). Applications of Constructed Wetlands for Water Pollution Control in Taiwan: Review Practice. Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management 12 (4), 249-259.

Jing, S.R., Lin, Y.F., Lee, D.Y. & Wang, T.W. (2001). Nutrient removal from polluted river water by using constructed wetlands. Bioresource Technology 76, 131-135.

Kadlec, R.H., Pries, J. & Lee, K. (2012). The Brighton Treatment Wetlands. Ecological Engineering 47, 56– 70.

Kadlec, R.H. (2005). Constructed Wetlands to Remove Nitrate. In: Dunne, E.J., Reddy, K.R. and Carton, O.T. (eds.). Nutrient Management in Agricultural Watersheds: a Wetlands Solution. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.

Kadlec, R.H. & Wallace, S.D. (2009). Treatment Wetlands  2nd Edition. CRC Press-Lewis Publishers: New York.

Kato, K., Inoue, T., Letsugu, H., Koba, T., Sasaki, H., Miyaji, N., Yokota, T.,Sharma, P.K., Kitagawa, K. & Nagasawa, T. (2010). Design and Performance of Hybrid Reed bed systems for treating high content wastewater in the cold climate. In Masi F., Nivala J.(eds), Proceeding of the 12th International conference on wetland systems for water pollution control, Lisbon, Portugal, 295-305.

Kivaisi, A. K. (2001). The Potential for Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Developing Countries: A review. Ecological Engineering 16, 545–560.

Masi, F. & Martinuzzi, N. (2007). Constructed wetlands for the Mediterranean countries: hybrid systems for water reuse and sustainable sanitation. Desalination 215, 44–55.

Mitch, W.J. & Gosselink, J.G. (2000). Wetlands (3rd. ed). John Willey and Son.

Mustafa, A.,Scholz, M., Harrington, R. & Carroll, P. (2009). Long Term Performance of a Representative Integrated Constructed Wetland Treating Farmyard Runoff. Ecological Engineering, 35, 779–790.

O’Hogain, S. (2003). The Design Operation and Performance of a Hybrid Reed Bed Treatment System. Water Science and Technology 48(5), 119-126.

Oovel, M., Tooming, A., Mauring,T. & Mander, U. (2007). Schoolhouse wastewater purification in a LWA-filled hybrid constructed wetland in Estonia. Ecological Engineering 29, 17-26.

Scholz, M., Harrington, R., Carroll, P. & Mustafa, A. (2007). The Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) Concept. Wetlands 27(2), 337–354.

Serrano,L., De va Vega, D., Ruiz, I. & Soto, M. (2011). Winery wastewater treatment in a hybrid constructed wetland. Ecological Engineering 37, 744-753.

Shutes, R.B.E., Ellis,J.B., Revitt, D.M., Forshaw, M. & Winter, B. (2004). Urban and Highway Runoff Treatment by Constructed Wetlands. Wetland Ecosystemin Asia 1, 361-382.

Sun, G., Ma, Y. & Zhao, R. (2009). Study on Purification Efficiency of Sewage in Constructed Wetlands with Different Plants. World Rural Observations 1, 35–39.

USEPA. (1999). Free Water Surface Wetland for Waste Water Treatment. Available at http://www.epa.gov. Retrieved on August 2016.

Vymazal, J. (2003). Distribution of iron, cadmium, nickel, and lead in a constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage. In: Wetlands - Nutrients, Metals, and Cycling, Vymazal J. (ed.). Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands, 341-363.

Vymazal, J. & Kropfelova, L. (2011). A Three-Stage Experimental Constructed Wetland for Treatment of Domestic Sewage: First 2 years of Operation. Ecological Engineering, 37, 90–98.

Zurita, F., De Anda, J. & Belmont, M.A. (2009). Treatment of Domestic Wastewater and Production of Commercial Flowers in Vertical and Horizontal Subsurface-flow Constructed Wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 35, 861–869.