Abstract and References
Transactions on Science and Technology Vol. 4, No. 4, 442 - 448, 2017

A Study on Tuaran River Channel Planform and the Effect of Sand Extraction on River Bed Sediments

Jayawati Montoi, Siti Rahayu Mohd. Hashim, Sanudin Tahir

River sand extraction is known as one of the main factors that induces the significant changes on river planform. This paper main objective is to study on the significance of planform changes on Tuaran River from 2003 to 2016 and sediment composition changes due to this activity. The study on channel planform focuses on four single wavelength channel bends which are located at the downstream of Tuaran River. Two meander features which are the channel width (w) and radius of curvature (Rc) were measured from digitized Google Earth satellite image year 2003, 2013, 2014 and 2016 and overlay with the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (JUPEM) topographic map using Geographic Information System (GIS) software and georeferenced to World Geodetic System (WGS) 1984. Four sites which are located at the downstream of Tuaran River were selected to determine the river bed sediments composition. Three of the four sites are located at the sand extraction area whilst one site is a controlled area with no sand extraction activity. River bed sediments were collected and the sediments composition was analyzed using Mann Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests to determine the composition difference between the areas and the inner parts of the river. The analyses result showed that the pattern of channel planform changed throughout the years except between 2013 and 2014. Sand extraction activity altered river planform at a faster rate than normal river process where the reduction width of the river in this extraction area is significantly larger. Mann Whitney test on the river bed sediment shows that sediment composition is significantly differed with respect to the areas. Meanwhile, the Kruskal Wallis test showed that the area with no sand extraction has a significant difference in particles mean size between the outer bank, inner bank and middle part of the river unlike the area with active sand extraction. These findings proved that sand extraction activity has changed the river bed sediments distribution in extent changing the channel planform of the Tuaran River.

KEYWORDS: River planform, Sand extraction, Bed sediment, River bank, Kruskall-Wallis test

Download Full Text PDF


Ashraf, M. A., Maah, M. J., Yusoff, I., Wajid, A. & Mahmood, K. (2011). Sand mining effects, causes and concerns: A case study from Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Scientific Research and Essays, 6(6), 1216-1231.

Bagnold, R. A. (1960). Some aspects of the shape of river meanders (No. 282-E). (https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0282e/report.pdf). Accessed on 15 October 2017.

Collenette, P. (1958). The geology and mineral resources of the Jesselton-Kinabalu area, North Borneo. Memoir 6, Geological Survey Department. British Territories in Borneo, Kuching, Sarawak.

Environmental Protection Department (EPD) (2013). Management Plan for River Sand Mining in Sg. Tuaran and Sg. Damit, Sabah. (http://ww2.sabah.gov.my/phb/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Management-Plan-for-River-Sand-Ming-Sg.-Tuaran-Damit.pdf). Accessed on 15 October 2017.

Folk, R. L. & Ward, W. C. (1957). Brazos River bar: a study in the significance of grain size parameters. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 27(1), 3-26.

Frings, R. M. (2008). Downstream fining in large sand-bed rivers. Earth-Science Reviews, 87(1-2), 39-60.

Hickin, E. J. & Nanson, G. C. (1984). Lateral migration rates of river bends. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 110(11), 1557-1567.

Koay, M. C. (2002). Geomorphological study of the Tuaran River System. Msc Thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah.

Kondolf, G. M. (1994). Geomorphic and environmental effects of instream gravel mining. Landscape and Urban Planning, 28(2-3), 225-243.

Kondolf, G. M. (1997). PROFILE: hungry water: effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels. Environmental Management, 21(4), 533-551.

Marston, R. A., Bravard, J. P. & Green, T. (2003). Impacts of reforestation and gravel mining on the Malnant River, Haute-Savoie, French Alps. Geomorphology, 55(1), 65-74.

Ngatimin, N. & Ariffin, H. (1999). Kajian Susulan Kesan Pengambilan Pasir Di Sungai Tuaran, Tuaran Sabah. No. Laporan SB/SM/99/4. Jabatan Penyiasatan Kajibumi Malaysia.

Padmalal, D., Maya, K., Sreebha, S. & Sreeja, R. (2008). Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest coast of India. Environmental Geology, 54(4), 879-889.

Rinaldi, M., Wy┼╝ga, B. & Surian, N. (2005). Sediment mining in alluvial channels: physical effects and management perspectives. River Research and Applications, 21(7), 805-828.

Sen, S. C. (1997). Laporan Kemajuan Geologi Kuartenar Kawasan Tuaran Sabah. No. Laporan SB/QG/97/5. Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains Malaysia, Sabah.

Surian, N., & Rinaldi, M. (2003). Morphological response to river engineering and management in alluvial channels in Italy. Geomorphology, 50(4), 307-326.

Williams, G. P. (1986). River meanders and channel size. Journal of Hydrology, 88(1-2), 147-164.

Wishart, D., Warburton, J. & Bracken, L. (2008). Gravel extraction and planform change in a wandering gravel-bed river: The River Wear, Northern England. Geomorphology, 94(1), 131-152.